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VnL. II. 

/» l.<»\ 1MIN : 


* ■ * 

1 » > i i.^lf «/ f *4 • it'-t i it irl'ffi 





CHAPTER X I J.— continued. 

Embassy to China — Administration of the Carnatic — Conduct of the Madras 
Government — Renewal of Company's Charter — Arrears of the Nabob of 
A root — Proceedings at Chandernagore — Lord Cornwallis embarks for Madras 

— The Messrs. Hollond and their Dubash Paupiah — Preparations for the 
Campaign Page 1 


Arrival of Lord Cornwallis at Madras — Mr. Hollond sent to Europe — Movement* 
of the army — Siege of Bangalore — Convention with the Marathas — Siege of 
Coimbatore by Tippoo — Successes of Lord Cornwallis — Inquiry into Mr. 
Hollond's conduct — Prospect of terminating the war — Conduct of the Nizam 

— Tippoo attacked and defeated — Offers to negociate — Account of the cam- 
paign — Proposed Congress — Political situation of India — Debate in House 
of Lords — Votes of approbation in both Houses 68 


Campaign of 1792 — Attack on the lines of Seringapatam — Attempt to assas- 
sinate Lord Cornwallis — Progress of the Siege — Censure of a Court Martial 

— Prospect of returning to England — Difficulty of finding a successor — 
Terms offered to Tippoo — Treaty of Peace — Lord Cornwallis returns to 
Madras — Discussions with the Nabob of the Carnatic — Unsatisfactory ter- 
mination of negotiations with the Marathas — Lord Cornwallis raised to the 
Marquisate — State of affairs in England — Disorders in Assam — Mission 
to Nepaul and to Assam 134 


British mission to Nepaul — Declaration of war with France — Final Regulations 
respecting the Land Settlement — State of the Revenue under previous 
Governors — Comparative advantages of a decennial and a permanent settle- 
ment — Judicial Regulations — European principles applied to the Criminal 
law — Obstacles to the due administration of justice — Police Regulations — 
ix>rd Cornwallis proceeds to Madras — Sails thence for England .. ., 188 



Lord Comwallis returns to England — Slate of attain on the Continent — The 
War in Flanders — Jealousies of the Austrians and Prussians — Lord Corn- 
wallis proceeds tit the seat of war — Conduct of the Emperor — His motive* 
lb* army — Interview with Marshal Mollendorf — Lord Cornwall!* 
returns home — His plan for new-modelling the Indinn army — Proposal to 
confer on him the chief command of the Allied Armies — His explanation 
to the Duke of York — Disgraceful conduct of the Austrians .. Page 228 

Lord Comwallis Muster- General of llie Ordnance — Threatened invasion ol Eng- 
land by the French —Celebrated Mtiial of Admiral Cornwall)* — Military 
arrangement for India — State of the Indian anny — Court Martial on Admiral 
Comwallis — The Nabob of Arcot — Discontent of officers of the Bengal array 

— Judicial regulations in India 281 

Discontent of the Officers of the Bengal Army — Dislike of Lord Comwallis'* plan 
of amalgamation — Object* and proceedings of the Diacon ton ted — Alarm of 
the Indian Government — Delay in the news reaching England — The New 
Regulations — Lord Comwallis sworn in as Governor General — Conceaakxu 
to the Bengal Officers — They return to their duty — Lord Comwallis rosigai 
his appointment — Bad effect of the concessions 314 


Alarming state of Ireland — Formation of the Volunteer Corps — The Con- 
vention — Society of United Irishmen — Their negotiations with the French 
Directory — Attempt of the French to invade Ireland — The liebel urn- 
|*[*rs — Vigorous measures of the Government — Contests with the Itcbrl « 

— Extent of the insurrection— Necessity of uniting the civil Hid military 
command — Lord Comwallis appointed Lord-Lieutenant and Commander- 
in-Chief — Proceedings of Irish Pnrliatncnl — Proclamations of partkm 

— Decline of the Rebellion — Projiosals of the ltebc! leaders to surrender — 
Special Commission for trial of State- prisoners — General Humbert's expe- 
dition — Affair at Castlehai — Disposal of State-prisoners — Another French 
armament — Court-martial on Whollngan — Union question brought forward 

— Opinions on the measure — Lord Longneville'-. jobbing — Hie " Lawyers' 
Infantry Corps" — Clamour against the Union — Air. 

utCLusad uiiunn 337 






















After " Beatson" insert " Esq." 
Marquis del Campo, d. April, 1800. 

For "William, 9(h Landgrave," read "JFiBtaro IX., Land- 
After M 1790," insert - to 1796." 

The Duke of Orleans was believed to have offered very large 
sums, as a loan, to the Prince of Wales. See Ann. Reg., 1787, 
p. 124. 
33 1 - . . Mr. Roebuck was b. 1752. He was much implicated in pecu- 

niary transactions with the Native Princes, and, when Mr. 
Benfield was ordered to England, he was sent to Gavjam, on 
account of his proceedings with the Nabob of the Camatic. 
When the debts of that Prince were investigated, Mr. Roebuck 
claimed, as principal or agenj, 460,0002. Only one claim (of 
30,000Z.) had been adjudicated upon by the Commissioners at 
the time of his death, and that was rejected. 
For « Dupuis," read " Du Puy." 
For •• GhireUy" read " Gyretty." 
For " Ghyretty" read " Gyretty." 
General Duff d. March, 1803. 

Paupiah claimed, as principal or agent, 1,400,0002. from the 
Nabob of the Camatic. Up to 1812 only 6,4002. were allowed, 
and 216,0002. rejected as forgeries. 
- last line For " Goorumconda," read " Gorumconda." 
Major-General Cuppage m. Mrs. Cairnes. 
For " PaUematieve" read " Palimaneve." 
For •• Pei$hica" read " Peshwa." 

These debentures were for 1002. each, and though they contri- 
buted to the arrest of the Fermiere-Generaux, were not the 
principal cause of their trial. The Due d<- St. Aignau, how- 
ever, was tried and guillotined because he compelled a 
money-lender to take aome back. See ' Souvenirs de M. 
105 - 1 .. For " Hippisley," read " Hijtpedey." 

131 - 19 . . For " Sevendroog" read " Savendroog." 

131 - 26 .. For •• Sevendroog" read " Savendroog." 

143 4 - . . Lord Carlisle was Lord Steward from May, 1782, to February, 

143 - 3 from bottom .. For " Ouiradroog," read " Ootradroog." 

149 1 - .. For "Cummerr," read " Cummnr" 

166 - 31 .. For " Outradroog" read " Ootradroog ." 

180 - 9 .. For "Adaidet*" read " Adaxclut." 

211 - 16 .. For " ditpaUh," read "despatch." 
































K*e- \ 

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For •- Brnii/iri. ■,'" mid ■■/(.- -,W, " 


21) . 

Cot "Pbfljorj," rprf "fdjport." 


And aha fin Bib phtwf»t «* ttw Mughal •(■■ I'm i 


1 - . 

Lord Holwrl in. Sad, tax 1 1799, Bin AgW* A fW 

limn. Ut Lead Auckland, 


. Vur-i-/,- rad " CMtf-" 



Mmiiiiii inurricii Nov. 18(H). 
I'm ■■ JXm n '/.' read " Btra -i.' 



, Mr. Bowwn in. Aug. 2. 1781. 


1 7 . 

. Fit " hi§ tun," roml "keioon." 


■2 a 

. Kur ■■ Bajfat," rear] " BageL' 


i . 

. I.'.,, ■■ r,i,i,, „:, : ),; ,, ,,.| ■ 


i i 

Fit " Jtunjfarvim," rend " Dmi.f. . 

n i 

3 2 

I'.t "1778," Md "ITM." 


. Sir Jauiut Stvuarl ufli.rM.inl. l<n<k tli ■ if |).>iiIihih 


Sir Jnhii I'unu'Il was Iwra 175(1. 


I 7 . 

• For " Sanden," n«d " fSnmuIrrt." 


8 . 

V'..r ■ flljwtfi ,,,' nad ■■ 


S 1 ■ 

. Afli't ~ Engl'w'l ." twerl ■'■Hal" 


I . 

Km. -MocUO." iwd "Jfe**. - 


K..,r "JftaMfl," r. ;..! -M.-:I,JII" 



Btftn " jfatyrij," in- ii ■■ A .' 


4 2 . 

. Fur "EUioH," Had " SBfat" 


* N ! 

. Lord Londonderry *«* mil; aHnia>i at BerKo, 
Baftm ~ Ifiwyfi," inr- ri ■■ i*r." 


1 - . 

Fi.r ■■ Aiiic," (tad " had," 

. For " JWnimsfcury," rend '• Malmerl/tinj." 



. Before "MorijniV," itisrrl -II,.-." 



. For "rulm," rend ■■ ™Im." 


M . 

I'.'i- - ».«.'' n .i<l ■■ aat" 


6 . 

I'm ■■ In-:!.,.-' md ■'laci." 


»! . 

■ i~,-tllilr," road " imthpmviNr." 


IS . 

I'm "," Had " I'irf'i'" 



F.T '■ TriMiinopoli/," nad " IWdMHtMly," 


Fit ■' fitihor." rend '■ lithnr.'' 


iti . 

. ¥■■! ■■ i...rnri," ro»d " Cofw/." 


31 . 



41 . 

. l',.r ■ .li.if, riJH™ l.i.i] 1 . . 

IS . 

. f..i 4raiarr| " i«ad ,fmdNny. n 




CHAPTEE XII.— continued. 

Embassy tojChina — Administration of the Carnatic — Conduct of the Madras 
Government — Renewal of Company's Charter — Arrears of the Nabob of 
A root — l > ruceeding8 at Cbandcrnagore — Lord Cornwallis embarks for Madras 
— The Messrs. Hollond and their Dubash Paupiah — - Preparations for the 

Right Hon. Henry Dundas to Earl Cornwallis. 

[Private.] Received March 4, 1790. 
MY DEAR LORD, Wimbledon, Aug. I, 1780. 

This letter is intended for your information on the subject of 
the China embassy. The difficulty of finding such a successor to 
Colonel Cathcart as was altogether satisfactory, has occasioned a 
frequent change of resolutions on that subject We had determined 
to commit the whole execution of this business to you, and with 
that view the accompanying papers were prepared, but against 
this resolution a legal doubt was. stated by the Chancellor, import- 
ing that the King's authority could not be delegated to any other 
person ; but that both the appointment of the person of the ambas- 
sador, and the instructions to be given to him, must flow from tin? 
King himself. In addition to this difficulty, another circumstance 
lias recently come to my knowledge. I have discovered that the 
Court of Directors are rather hostile to the expedition, and give out 
that it may be highly prejudicial to their interests, if, by creating 
jealousies among the Mandarins and other Chinese at Canton, it 
should suspend in any degree the intercourse with them, by which 
only, under the present circumstances, their trade can be carried on. 
I feel so much the importance of establishing a commercial con- 
nexion with the great empire of China, that I am not disposed to Imj 



Our. XII. 


discouraged from the plan by any trivial obstruction; but considering 
tlie near approach of the period when a total new arrangement with 
the East India Company must take place, and considering how much 
the prosperity of their affairs depends on the resources of the China 
trade, it occurred to me as imprudent to give them a handle for 
saying that any measure suggested or promoted by Government 
had proved prejudicial to them. I stated the difficulty to Mr. l'itt 
and Mr. GrenvUlc, and they concur in opinion with me. W>- tM 
all, however, desirous that as much forwardness as possible should 
take place in the business, cither with a view to final completion, 
or further information. For this purpose I trouble yon with this 
letter, l-'mm the instructions to Colonel Cat heart formerly sent to 
you, and the papers herewith sent, you are in the full jtossession of 
nil mil' i'li'iH ; aud if no material objection occur to you against it, 
we would suggest to you the propriety of selecting some person 
from among those in India, in whoso discretion and abilities you 
can confide, and employing him to make his way to China, SJtbot 
as a secret agent, and without any avowed authority, or as commis- 
sioned by you to settle such points as full within the sphere of your 
Government. By means of such a person, sent in wliichover of 
these modes you may judge most prudent, we conceive you may 
receive information as to such particulars of the Chinese Govern- 
ment, dispositions aud commercial wants, as' may enable you and 
us to judge how far we are justified in the notion we entertain of 
the importance of a more extended commercial connexion with 
China, and how far there is a reasonable prospect of onr being ablo 
to accomplish it. j j, avei &,.. 

Henry Dun 

Bjdbi Hon. Hknuv Duni>as to Earl Cornwallis. 


I channel 

[Rjohtbc] Uardi 4, L71"">. j 
M\ LiE.UI LORD, London, J 

Although tbeSeONt Committee is the proper official e 
through which 1 ought to correspond with ymir Lordship on points 
of a confidential n.-iture. Mill from the constitution of it, mid the 
f which it often consist*, it is more eligible for me to 
foa in a less official manner, my own and the sentiment] 
of my colleagues on many points. It is on that ground that I in 
this manner chose at present to advert to what you have stated i 
your letter of the 154a of December, 1788, respecting ii . 

rl„. V, !„,!,, 

1,1 I 

. end 

r opinion in consequence thereof, 


that the Camatick should be administered under an assignment 
similar to that which took place under Lord Macartney. At the 
time when the Board of Controul gave the order for restoring 
the Nabob's country to him, they had no doubt that every reason 
of expedience founded on considerations of the due administration 
of the Nabob's country operated against that order, but when they 
attended to the terms under which Lord Macartney had obtained 
possession of that country, and the importance it was to restore, 
if possible, by every means, the credit of Great Britain with the 
native powers, they felt themselves constrained to view the subject 
merely on the footing of the obligations under which they lay 
by the then subsisting treaties with the Nabob. They have con- 
tinued hitherto to view the transaction in the same light We are 
perfectly satisfied of the expediency of the Carnatick being under 
the administration of the Madras Government, but we have never 
seen sufficient means fairly to obtain that object ; and if we enter- 
tained sentiments of that nature before, we are certainly much 
confirmed in them by the recent conversations we have held with 
Sir Archibald Campbell and Mr. Oakley, 1 the late President of the 
Committee of Assigned Revenue. They differ a little as to the 
progress the country has made in improvement since the termina- 
tion of the late war, but they both agree in thinking the country 
is by no means improved in the degree it ought to have been, and 
they likewise agree that there is little prospect of its doing so while 
under the management of the Nabob. 

Under these circumstances, your Lordship must be sensible 
how much we concur in the reasoning of the letter to the Secret 
Committee of the 15th of December, and nothing but the good 
faith of our transactions with the Nabob stands in the way of resort- 
ing to the conclusion our wishes naturally suggest. We are, how- 
ever, much encouraged to hope for being more speedily extricated 
from this dilemma, than we were before the death of the Ameer 
ul Omrah ; Sir Archibald Campbell has intimated to us that the 
eldest son has expressed himself to him in terms which imported a 
strong inclination on his part, that the affairs of the Carnatick were 
under a system of administration similar to that wliich took place 
under the Assignment, and this idea is conformable to the general 
idea we had formed of his character, and predilection for the British 
Government in India, and we cannot help flattering ourselves with 

1 Mr., afterwards Sir Charles Oakeley, Governor of Madras from April, 1790, to 

Bart., so created June 5, 1790, b. Feb. 16, Aug. 1791. He acted as Governor while 

1751, d. Sept. 7, 1826 ; ra, Oct 19, 1777. General Medows was in the field. 
Helena, dau. of Hobert Beaton, of Killerie, 

B 2 


an opinion that, however adverse the Nabob himself was to such a 
system when he was under the influence of his second son, and 
when his temper was heated by the altercations with Lord Macart- 
ney, he may now be more reconciled to such an arrangement, 
especially if his avarice can be anyhow gratified, which we under- 
stand is now, more than any other, his ruling passion. After having 
troubled your Lordship with these general observations, you will 
naturally anticipate the conclusion wc draw from them. We wish 
not to infringe the terms of any existing treaty, but if, consistent 
with that principle, your Lordship can devise any means by which 
tliis important point can be gained, either immediately by treaty 
with the Nabob, or by treaty with his eldest son in the event of his 
father's death, we shall feel tliat you have accomplished a mea- 
sure of much importance to the interest of Government in India, 
and no less so to the interest of the Nabob's family, and the 
prosperity of the Carnatick. This can- only be accomplished by 
the Government on the spot acting under your Lordship. You 
are in the full possession of our principles and wishes on tliis 
important subject, and in conformity to them we make no doubt 
you will act in consequence of the very general terms in which, 
for the reasons already alluded to, we have thought proper to 
answer your letter to the Secret Committee of the 15th of De- 
cember, 1788. I remain, &c, 

Henry Dundas. 
Charles Towxshend, Esq., to Earl Cornwallis. * 

[Received March 4„ 1790.] 
MY LORD, Old Burlington Street, July 23, 1789. 

. . . I flatter myself that we sliall send you no war from 
our part of the globe before your return, because I can hardly think 
that the French will be in a situation to disturb us before that event 
takes place. 

Who could have expected to have seen so soon a King of France 
led in triumph by the mob of Paris, and forced to go to the Church 
of Notre Dame to thank God for his own humiliation ? * 

I heard the Spanish Ambassador 8 say to-day, that the French were 

1 This is incorrect. On July 16, the Versailles, and weut to the H6tel de Ville, but 

municipality of Paris and the Archbishop, not to Notre Dame. 

together with many other eminent personages, * The Marquis del Campo was ambassador 

did attend a TeDeumat Notre Dame, to cole- in England from March, 1783, to 1795. Hi 

brate the concessions made by the King. Louis gave a great ffete to the Queen and the Royal 

XVI. came to Paris the following day from Family on the King's recovery. 



busy in establishing peace and good order before they proceed to 
establish their new Government. The House of Bourbon pay dearly 
for the support which they gave to the Americans. It is impossible 
to guess what will be the consequence of this Revolution, which will 
entirely alter the state of Europe. 

As for home, the Session, thank God, is now near its conclusion, 
and everybody is gone or going into the country, where I hope they 
will get rid of their ill humours and party rage, which has been 
more violent than ever this winter. 

It has been peculiarly fortunate for me at this time to be in pos- 
session of Chislehurst, 1 which is my chief residence, and where I 
hope to give you a bottle of claret and show you my dairy of Suffolk 
polls in a year or two. 

You will see by the papers that my brother has made a good 
retreat 1 from the vexations of this world. He has the place of 
Chief Justice in Eyre, on the same terms as Lord GrantJey, 8 viz. 
2500J. a-year, and his son John 4 goes to the Admiralty. 

I this morning saw the pretty Marchioness Townshend 6 confined 
by the gout. I go to-morrow to Pepperharrow, where I shall find 
my sister Lady Middleton • just recovered from her second fit of the 
same distemper. The misfortunes of these two ladies will surprise 
you as much as the Revolutions in France, and you will be apt to 
suspect that they are not the two persons of the family who have 
most deserved this punishment. My sister has however by way of 
compensation, had one turn of good fortune. Her son Charles, 7 who 

1 A small estate in Kent, which he had 
brought from Lord Robert Bertie, and is now 
the property of Viscount Sydney. 

* Lord Sydney resigned the office of Secre- 
tary of State June 5, 1789, and remained 
Chief Justice in Eyre till his death. 

3 Fletcher, 1st Lord Grantley, so created 
April 9, 1782, b. June 23, 1716, d. Jan. 1, 
1789 ; n». May 22, 1741, Grace, dau. of Sir 
William Chappie, a Puisne Judge of the 
King's Bench. Solicitor-General, Jan. 25, 
1762; Attorney-General, Dec. 16, 1763, till 
Sept. 1765. Chief Justice in Eyie, vice Lord 
Corn wall is, Jan. 1769, till his death, and 
Speaker of the House of Commons, Jan. 23, 
1770, till Oct. 1780, when he was defeated 
by Mr. Cornwall by a majority of 203 to 134. 
It is singular that both these competitors 
were Chief Justices in Eyre, and died within 
one day of each other. M.P. for Wigan from 
Nov. 1762 to March, 1768, and then for 
Guildford till he was created a peer. 

* Hon. John Thomas Townshend, after- 
wards 2nd Viscount Sydney, b. Feb. 21,1 764, 
d. Jan. 20, 1831 ; m. 1st, April 12, 1790, 
Sophia, dau. of Edward, 17th Lord de Clifford; 

2nd, May 27, 1802, Caroline, dau. of Robert, 
1st Earl of Leitrim. Under Secretary of 
State from Dec. 1783, to Aug. 1789; Lord 
of the Admiralty to May, 1793 ; and then 
Lord of the Treasury till he became a peer; 
Hanger of the Parks till his death. M.P. for 
Whitchurch from Nov. 1790, till he suc- 
ceeded to the Peerage, June 13, 180p. 

6 Anne, dau. of Sir William Montgomery, 
Bart., of Magbie, and 2nd wife of George, 1st 
Marquis Townshend, b. Aug. 6, 1753, d. 
March 29, 1819; m. May 19, 1776. She 
and her two sisters, Mrs. Beresford, wife of 
the Right Hon. John Boresford, and Mrs. 
Gardiner, wife of the Right Hon. Luke Gar- 
diner, afterwards 1st Viscount Mountjoy, 
were celebrated for their beauty, and sat to 
Sir Joshua Reynolds as the Three Graces 
adorning the altar of Hymen. The picture 
is now in the National Gallery. 

6 Albinia, wife of George, 3rd Viscount 
Middleton, b. 1732, d. Sept. 18, 1808; m. 
May 1, 1752. 

7 Hon. Charles Brodrick, b. May 3, 1761, 
d. May 6, 1822; m. Dec. 8, 1786, Mary, 
dau. or Richard Woodward, Bishop of Cloyne. 



Chat. XII. 

i.s in orders, and resides in Ireland, has got the living of Middlotou 
by the gift of liis father-in-law, which, besides its value nf SWl. per 
annum, is so peculiarly eligible on account of ils situation on Lord 
Hjddleton'e estate. 

I have not seen Lord Brome lately, but I hear very good accounts 
of hiin, as well with respect to his health as his improvement in 
everything which you can wish. I have not lieen at Eton since the 
death of poor Young, who, if he had been now alive, would have 
been highly entertained at the wonders of the present age; the 
Marquis de la Fayette commanding 50,000 French militia to de- 
throne his own King, whilst Washington was giving an cnter- 
tainment on account of the recovery of tins King of England, and 
the towns of I'hiladelpliia and Boston rejoicing upon the same 

Be so kind as to remember mo to ' 'uloncl I toss, and believe me 
to be, &c, ( 'ii.\iiu> TOWKBHBBO. 

P.8. M. de BaUly, 1 who was presented to the King of Franco to 
1m- approved by him as Mayor of Paris, an office created in the room 
of the man* who was U-houded. and held the office of I'revot des 
Man-hands, made a speech to His Majesty, and told him that lie 
now delivered up to him the same keys which had hern given to 
Henry IV. on his conquering liis people, and that he uow .!< livm-il 
(hen in him upon their conquering the King. 

Tut. Marquis of Lansdowxe to Eaul Cou.swau.ib, 

[R™iYp! March 4, 1790.] 

Mr dkak Lonn. bowi^j p**, Aug. is, i; 

. . . I write to you in the midst of affliction for the loss 
of Lady Irfinsdowne; though I was taught to expect it long before 
it happened, I cannot help being ■ ■xceshivdy stunned with it. 1 am 


Mr. BntMdli n.ii mmlf rii.tinp rf Clonfwt, 
ITV.; ,.i hiliiK.1*. .I«i. I79fl; ind Arvb- 
Itlihop of lutnl, 1S01. Prppcrliarrow, in 
Sorrrj, *u Lori HMdfMl'l I n^li-h "'-i- 

' Jan Sylt.m P*llv. I.. 
fiKutad Not, U, ITfJ. f..nli.iiv (• tin 
wtoh of hi> puniitj li- BtofUd tin ]'!>,!.,- 
una of lummi dt Itttrri. H I 
MputntJoit » «n irtrnnnm". I hfa tM 
for hinudf he Iwuni- i ttshtri BolrtfcJu, 
-M r l«l"l I'lvidnt it th. Etot* (iriwrmn 
in I Tm\ juvI wn anrr w« mad, H.rm ,.f 
P»rit. tl wu <u thnl ..-ii|«»-ity 1Mb* tftV- 

di-wdirifKing. •• C« bon Itgi (llmri IV.). 1 ' 
t coni|uia am pcuple, c'rat 

■ iij<.iir.|iiNi J.- |„-n|>k .|ul ,i rK.jn^uls Iuii." 

Cam pan kit. ih» Qmrn wu much 

i.r'|. b :, .1 

Wbmhia oM wociain f*aari ■* 

wir eilrtuK titan add 

miguwl hi»ortio-, Not. 1781, lh*y uVnountwd 

a traitor. H( wiu tii«l ami coo- 


■od put to death Ihr full owing Jut, 

•tier nn. 

i ■■-.trwiit. 


ua dr l-'lwrlln, I'rcvSt .(« Mat. 

. i7-",i, nnrdmd Jul; 14, ITS*, 

111,' .i:.y 

In IWilk wiuUtcn. 



fighting up against the effects of it as well as I can, by riding and 
quiet with a mixture of very quiet society, which Miss Vernon * and 
Miss Fox 2 are so good to afford me, who are so good to continue 
the same habits as when Lady L. was living. 

• I have been for months past out of the way of all politicks. 
Among the very few people I saw in London was our old friend 
Schleiffen, 3 who has been most shamefully treated by the Landgrave 
of Hesse, 4 and as generously received by the King of Prussia. He is 
come over to settle with our Ministry a plan of defence for Holland, 
in case the French should meditate any steps in favour of the body 
of refugees 5 whom they are still at the expense of subsisting. How- 
ever I think that everything of late seems taking a pacific turn, 
which will be best for us, for, independent of other circumstances, 
the Eevolution in Holland was very incomplete, and has left that 
country in a state of strange inefficiency, so as that for years to come 
it must prove a burthen to any alliance. It has been the accidental 
interest of the different parties with us to commend it extravagantly, 
but I have the best grounds for conceiving a very different opinion. 
There are several reports of differences in our Cabinet, and though 
I am perfectly ignorant how far they may be founded, I should 
suppose that the Ministry are upon too narrow a bottom to continue 
long as they are. As to French politicks, you will find them very 
accurately stated in our papers. The best accounts of them are in 
the Gazetteer and Morning Post. Most of their refugees are likely 
to rendezvous at Turin ; some are come here, and many more are 
expected. As far as I can collect from some whom I have been 
obliged to see, neither King nor Queen discovered the least resource 
of any kind, and are at this moment completely deserted. 

Be so good to make my kind compliments to your brother, and 

Believe me, &c, 


1 Caroline, dau. of Richard Vernon, Esq., 
M.P., b. June 7, 1768, d. Dec. 11, 1833; 
m. Aug. 1797, Kobert Smith, Esq., M.P., 
well known as Bobus Smith. 

1 Hon. Caroline Fox, dau. of Stephen, 2nd 
Lord Holland, b. Nov. 3, 1767, d. unmarried, 
March 12, 1845. Her mother was sister to 
Lady Lansdowne. 

3 Martin Ernest, Comte de Schleiffen, b. 
1732, d. Sept. 15, 1825, unmarried. He had 
been in the Hessian service, and served in 
America with Lord Cornwall is. In conse- 
quence of some dispute with the Elector of 

Hesse he entered the Prussian service in 1789. 

4 William, 9th Landgrave of Hesse, b. 
June 3, 1743, d. Feb. 27, 1821 ; m. Sept. 1, 
1764, Wilhelraina Caroline, dau. of Frederick 
V., king of Denmark. After the peace of 
Luneville, Feb. 9, 1801, he called himself 
Elector of Hesse. 

* Many of the democratic leaders, after the 
restoration of the Stockholder's power in 
1787, took refuge in France, where the party 
at this time in authority thought they might 
be rendered available to excite fresh disturb- 
ances in Holland. 


Earl Cornwalus to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas. 

DEAR SlR, Calcutta, April 1, 1790. 

. . . I am very happy not only to be assured that the 
general tenor of my measures which were known to you previous to 
the sailing of the Vestal, corresponded very much with your general 
sentiments on the affairs of this country, but to feel conscious that 
those which I have pursued since that time are likely to meet with 
your approbation. 

I have not time, and indeed it is needless for me to enter into 
the general detail of the preparations for the war against Tippoo, 
as you will see the whole in my letters and in those from the Board 
to the Court of Directors and Secret Committee. The decided and 
spirited conduct of the Nizam, who has already taken the field, and 
the favourable state of the negotiation with the Marattas, added to 
our own exertions, leave us very little to apprehend as to the final 
success of the war ; but the very criminal conduct of the late Govern- 
ment of Madras will prevent our making much progress before the 
setting in of the rains in the Mysore country, and, what is still worse, 
will probably occasion the loss and destruction of the territories of 
our ally the Rajah of Travancore. 

Medows has adopted Musgrave's plan of operations, which is to 
invade Tippoo's country with one very considerable army from 
Trichinopoly, and leave all the rest of the Carnatic force on the 
defensive. I am not quite sure that I perfectly approve of this, 
for although our army will by this means possess the rich country 
of Coimbatoor, yet as they cannot pass the Ghauts which divide 
that part of Tippoo's dominidlis from the Mysore country, until the 
rains cease in the latter (for you must understand that in Coimba- 
toor they have the rains at the same time as in the Carnatic, and 
in Mysore at the same time as on the Malabar Coast), I cannot help 
apprehending that during the period in which our army will be 
detained in Coimbatoor, the Carnatic will be greatly exposed to the 
incursions of Tippoo's cavalry. But it was too late, even if I had 
been convinced of its imperfection, and had possessed sufficient 
local knowledge to have proposed a better, to have rendered it 
prudent for me to attempt to alter it. 

Cockerell's detachment, to wliich I am now sending by the 
Houghton Indiaman a reinforcement of artillery, will be of great 
use, and if he is joined by a body of the Nizam's cavalry, and c&n 
enter the Cuddapa country, which is on the west side of the Ghauts, 
before the rains begin, I think he may make Tippoo's detachment* 


very cautious how they venture through the narrow passes which 
divide the Mysore country from the Carnatic. I am not yet able 
to say whether the Bombay army will act separately or in con- 
junction with the Marattas, but perhaps I may receive information 
of the adjustment of that business before the sailing of the Chester- 
nelcL • • • I am, &c, 

Earl Cornwallis to H. R. H. the Duke of York. 

SlR, Calcutta, April, 1790. 

. . . I have been honoured with your Royal Highness's 
letter dated the 9th of August by the Vestal frigate, and I am in- 
finitely flattered in finding that I still hold, a place in your recol- 

The events of the last year in Europe have indeed been par- 
ticularly interesting. It is however with satisfaction that I see our 
Northern alliance make a progress in firmness and respectability, 
and I hope that Britain will long retain the importance which she 
has now recovered amongst her neighbours. 

It is impossible to look without compassion upon the wretched 
state of France, but when we consider that the unprovoked and 
unjustifiable part which that nation took against us in the late 
American war, has perhaps greatly contributed to produce the pre- 
sent convulsions, we cannot say that they are totally unmerited, 
and although it may be natural for your Royal Highness to feel 
disappointed at not having the means of improving yourself in your 
profession, I must candidly confess that I reflect with no small 
degree of satisfaction, that our tranquillity in Europe is not likely to 
be soon disturbed by that late powerful and restless neighbour. 

The cloud which hung over our domestic prosperity is, thank 
God, entirely dissipated by His Majesty's most happy recovery, in 
which joyful event no one of his subjects, either from the feelings 
of duty and loyalty or from those of gratitude and personal attach- 
ment, could have taken a more sincere part than myself. . . . 

The backwardness of our preparations on the coast, which was 
owing to the shameful conduct of Mr. Hollond, and his disobedience 
of the clear and positive orders of this Government, will I fear 
render it impossible to bring the contest to an happy issue before 
the setting in of the periodical rains, which commence in that part 
of the Mysore country which is situated beyond the Ghauts, in the 
month of June, so that with all the exertions of ourselves and our 


allies, we can hardly hope at soonest for an honourable and advan- 
tageous peace before the beginning of the next year. 

Under these circumstances, it becomes very doubtful whether I 
shall be able with propriety to return to England in the year 1791, 
which at my time of life is a very serious disappointment, but after 
having undertaken the government of this country, I shall not 
think myself at liberty to resign it, until there could be no reason- 
able ground for apprehending that it might be attended with any 
material detriment to the public interest, 

I am, &c, 


Minute by the Governor-General. 

April 2, 1790. 

I have read with great attention the minutes of Mr. Edward 
John Hollond, 1 which have been transmitted to us by the Governor 
in Council of Fort St George, in answer to our letters dated the 
8th and 11th of February, requiring of that Government to assign 
reasons, or to give explanations of those parts of their conduct which 
we stated to have appeared to us in a very disadvantageous light, 
and I am persuaded that the other members of the Board will be 
as little satisfied as I am, with the justification that has been offered 
for several apparent neglects of public duty, but particularly for the 
disregard and disobedience of the clear and explicit orders con- 
tained in our letters dated the 29th August and 13th November 
last, which positively stated that Tippoo should be considered as at 
war with the Company if he should attack any part of the dominions 
of the Nabob of Arcot or Rajah of Travancore, which were guaran- 
teed to them by the Company at the late treaty of peace. 

As Mr. John Hollond has thought proper to relinquish his station 
in the Council of Fort St. George, and to return to Europe, I shall 
forbear at present from expressing my sentiments respecting him 
further than by declaring, that exclusive of the principal share wiiich 
falls to him of the culpability of the measures of his Government, 
he is particularly responsible for not forwarding the letter to Tippoo 
Sultaun, which according to our orders proposed the appointment 
of commissioners, to examine the tenure by which the Dutch held 
Cranganore and Jacottah, at the same time that the letter- on that 
subject was despatched to the Rajah of Travancore. Had no delay 

1 Edward John Hollond was a brother of land Feb. 13, 1790, he succeeded him iu the 
Mr. John Hollond, the acting Governor of supreme authority for a few days. 
Madras. On his brother's departure for Eng- 


intervened in despatching that letter, it would have reached Tippoo 
before the day on which he attacked the Rajah's lines, and it is not 
absolutely impossible that the reasonable propositions contained in 
it, might have induced him to open a negotiation for settling the 
points in dispute if he had received them previous to his having 
actually commenced hostilities. 

It must also be imputed principally to Mr. John Hollond, as a 
most culpable neglect, that he gave no communication to the Resi- 
dents at Hydrabad and Poonah, of Tippoo's having violated the 
treaty with the Company by attacking the Rajah of Travancore's 
lines on the 29th of December ; but after the above neglect, he is 
still more reprehensible for the manner in which he communicated 
to Captain Kennaway that part of Tippoo's letter dated the 1st of 
January, in which he asserts that the attack was made by accident 
and without any orders from him, because Mr. Hollond well knew 
that the reports of Mr. Powney, the Resident, and accounts through 
different channels, positively said that the attack was not only made 
by Tippoo's direct orders, but that there was every reason to believe 
that he actually conducted it in person, and was himself wounded 
or bruised in the action, 

Mr. Hollond must also, independent of these reasons, have been 
sensible that as the general tenor of that letter was so far from 
being conciliatory, that it principally consisted of a repetition of the 
offensive and inadmissible demands that the Rajah should destroy 
part of his lines, and restore Cranganore and Ayacottah to the 
Dutch, the disavowal which it contained of an intention to commit 
hostilities on the 29th of December could on no reasonable ground 
whatever be entitled to the least attention ; and by conveying the 
information of Tippoo's disavowal to Captain Kennaway, without 
explaining the notorious circumstqpces which rendered the truth 
of his assertion improbable, Mr. Hollond could only have intended 
to impress Captain Kennaway, and Mr. Malet through him, with 
a belief that all differences would be amicably adjusted, and con- 
sequently they might have been induced, by so high an authority, 
to slacken in their zealous endeavours to secure the friendship and 
co-operation of the Nizam and the Mahrattas, in exacting reparation 
from Tippoo for his flagrant breach of the treaty. 

In ail the other measures which either come under the head of 
neglect of duty, or of direct disobedience of our orders, the members 
of the Board participate in culpability with their late President, as 
no dissent or disapprobation of any resolutions of Government have 
been offered in their vindication, and the attempt of Mr. Edward 
John Hollond to justify himself for the criminal disobedience of our 


orders, in not acting as if he considered the Company to be at war 
with Tippoo after that chief had attacked the Rajah of Travancore's 
lines, by stating that a considerable saving had been made by his 
delay in making the necessary preparations for carrying on the war 
with vigour, must impress the Board with particular indignation, 
when we reflect that we have been during a considerable time ex- 
posed to the risk of its being rendered impracticable, by an incur- 
sion of Tippoo's cavalry, to collect a sufficient number of draught 
and carriage bullocks to enable the army to take the field ; and still 
more especially, as we have been informed that by so criminal a 
procrastination it is even at this moment impossible for the Carnatic 
army to move in force, although we know that the dominions of a 
faithful ally are in the most imminent danger of being overrun and 
ravaged by an implacable and barbarous enemy, against whom our 
Honour, interest, and regard to the faith of treaties, call loudly upon 
us to defend them. 

Our censures for the above culpable acts, are likewise applicable 
to Mr. Edward John Hollond, who as a member of that Board has 
a share of responsibility for the measures that I have stated of the 
late Government ; and as I consider it to be no less requisite for the 
support of the authority of the Supreme Government, than it is 
necessary for promoting the success of the present war, that a man 
who has been guilty of such misconduct should be deprived of any 
authority in the management of the Company's affairs, I propose 
that he shall be suspended from his seat in the Council of Fort St. 
George, and from the emoluments that are annexed to that station, 
until the pleasure of the Court of Directors shall be known, and 
that the Governor in Council shall be directed to call another 
memtier into Council in the room of Mr. Hollond. 

I am also called upon by a tense of public duty to declare that I 
should at any time have looked upon Mr. Taylor as a very unfit person 
to be a member of the Government of Madras, because it appears 
upon record that his own subsistence and that of a large family 
depend upon the regular payment of the dividends to the private 
creditors of the Nabob of Arcot, and that he has already allowed his 
public conduct to be influenced by considerations of his private 
interest ; but independent of this very weighty objection against Mr. 
Taylor as a Councillor, I must likewise add that although he is not 
so deeply implicated in the blameable disobedience of our orders as 
either of the other members of the late Government, yet he can by 
no means be acquitted of a considerable degree of criminality even 
on th^t head, unless it should appear upon the proceedings of the 
Governor in Council of Fort St. George that Mr. Taylor took an 


immediate opportunity, as the importance of that business demanded, 
to record his disapprobation of the conduct of his colleagues in office, 
in neglecting to provide such equipments as should enable the army 
to take the field, after that decided circumstance had occurred of 
Tippoo's attack on the possessions of the Rajah of Travancore, under 
which they were positively directed by our orders of the 29th of 
August and 13th of November to consider themselves at war with 
Tippoo, and to take measures to prosecute the war with vigour. 

I propose therefore that General Medows should be directed to 
examine the proceedings of the Madras Board, from the day on 
which Mr. Taylor took his seat until the date on which our orders 
of the 27th of January arrived at that Presidency ; and if it should 
appear that Mr. Taylor during that period declared no disapproba- 
tion upon record of measures which were in direct contradiction 
both to the letter and spirit of our instructions, I must consider him 
as a sharer in the guilt of that Government of which he was then 
a member, and I trust in that case that the Board will agree with 
me in seeing the necessity, in the present critical situation of the 
Company's affairs in the Carnatic, that Mr. Taylor should likewise 
be suspended, and his place at the Board supplied in the same 
manner as Mr. Hollond's. 

The words of the Act of Parliament, as well as the peculiar re- 
sponsibility for the affairs of the Government of Fort St. George 
which is annexed to General Medows' station, require that it should 
be left entirely to his discretion to select the persons who would bo 
proper to succeed to the seats in Council, which will become vacant 
by the suspension of Messrs. Hollond and Taylor : but I think it 
right that we should offer to his consideration, whether, in making 
this selection, it may not be proper to hesitate in appointing any 
person who will not declare upon his honour that he is not, directly 
or indirectly, a creditor of the Nabob of Arcot or the Rajah of Tan- 
jore, and that he will not become a creditor of either of them, unless 
from a succession by will, or some unavoidable cause, so long as he 
shall continue to be a member of the Government. 

Earl Cornwallis to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas. 

[Private and Confidential.] 

Deab Sir, April 4, 1790. 

In my other private and confidential letter I have contented 
myself with giving the most precise and minute answers in my 
power, to some of the queries that you stated in your letter 
addressed to me, as well as to the Governors of Madras and 


Bombay. But as I am very sincerely anxious for the reputation 
and permanency of the present administration, and shall ever feel 
most warmly concerned for our national prosperity in this country, 
I should not act a friendly part by you, or properly in other 
respects, if I omitted on this occasion to give you my sentiments 
most freely on some of the principles that may come under 
discussion, when you proceed to frame a plan for the government of 
our Indian possessions after the expiration of the Company's 
present charter. 

I must acknowledge that I was happy to hear that the 
principles of that plan were still under deliberation, and that it was 
only upon the supposition that the commercial branch might be 
left to the Company, and the other departments taken into the 
hands of Government, that you had stated those queries. Many 
weighty objections occur to the separation that you propose, for it 
is almost beyond a doubt with me, that no solid advantages would 
be derived from placing the civil and revenue departments under 
the immediate direction of the King's Government; and I am 
perfectly convinced that if the fostering aid and protection, and, 
what is full as important, the check and control of the Govern- 
ments abroad, are withdrawn from the commercial department, the 
Company would not long enjoy their new charter, but must very 
soon be reduced to a state of actual bankruptcy. 

I am not surprised that after the interested and vexatious 
contradictions which you have experienced from the Court of 
Directors, you should be desirous of taking as much of the business 
as possible entirely out of their hands, but I know that great 
changes are hazardous in all popular Governments, and as the 
paltry patronage of sending out a few writers is of no value to such 
an administration as Mr. Pitt's, I should recommend it to your 
serious consideration, whether it would not be wiser when you shall 
no longer have to contend with chartered rights, to tie their hands 
from doing material mischief without meddling with their imperial 
dignity or their power of naming writers, and not to encounter the 
furious clamour that will be raised against annexing the patronage 
of India to the influence of the Crown, except in cases of the most 
absolute necessity. 

That a Court of Directors formed of such materials as the 
present, can never, when left to themselves, conduct any branch of 
the business of this country properly, I will readily admit, but 
under certain restrictions, and when better constituted, it might 
prove an useful check on the ambitious or corrupt designs of some 
future Minister. In order however, to enable such Directors to do 


this negative good, or to prevent their doing much positive evil, 
they should have a circumscribed management of the whole, and 
not a permission to ruin uncontrolled, the commercial advantages 
which Britain should derive from her Asiatic territories. 

It will of course have been represented to you that the India 
Company formerly was supported by its commerce alone, and that 
it was then richer than it is at present, and that when their 
Directors have no longer any business with governing empires, they 
may again become as thrifty merchants as heretofore. I am per- 
suaded however, that experience would give a contradiction to that 
theory, for if they should not have lost their commercial talents by 
having been Emperors, this country is totally changed by being 
under their dominion. There are now so many Europeans residing 
in India, and there is such a competition at every aurung of any 
consequence, that in my opinion even an upright Board of Trade 
sitting at Calcutta could not make advantageous contracts, or 
prevent the manufactures from being debased ; and therefore that 
unless the Company have able and active Residents at the different 
factories, and unless those Residents are prevented by the power of 
Government from cheating them as they formerly did, London 
would no longer be the principal mart for the choicest commodities 
of India. 

If the proposed separation was to take place, not a man of 
credit or character would stay in the Company's service if he could 
avoid it, and those who did remain, or others who might be here- 
after appointed, would be soon looked upon as an inferior class of 
people, to the servants acting under appointments from his Majesty. 

The contempt with which they would be treated would not pass 
unobserved by the natives, and would preclude the possibility of 
their being of essential use, even if they were not deficient in 
character or commercial abilities, and upon the supposition that the 
Company could afford to pay them liberally for their services. 

When you add to the* evils which I have described and which 
no man acquainted with this country will think fictitious, the 
jobbing that must prevail at the India House in a department 
which is in a manner given up to plunder, you will not, I am sure, 
think that I have gone too far in prophesying the bankruptcy of 
the Company. 

In answer to this statement of the impossibility of the Company's 
carrying on the trade, when all the other parts of the adminis- 
tration of the country are taken into the hands of Government, it 
may be said by people who have reflected but little on the subject ; 
If the Company cannot carry on the trade, throw it open to all 


Our. 1 

adventurers. To that mode I should have still greater objections. 
at* it would render it very difficult for Government to prevent this 
unfortunate country from being overrun tjj duuptMhi inni mil fill 
from all farts of the British domiiuons. The manufactures would 
soon go to ruin, and the ex|>orts, which would annually diminish in 
value, would be sent indiscriminately to the different countries of 

Although I can see no kind of objection to your opening tin- 
export trade from Britain to this country as much as you please, I 
cannot bring myself to believe that any person well acquainted with 
the manners of the natives, and with the internal state of this 
eimntrv, would seriously propose to throw the export trade from 
India entirely open, because it must necessarily come previously 
under consideration, whether the surplus revenue could be remitted 
by bills of exchange, and whether 11 more efficacious mode can be 
devised for securing the greatest possible advantages from tin* 
country to the British Government and to the nation at large, than 
by transmitting yearly a valuable investment of the l.»est goods that 
Hindostan can afford, which will not only furnish a large sum in 
duties to the .State, but bring foreign purchasers fro in all quarters 
to the London market. Wo have made our investments these last 
two years under every possible local disadvantage, viz. th> j exorbi- 
tant price of grain and cottou, the total failure of the silk, and the 
dreadful famine and in m illations iu the Ihlccii district : yet if you 
could gef Mr. Boot* 1 tli" Director, or some other panOB who would 
make a fair report, to enquire into the merits of those investments, 
I have no doubt of its ftp] tearing that the Company have nut n>r 
many years received an investment of so good quality, or one that 
would have been likely to have afforded so large a profit, if besides 
all other disadvantages, the India sales in London had not boon 
ceiiMdirably injured by the troubles iu France and by the m b 
other parts of Europe, as well as by the powerful eotiipetiliim of VM 
British manufactures. 

I know that it is noieli easier to point out defects in any plan 
that may be pfopcod than to sulwtitute another good one in it* 
place, and you will lx> sufficiently aware that the Opposition in 
Parliament will spare no pains or exertions to throw ridiiub llld 
odium Ujion any system that you or Mr. Pitt may bring fnrn.ud. 
without thinking it incumbent upon them to prOpOM any reim .In- 
for the errors or imperfections winch they will lay to its charge, 

1 D»ri.i S,uii, .1. CM, 4. lmi.1, M.)'. IndinOirwtor forniaiiTjrean.i 

Omtj tttm S"'.r. ITfO, IbM hr in 1TM nl IMt 
KbHm Borough* tit) hi* Jnth. An K»t 


As a multiplicity of affairs continually press themselves upon 
me for immediate despatch, I am not able to give up much of my 
time to reflect deliberately upon this extensive subject, and as there 
are but few people here of comprehensive views and abilities, with 
whom I can examine and fully discuss the various objects which 
ought to be included in so important a plan, I do not feel perfectly 
confident that I should, after more mature reflection, be entirely 
satisfied with all the opinions upon it which I at present entertain ; 
but I have thought it right to state without ceremony the ideas 
that I have at present formed, for yours and Mr. Pitt's con- 

As the new system will only take place when the rights of the 
present Company cease, you cannot be charged with a violation of 
charters, and the attacks of the Opposition in Parliament will 
therefore be confined to an examination of its expediency and 
efficacy ; I fancy I need hardly repeat to you that they would above 
all things avail themselves of any apparent attempt on your part 
to give an increase of patronage to the Crown, which could not be 
justified on the soundest constitutional principles, or on the ground 
of evident necessity, and would make use of it to misrepresent 
your intentions and principles, and to endeavour to inflame the 
minds of the nation against you. 

An addition of patronage to the Crown, to a certain degree, will 
however in my opinion be not only a justifiable measure, but abso- 
lutely necessary for the future good government of this country. 
But according to my judgment, a renewal of the Company's 
charter for the management of the territorial revenues and the 
commerce of India for a limited time (for instance ten or fifteen 
years), and under such stipulations as it may be thought proper to 
annex as conditions, would be the wisest foundation for your plan, 
both for your own sakes as Ministers, and as being best calculated 
for securing the greatest possible advantages to Britain from her 
Indian possessions, and least likely to injure the essential principles 
of our own Constitution. 

The present Court of Directors is so numerous, and the respon- 
sibility for public conduct which falls to the share of each individual 
is so small, that it can»have no great weight with any of them, and 
the participation in a profitable contract, or the means of serving 
friends or providing for relations, must always more than com- 
pensate to them for the loss that they may sustain by any 
fluctuation that may happen in the market-price of the stock 
which constitutes their qualifications. I should therefore think that 
it would be very useful to the public, to reduce the number of 



Directors to twelve, or to nine ; anil if handsome salaries could l>e 
annexed to those situations, I should be clear tor adopting means 
for their being prolu'bited from having an interest directly or 
indirectly in contracts, or in any commercial transactions whatever. 
in winch the Company may liiivc the smallest minimi. 

At the same time however, if one or both of these pants dw&M 
!»• carried. I would not by any means recommend that they should 
retain the p(MMV of appoiati&g Governors, Commanders-in-Chief, 
or tbmbfln of Council, at any of the Rwrfdnariw; the honour and 
interest of the nation, the fate of our fleets and armies, being too 
deeply staked on the conduct of the persons holding the above- 
mentioned offices, to render it safe to trust their nomination-, in any 
other hands but those of the executive Government of Jiritain. 
liui as this measure, though not in fact deviating wry widely from 
the existing ai-r.iij-.iii. j.i , by which the King has the jiower of 
recalling those officers, would at first appear a strong one, and 
would be vehemently opi«sed, I would give it every qualification 
that the welfare and security of the country could admit of. I 
mold establish it by law, that the choice of the Civil Members of 
Council should be limited to Company's servants of B certain 
standing (at least (welve years), which would in the mind of rvery 
c:i:nlid penon leave very little room in respect to them tor minis- 
terial patronage, and it should be left to the Court of DJNQtoO to 
IVanie -nrli gem-nd rcgidations for the appointment to offices in 
India, as should he consistent with the selection of capable men, 
and to establish the strictest system that they can devise of check 
and controul upon every article of expenditure at the different 

I would likewise recommend that it should be oIm! 
stood and declared, tliat the Court of Directors should h. ■■. 
to expect tliut His Majesty's Ministers would pay the greatest 
attention t,i all tlieir representations respecting the conduct of tin- 
I lofCUOUi Coniinauders-iu-Chief. and Councillors ; and that incase 
: v redress should not he given to any of their complaints 
of that nature, that they should have n right to insist upon the 
i ■■■■;! 1 1 ill .i!.v i ton iiir.r. Coinuiander-iii-Cluof, or Councillor whom 
t 1 1 . ■ y should name, and that the utmost facility should be given to 

'lulu t stitute proserin itiiis ii-ainst SUcll Governors, v\e., \\\ 

conduct may appear to tliem to have been culpable, Dtfbn tlic 
Court of Judicature which lias been established by Act of Via- 

liarnriit lor tic trial of Indian delinquents. 

In regard to the Military airaugeuient, I am clearly of opinion 

thai |ha Bmopeta boope abooU ill Mong to the King, for expe- 


rience has shown that the Company cannot keep up an efficient 
European force in India ; this is a fact so notorious, that no military 
man who has been in this country will venture to deny it, and I 
do not care how strongly I am quoted as authority for it. 

The circumstances however, of the native troops are very 
different It is highly expedient, and indeed absolutely necessary 
for the public good, that the officers who are destined to serve in 
those corps, should come out at an early period of life and devote 
themselves entirely to the Indian Service ; a perfect knowledge of 
the language, and a minute attention to the customs and religious 
prejudices of the sepoys, being qualifications for that line which 
cannot be dispensed with. Were these officers to make a part of 
the King's army, it would soon become a practice to exchange their 
commissions with ruined officers from England, who would be held 
in contempt by their inferior officers, and in abhorrence by their 
soldiers, and you need not be told how dangerous a disaffection in 
our native troops would be to our existence in this country. I think 
therefore that as you cannot make laws to bind the King's prero- 
gative in the exchanges or promotions of his army, it would be 
much the safest determination to continue the native troops in the 
Company's service, and by doing so you would still leave to the 
Court of Directors the patronage of cadets, and of course give some 
popularity to the measure. 

The ultimate line to be drawn, would give to the Court of 
Directors the appointment of writers to the Civil branches of the 
service, and of cadets for the native troops, and the power of 
prescribing certain general rules under the descriptions I have 
mentioned, for the disposal of offices by the Governments in India, 
and of calling the Governors, &c, to an immediate account for every 
deviation from these rules, but they ought to be strictly prohibited 
from appointing or recommending any of their servants to succeed 
to offices in this country, as such appointments or recommendations 
are more frequently granted to intrigue and solicitation than to a 
due regard to real merit or good pretensions, and such interference 
at home must always tend in some degree to weaken the authority 
of the Government in India. 

The mode of choosing the Directors, the term of their con- 
tinuance in office, and the manner in which they should render an 
account of their own conduct, and lay statements of the affairs of 
the Company before the Proprietors of the Stock, with a variety of 
other points of that nature, will be subjects of regulation upon the 
present occasion ; but upon the supposition of the charter's being 
renewed, it appears to me highly requisite for the public good that 

c 2 


the right of inspection and controul in the King's Ministers should 
l>e extended to evVry branch of the Company's affairs, without any 
exception as to their commerce ; and as altercations between aaaa 
controlling power and the Court of Directors must always bo 
detrimental to the public interest, wliether occasioned by improper 
encroachments on one side, or an obstinate or capricious resistance 
on the other, it seems particularly desirable that not only the 
extent, but also the manner in which the Ministers are to 
the right of inspection and controul, should be prcserilied BO clearly 
as to prevent it" BflflwHff all grounds for misapprehension or dispute, 
I am, Ac., 

Cornwall is. 

Eabi, Cons w alms id John- Shork, Esg. 
Dear Sin. Calcutta, April is, ITN, 

I send you a copy of my second minute according to my 
promise. I shall desire it to be sent to you by the coach, h I m 
afraid you would not think it worth the [wstage. 

Although Tippoo baa opened batteries of heavy artillery ai^onst 
the poor Kajah of Tnivuneore's contemptible lines, lie hail made im 
considerable impression upon them on the ISth of last month, and 
I'oivni v then wrote me word that it was reported he was detaching 
|M»rt of his army towards Coimbatore. 

The Marat tas and Nizam have shown the utmost wiUhlgfiMi hi 
join ns, and nut pro jiosit ions whieh were really very fair for an 
alliance against Tippoo; I have approved and retunteil titan fas 
mt incut ion. I flatter myself that with such a confederacy, iad 
the assistance of the Nairs, and Tippoo's other oppressed and dis- 
contented subjects, the contest cannot hat long. If you see Dick 
.lohiisiii]. 1 you may tell him from me, that no man, e\eept bi- 
tVienil Mr. Hollond, is half so much abuse<l here us himself. 

I am, with very sincere good wishes for your health and hap- 
piness, &c, Counwali 

BAH <<»i\WALUS TO C. W. MaI.CT. E»Q. 

Sin, KntiWiiii.ii.. A|„ii i.i, 

I reeoived on tlie 17th instant pMB letter dated the 

ultimo, containing the articles agreed upon between you and the 

'mIiuwm. M.l\ for Miibome btta (iovnnr.r .if Brnjral. flat M I 

Pert from Juiw 1701 tn F«b. LVM, H« to tl.. 1-t I..,. I I.,,.-, ]'. l.t wiff. 

man mi Uw •«»» ••{ Mr. Watu, who liad 


! 7-i.i. 
1 21th 


Peshwa's ministers, and in addition to the satisfaction which I 
received, at seeing this important business on the point of being 
settled so completely according to my wishes, I had the pleasure 
of knowing that you would, soon after the date of your letter, be 
relieved from your apprehensions in regard to Captain Kennaway's 
negotiation, as you would learn from himself, that everything was 
going on perfectly as we could wish at Hydrabad. 

I was extremely happy to find that the Nizam had been treated 
with so much delicacy in the arrangements that form the basis of the 
treaty ; and I conclude his Highness will make his option for the 
second mode that is submitted to him for the partition of conquests, 
as being conformable to the principles of the propositions which he 
transmitted to me through Captain Kennaway, and to which I have 
already given my assent ; and indeed upon the whole I am inclined 
to think that it will be the most eligible, and the least likely to occa- 
sion jealousies and differences during the continuance of the war. 

Under different circumstances, the first mode might have been 
preferable, as being calculated to incite the parties by considerations 
of their immediate private interests, to great ardour in the prosecution 
of the war ; but when the prospect of success is so great as that which 
is held out by the present alliance, I am in great hopes that it will , 
prove a sufficient spur to zeal and activity in all the confederates. 

Should this mode be adopted, it may with propriety be urged by 
any of the parties, that each Government should pay their own troops, 
in whichever army they may be employed, as the object of their 
services will be to contribute equally to the advantage of all the 
confederates, by promoting the success of the common cause. If 
this should be brought forward by the Marattas, you will of course 
act according to circumstances, and you have already received an 
ample latitude from me. But the same agreement will be of 
equal force for requiring that they shall continue to pay such of 
their own cavalry, as it may at any time be found expedient for 
the general good to employ in conjunction with our army. 

In answer to the reference made to me in«the 14th Article, I 
must confess, that in forming an alliance like the present, I do not 
see how we can object to the mutual guarantee of each others pos- 
sessions after the peace. It will however be highly proper that 
it should be distinctly explained, that the party attacked shall 
have no claim to the assistance of the other confederates, unless 
it should clearly appear that he was not the aggressor, by com- 
mitting any previous act of hostility or injustice. 

I am, &c, 



Earl Cornwallis to Major Palmer. 

SlR, April 23, 1790. 

Enclosed I send you a copy of a letter dated the 25th 
ultimo, from the Governor in Council at Bombay, in consequence 
of the death of the Nabob of Surat, 1 in addition to the extract of 
the letter from Colonel Abercrombie, on the same subject, which 
I transmitted to you on the 20th instant. 

You will observe in the letter now forwarded, that it is thought 
of consequence to the interests of the Company that the office of 
Nabob should be abolished, and a sunnud obtained from Shah 
Allum to invest the Company with the entire Government and 
Revenues of the city of Surat and its dependencies, or if the pre- 
sent system of government should be continued, that certain 
terms should be settled for the Company, on appointing his suc- 

I cannot, however, recommend that the sunnud should be 
applied for in the name of the Company, because the late Nabob's 
eldest son appears to have a claim to the office by right of inherit- 
ance ; and I am likewise unwilling to lay much stress on a sunnud 
, from the King, as a formal acknowledgment of its validity might 
be turned to the disadvantage of the Company upon some other 
occasion. I should also dislike very much at this time to ask a 
favour of Scindia, as it might raise expectations in him of obtaining 
some return for it, which could not be granted. 

Should you therefore learn, that the appointment is to be given 
to the Nabob's eldest son, without burthening him with any unrea- 
sonable stipulations, you will make no opposition to its taking 
place ; but should you discover it to be the intention of the Mah- 
rattas either to take it directly or indirectly to themselves, or to 
procure it to be given to any other person than the Nabob's eldest 
son, I desire that you will interfere, and require that Scindia shall 
defer the final determination upon a point in which the Com- 
pany's interests are so materially concerned, until he can commu- 
nicate with, and obtain the concurrence of this Government 

I am, &c, 


1 The Nabob of Surat, Kutab-ud-Din His brother and successor, Nashr-ud-Din, was 

Meer Kussoodin, succeeded his father, Mir b. 1755, d. Jan. 9, 1799. The Company are 

Achand (who had usurped the power in now in possession of the territory. 
1746), March, 1763, and died March, 1790. 


Earl Cobnwallis to Major-General Abercromby. 

Dear Abercromby, May 3, 1790. 

. . . I am very glad to find that you have determined to 
send a body of troops to the relief of the Bajah of Travancore, who, 
from the inactivity of the two battalions that are with him, and 
the excessive length of time required to put the Carnatic army 
in motion, will I apprehend entertain great doubts of the sincerity 
of our desire to assist him, and indeed I am afraid that your 
efforts will be too late to save him from much distress and mortifi- 

From the last accounts which I received of Tippoo's approaches, 
I conclude that the lines must be carried before your reinforcement 
can arrive ; but the appearance of your armament upon the coast will 
probably prevent him from reducing the country, especially as he 
must have detached a considerable part of his best troops to oppose 
the very formidable army which is assembling at Trichinopoly. 

It is not easy to say at present, where the Bombay army 
may at present be most usefully employed after the rains. The 
first object must undoubtedly be to co-operate with General Me- 
dows, and you will of course correspond in the fullest manner with 
him upon that subject 

The Mahrattas too are not to be neglected, as you must, I am 
sure, be perfectly sensible of the value of their assistance during 
the present war. If they should after the rains make a point of 
sending them some more troops, or if the success of their operations 
appears to depend upon our doing it, it would not I think be ad- 
visable to refuse them. 

If General Medows should leave you to act for yourself, and 
you should receive no pressing application from the Mahrattas, I 
see at present no reason to object to your putting yourself at the 
head of the sort of corps that you mention, and adopting such 
measures as may be concerted amongst us to promote the success 
of the* common cause. 

The conduct of the French in withdrawing their troops from 
Pondicherry, and the distracted state of their Government at home, 
render it highly improbable that they should have entertained 
any views of disturbing the tranquillity of the British possessions 
in India. ... I am> & c ., 



Caul Co&swilus to Chaui.ks \V. Malet, Esu. , Kw»IT at Poonah. 

SIR, Fort William, M*j 10, 1790. 

. . . I have received a letter from Captain Keunaway, 
by which I have the satisfaction to ibid that all impediments on 
the part of the Nizam to the final adjustment of the treaty are 
likely to be removed, as Iiis Highness, by approving of Captain 
Kennaway's letter to you, dated the 17th ultimo, has in fact 
engaged to accede to whatever the Minister and yourself may 
determine upon the alterations which he has proposed. 

You are already so fully acquainted with my inclination to 
make almost any sacrifice that could l>e required, for the purpose 
of obtaining an immediate and vigorous co-operation of the lVshwa's 
government in the present war, that I need not say more upon that 

Considering however, that the eventual operation of the Con- 
federacy may deprive the Peshwa of the tribute which he now 
receives from Tippoo, I will freely confess that I do not think it by 
any means unreasonable in luni to expect that a tribute from the 
restored Zemindars, to the amount of twelve lacs, may bo allowed 
to him, exclusive of his share in the generid partition of the coun- 
tries that may be conquered by the arms of the alliance. 

Upon the whole, after making allowance for the distance of 
the correspondence and the pressure of the time, I must, iu justice 
both to you and Captain Keunaway, say that everything lias been 
as well settled as our most sanguine expectations could have led ua 
to hope. When the treaty is reduced to a proper form and trans- 
mitted to me, I shall ratify it with the greatest pleasure. 
I am, Ac 


joe in Council. 

The Uovebnob-Gcnekal is Council to the Guteksok rs Council, 

Four St. CimnnK. 

Honourable Sir, rm VUSm, m.j i i, itw. 

We have received your letter dated the 1st instant, and 
it gives us the greatest concern to learn from it, that, notwith- 
standing the pressure of your wants at this critical juncture, vmi 
have not been able to obtain payment of the arrear wliieh is at 
present due by the Nabob of Armt to the Honourable Company, 
according to the tenor of the treaty with his Highness 
by Sir Archibald Campbell, in the year 17»7, or according to the 


terms of the propositions from the Court of Directors, contained in 
their letter dated 20th August, 1788, and which have been re- 
cently accepted by the Nabob. We are also much concerned 
that there is no reasonable ground to hope that he will fulfil the 
engagements contracted by that treaty to furnish the specified 
proportion of his resources, towards defraying the expenses of the 
war in which the Company is now involved with a prince, whose 
father's or his own ambitious and violent disposition, has occasioned 
so many calamities to his Highness's family and dominions, and 
repeatedly threatened them with utter ruin. 

From a regard to the long connexion that has existed between 
the Nabob and the English nation, and from the respect which is 
due to his Highness's station and personal character, we are 
persuaded that you will be inclined to treat him on every occasion, 
not only with the strictest justice, but also with the greatest 

The latter consideration cannot, however, consistently with the 
duty that you owe to your own public station, be allowed to 
operate to the essential prejudice of the Company's affairs, and 
especially on an occasion when a weak forbearance on your part 
might prove highly injurious to his Highness's own substantial 

Upon that principle we do not hesitate in declaring, that at a 
time when the Company's resources are so much strained, and 
when pecuniary supplies are so indispensably necessary for ensuring 
the success of the war, it would even be criminal in you to relax 
in requiring of his Highness the full execution of the above-men- 
tioned treaty and propositions, either by a punctual discharge 
of the proportion of his revenues which he is bound to furnish 
at the periods that were specified, or by an immediate surrender 
of the districts that were named, to the management of your 

We are likewise so much convinced that his Highness's weak- 
ness, indolence, and facility of disposition has long left his subjects 
to groan under a corrupt and most oppressive system of adminis- 
tration, that we are clearly of opinion, that by obtaining possession 
of the entire management of the whole country, you would 
essentially serve the Nabob himself and the Company, as well 
as the interests of humanity. 

We, therefore, not only entirely agree in opinion with you 
respecting the utility of the measure, but we recommend in the 
most earnest manner that you will use every persuasive means in 
your power to induce him to entrust your Government, at least 



during the continuance of the pm o rt war, with the DBooofaeDad 
maagenHntof Hm wboleof bia tefritoriaa. And Amid you be so 

i<ntuiiat-- as to prevail «]|khi him to adopt this salutary determi- 
nation, wo iiiv (.•i.'iivinct'il llmt you will see the necessity of taking 
eTery possible means to show him, in the most clear ami satis- 
factory manner, that you take no more for the general expanse of 
the war than the precise sum stipulated by the treaty, and that you 
are punctual in paying the portion due to him regularly Efito his 
Highness's treasury. 

Many solid advantages would result to all parties from this 
arrangement, ami i! would nut lie the least imjwrtant, that it would 
]nit it in your power, by fair and equitable treatment, to conciliate 
the goodrtriU ami attod a aept of his Highness's tributary Polygars 
in the southern districts, who are often driven to despair by the 
oppressive exactions of his managers, and whose hearty iXH>p6M- 
tion wotdd be of the utmost value to us in the present contest. 

You will, of course, understand, that the sentiments which m 
have given respecting your line of conduct towards the Nabob, HI ■. 
Upon the present occasion, equally applicable to the Itajah of 
Tanjore. yf e have the honour to be, &c. 

Ball CoMWAUH TO Couan, BitATUWAITt, 1 Commanding the Troops on 

the North side of the River Kristna. 

SIR, Fort, Mnr 31, I7»0. 

I have tliis day received information from Captain K< n- 
ituway, that he has acquainted General Medows that a requisitiiiii 
■OB I- ii transmitted to me from the Nizam, that the whole or part 
of the detachment under the command of Lieut .-Colonel Cockerell 
limy be ordered to join and co-operate with Ids Highness's army. 
Hut at this t&tmce I cannot at present faSgB whflt b er pnrfioQB 
Ota will have permitted General Hedom to render it 
practicable tn comply with that requisition. 

In th'- event, however, that General Modem has directed the 
whole < ,itiy part of the detachment to remain on the north side 
of ihe Kriatas, until my instructions on the above poml ibal 
arrive, I deatn that you will order Lieut-Colonel Cookcrcll to 
mediately friab the whole, i >r stu'h part of lus detach- 
ment tfl inny have been detained by General Medows for that 
purpose, to join the Nizam's army, in the manner am! I". 

■ ■, be prescribed to him through Captaifl Ivenuawav. 


. . . There are, at the same time, three circumstances that 
may occur, any one of which you are to consider as a sufficient 
ground for preventing the effect of this order : — 1st. An applica- 
tion to you from the Board at Fort St. George, or from the com- 
manding officer of the centre division, that the detachment may 
proceed on its march to assist in the defence of the Carnatic. 
2nd. Your being informed by Captain Kennaway that the detach- 
ment can be of no* material use to the Nizam's army during the 
season of the rains. 3rd. Your being acquainted by that gentle- 
man of his Highness having dispensed with the junction of the 

The two latter are very likely to happen, if the Nizam's army 
should not have crossed the Kristna before the swelling of the 
river ; but in either of the three cases that I have mentioned, you 
are to order the detachment to continue its march to the southward. 

I am, &c, 


H. R. H. the Prince of Waives to Earl Cornwallis. 

[Received June, 1790.] 
MY DEAR LORD, Carlton House, May 30, 1789. 

I must begin by thanking you for the very kind and 
friendly letter I received from you by the last ship from the East 
Indies, it was so long since I had last heard from you, y* I begun 
to think you had forgot all y r old friends in this part of the world. 
How things have chang'd and what a chequered scene of Life I 
have been obliged to go thro' for the last six months ! Ere this, I 
suppose you will have heard of the King's Indisposition, and how 
the Minister attempted to destroy my Rights, but to deprive every 
other individual of our family of the common liberties and rights of 
Englishmen. Supported I have been by some real and true friends, 
at the head of whom your Friend my Brother stood foremost, w h 
has gained immortal Honor, had you been here my dear Lord I 
doubt not y* we sh d havQ had the happiness of meeting with a 
similar support from you, tho' I am sorry to say that your members 
consulted the interests of the cause of Pitt, instead of the Rights 
and Independence of the Constitution of this Country as well as of 
the House of Brunswick. Everything has fallen into very different 
hands. The King is convalescent, that is to say he certainly is 

1 This letter, by some accident, was not year after it was written, which deprived it 
received by Lord Cornwallis till more than a of much of its interest. 


U'tti .T. everything is thrown into the hands of the Queen, every 
Friend y' supported me and the common cause of succession in the 
Family, if they hud any place have be- n dismissal, such us tin- 
Duke of Queensberry, and our little Friend Lothian. Queeusberry 
has been dismissed by order of the Queen and Mr. Pitt from tin.' 
bodotwnbar. Lotluan has left his regiment of Hum Crouds 
they have had the Insolence to threaten the Duke of York with 
taking his iu-giiuent of Foot-Guards, and when they at last did not 
dare do that, they have brought officers into bis Regiment and 
committed towards him every species of Indignity to force hiin to 
resign, w h lie has had prudence and coolness sufficient as well as 
firmness enough to resist, not only these great Officers but num- 
lurli-s i if a lower class whose sole dependence in life, and suste- 
nance depended upon their Places, have been disgracefully dis- 
miss'd from their offices for their disinterested support of me. and 
our Family. You will forgive me my dear Lord for thus expa- 
tiating upon a subject w h I w* not have done but to such a Friend 
us I consider you. I cannot but confess y' 1 feel for the dangerous 
situation in w h the Rights and Liberties of this Nation are at 
present, as well as the very critical position in w h evt-ry 
Individtiul of Our Family stands at present However the very 
precarious state of the King's health, renders some People ■ lilih-' 
upon their tiuard who are not driven to a state of dispair, such 
as not only pervades the Minister himself, but his Adherents in 
MBVtL I will not bore you any further at present as I suppose 
you will have heard by many Letters of our critical situation in 
this Country at the present Period, but trust yon will attribute 
my prolixity to the intimacy of an old Friend. 

Bafon I conclude I must thank you for the kind expressions 
yuii have made u»e of to me respecting my Prot'jgc Mr. Treves. 
1 coufoss I feel myself much interested in his wellfare, and success 
in Life, and nothing can make me more happy than thinking v' 
he will nwe y' Success to you, I hove just heard from a Friend 
nt Mm India House, y 1 the object of Treves' ambition at DHMOt 
i-, to lie appointed to the Adaulet of Benares, w h is now held I y 
a [thick named Alii ''ami. 1 I." nderst. -Hiding y' umst of the Adaulels 
are now held by EnrapMW, and as I am informed y' it is lh« 
iat'Titiiiu \' t In ■ EonpMM are to be so placed in future in pre* 
finnoe t>> tin 1 Natives, I sh* lie vastly happy if without BOB- 
milting any injuMiee }'»> B* pillfl young Treves in J* situation, 
as I shall feel Bftjwlf personally ubliged to you for lii> pi.nm.ii. '•<■ 


I will not trespass any further upon you, but conclude with 
desiring you to believe me, my dear Lord, 

Ever sincerely your Friend, 

George P. 

Lord Sydney to Earl Cornwallis. 

[Received Jane, 1790.] 
MY DEAR LORD, London, Jan. 27, 1790. 

I received with great pleasure your letter of the 9th of 
August I was at Frognall, and though I cease to be" of the 
number of H. M.'s Ministers, I thought it my duty to come up to 
London to lay before H. M. some parts of the contents of it I 
was the more strongly of this opinion, as Mr. Dundas was then, 
where he at present continues, in Scotland. Th6 King expressed 
himself in terms of the strongest approbation of your management, 
both with regard' to the Nizam's ambassador, and the intended 
address from Bengal. 1 H. M. has ordered Mr. Grenville to have 
the measures proposed in your letter taken with regard to the first 
of these subjects. As to the latter, H. M. agrees entirely with 
you, that the fewer addresses come to him from foreign parts, 
especially from India, the better. He regrets the loss of your 
services in India, and without compliment it will not be an easy 
matter to replace you to the satisfaction and advantage of the 
country. By what I hear, though Mr. Hollond took the same 
measure as your Lordship, of endeavouring to stop the address at 
Madras, not indeed with the same success, the same motives are 
not attributed to him. Party spirit is supposed to have guided 
him, and it is said, with the observations you may conceive, that 
he, his brother, and my old (not quite right-headed) friend, W. 
Burke, were the only persons who refused to sign it I ought 
not to omit that H. M. received with great satisfaction your 
Lordship's assurances of the affection, duty, and loyal attachment 
of His Subjects in Bengal. 

Thank God, H. M.'s health continues as good as possible, and 
from the diminution, though not very considerable, which He has 
made in His exercise, and the reasonable improvement He has 
made in His diet, He is really much better than He has been for 
many years. He looks as likely to live as any man in England. 
I am sure He enjoys the good wishes of His subjects as generally 
as any prince ever did. 

1 Lord Cornwallis had quietly interfered recovery, and he had been equally successful 
to prevent any address from the inhabitants in prevailing upon the Nizam not to send an 
of Calcutta to congratulate the King on his ambassador to England. 


The state of our neighbours is the most extraordinary that can 
be imagined ; they seem to be forming a constitution, which they 
boast is to be freer than ours. It is an arduous task. They have 
read too many of the volumes of Opposition pamphlets of this 
country, from the Revolution to the present day, and cannot be 
supposed to be able easily to separate the corn from the chaff. 
Insurrections happen frequently, but at present the bourgeoisie of 
Paris seem to govern France. No taxes are paid, and that seems 
the circumstance wluch the multitude look upon as the real test of 
liberty. We swarm with French of the first families, many of 
them in great distress. . . . The Duke of Orleans 1 is here, 
caressed only by a very few high in rank, detested by his own coun- 
trymen here, despised by us, and probably driven from France by 
both parties there. It is supposed, and I believe with truth, that 
he was very cavalierly treated by La Fayette. Flanders exhibits 
as extraordinary a scene as France. Driven to despair by the 
absurd measures, equally weak and harsh, of their sovereign, they 
have at length divested him of his power. All the great towns and 
citadels, which have tried the skill and strength of the great gene- 
rals of Europe for the last two centuries, fell in a few days and 
with little bloodshed, into the hands of priests, burghers, and stu- 
dents of universities. Luxembourgh, and possibly the citadel of 
Antwerp, still remain under the government of the Emperor. But 
the Flemings have still difficulties to surmount. The State* of the 
Low Countries have carried this great work through, but there 
seems a disposition to dispute the legality of their Government, and 
to force them to convoke a General National Assembly. The 
clergy jealously watch the interests of the Roman Catholic Religion, 
and even of the Papal power. The peasantry still retain a respect 
for the old Government Here are jarring interests and wishes 
enough to give an opening to the House of Austria, but the weak 
state of health and perverse head of the Emperor, as well as the 
multitude of enemies, domestic as well as foreign, which he has 
acquired for himself, will probably prevent him, if he should live 
another year, from availing himself of it. I do not think the least 
probable turn that things may take will be a General Assembly, 
and in the end, for a time at least, an almost absolute Democracy. 
So much for our neighbours. 8 

1 Louis Phillipe Joseph, Duke of Orleans disturbances of Oct. 1789. He was very 
(Egalite), b. April 13, 1747, guillotined Nov. coldly received in London, and, except the 
6, 1793 ; m. April 5, 1769, Louise Marie Royal Princes, who atone time had it in con- 
Adelaide, dau. of Louis Jean, Due de Pen- temptation to borrow large sums from him, 
thievre. He had been sent to England osten- few showed him any countenance, 
sibly to transact business, but really because 2 The death of the Emperor took place 
he was suspected of having organised the a fortnight after the date of this letter. His 




At home we are perfectly quiet for the present ; the revenue 
increasing, and the people in general viewing with pleasure the 
contrast between this country and our rival neighbour. The Dis- 
senters are taking however very eager measures for the repeal of 
the Test and Corporation Acts, and avail themselves of the approach 
of the general election. There is another subject which is disagree- 
able, which is that of the abolition of Negro Slavery and the Slave 
Trade. The P. of W. is taking all possible pains to form a strong 
party against the Government He affects a great regard for the 
King. The Q. is held out as the object of the most inveterate as 
well as the most ungenerous and undeserved abuse. H. R H. 
governs His two B 1 " ; l another has lately returned post from Ge- 
neva, but is going to Gibraltar. 

Mr. Pitt stands high, and as deservedly so as any man ever did, 
in the public esteem. Unless something unforeseen arises, the 
Dissenters' business 2 and that of the Slave Trade seem to be the 
only topics likely to be much agitated this Session. . . . 

I am now retired from the very laborious and responsible situ- 
ation which I lately held, to the quiet one which your Lordship 
formerly held of Chief Justice in Eyre. I have it on better terms, 
following the precedent of my immediate predecessor, who under- 
stood a bargain better than your Lordship. My son, quitting the 
Secretary's office with me, is at the Admiralty Board. 

You will see that I ought to be, and I can assure you that I am, 
perfectly satisfied and grateful to the King, as well as sensible of the 
friendship of Mr. Pitt My appetite is not so keen, nor my digestion 
so quick as those of some of my neighbours. I do not feel the 
least inclination to join Lord North, Lord Stormont, and Lord 
Loughborough. Adieu, my dear Lord; accept my best wishes 
and those of my family. 

T am, with the greatest truth and esteem, 


brother Leopold, Grand Duke of Tuscany, 
who succeeded him, soon effected a reconcilia- 
tion with his Belgian subjects, by the modera- 
tion of his conduct. 

1 The Dukes of York and Clarence; the 
third was Prince Edward, afterwards Duke 
of Kent, who had resided for some time at 

2 Mr. Beaufoy's motion, May 8, 1789, for 
the repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts, 

had been rejected by 122 to 102. A similar 
motion was made by Mr. Fox, March 2, 1790, 
and negatived by 294 to 105. The only 
legislative measure proposed this year on the 
Slave Trade, was the renewal for a limited 
time of Sir William Dolben's bill, regulating 
the numbers to be carried in each ship, which 
met with no opposition. Some evidence was 
also heard at the bar on the general question. 


Earl Corxwallis to CaptaiI Kennaway. 

SlB. Fort Willi™, Jnn* 17. I 

. . . The Madras Government having a few days ago 
nui-niiti. .] i In- oopy of a letter which was addressed by Tippoo 
Suttaun to General Medows, I am glad to embrace the opjiort unity 
whieh it lias furnished, to give the Nizam a specimen of the open- 
ness with which I am determined to conduct my* 'If tnwurds our 
riflri in all transactions with thut Prince. 

I therefore enclose a copy of Tippoo 's letter, and of the answer 
«liii 'h tin- Madras Government has been directed to return to it, in 
order that by your communicating the (or the substance of the) 
papers to his Higluiess and his Ministers, you may lie enabled to 
show that they may depend upon the sincerity of the assurances 
that you have already given them, that we will adhere strictly to our 
engagements, and enter into no negotiations with Tippoo without 
the knowledge and full approbation of the other members of the 

At so early a stage of our military operations, we cannot form a 
judgment of the terms to which it may he in our power to oblige 
Tippoo to submit, but tliat we may be properly prepared for dis- 
cussions at the time that any negotiations shall be opened. I wish 
you to ascertain and communicate to me, as soon as you possibly 
can, the objects which bis Highness would be principally desirous 
tii acquire at the conclusion of a peace. 

You will have known baton this time that General Medows 
»iili ill.' iirmy under his command has attacked Tippoo's southern 
dominions, and I make no doubt of your having availed yourself of 
that insinuation, t<. incite the Nizam to make the most vigorous 
exertions on bis part to distract and distress the common enemy. 

. . . Your uniform accounts of the good disposit i< n of the 
Nizam uud his Ministers give me great satisfaction, tint' for the 
sake of his Highness' own reputation and interest, as well as thut of 
the other meatben ofthceinifederaey. 1 cannot but lament thai flhfl 
movements of his forces are so exceedingly tardy. 

At tin' same time I DXIMt in candour admit, that it was not un- 
mflOMbla in linn |o e\]M'ct that our southern army should shew 
him an example by commencing its operations, and I am also 
OfaUged to ■aknovhdga tfc*i from your report of the state of the 
kbuni 'l'-iiii-liim-nt, upon Major Mnntgriini-ry's own authority, bii 
b -is great reason to complain of a failure on our part, in 
iin'urdiiig him (he supjiort which he is entitle! to by lllwlj and by 
re["-ated pro 


It may not be possible to apply any immediate remedy to the 
defects of those two battalions ; but you may assure his Highness 
and his Ministers, that. I am highly displeased at their haying been 
sent to him in so unmilitary and so imperfect a condition, and that 
I shall not only, call the commanding officer of the Northern 
Division of the Carnatic Army, or any other person who may have 
participated in the negligence of employing troops that seem to be 
so unfit for service, to a most rigorous account for his misconduct, 
but I shall also take the earliest possible opportunity to replace 
them with others, that are complete in numbers and perfect in 
military discipline. I am> & c> 


Earl Cornwallis to Benjamin Roebuck, Esq., 1 Madras. 

SlB, # Calcutta, July 25, 1790. 

I have received your letter dated the 3rd ultimo, and I beg 
leave to assure you, that after the handsome manner in which you 
stood forward and offered your services to expose the conduct of a 
Government, which has been so prejudicial to the interests and so dis- 
graceful to the honour of our country, I could not entertain a suspicion 
that you had in any degree relaxed in your zeal for the public welfare. 

The hurry of business in which General Medows must neces- 
sarily have been engaged, from the hour of his landing at Madras 
until his departure for the army, and the situation of his Council 
during the greatest part of that time, rendered it impossible for him 
to enter upon the important investigation which I so strongly 
recommend to him, and which I am sure his sense of duty and public 
spirit, will induce him most eagerly to follow up, whenever the circum- 
stances of his Government will admit of his undertaking it. 

I have great satisfaction in learning from you, that altho' the 
delay will render the business more difficult, you are still of opinion 
that the enquiry, if properly conducted, cannot easily be defeated. 
I can only promise that it shall not fail for want of any encourage- 
ment and support that it may be in my power to give, and I trust 
that you will omit no opportunity of obtaining such information as 
will be likely to contribute to its success. 

I am, with much esteem, &c, 


1 Benjamin Roebuck, d. Aug. 1809. He he took against the Governor, Sir George 

was very instrumental in unravelling the Barlow, who was engaged in a similar task, 

frauds committed at Madras, but his temper was so offensive, that he was removed from 

very impetuous, and in 1808-9 the line Madras to a station on the coast, where he died. 



Eari. Couswallis to H. R. H. the Prince of 

SIR, Calcutta, Aug. It, 17!>0. 

The letter which your Royal Highness did me the honour to 
write to me on the Slat of May, 1789, was through some accident 
omitted to be sent by the Vestal frigate (which was the only ship 
that sailed in the course of that summer), and consequently I did 
not receive it till the Indiamen of the last season had all sailed from 
hence. This circumstance has mortified me exceedingly, lest your 
Royal Highness should think me remiss in replying to your com- 
mands in regard to Mr. Treves, about whom I know that yon take 
an earnest concern. 

The Civil Courts of Justice throughout the Company's provinces 
have been for many years in the hands of the Company's servants, 
and it is my wish and intention, if I can accomplish it, to place the 
Criminal Coarta likewise under their superintendence and juris- 

This case however has been different in the Province of Benares, 
nor was any judge ever appointed by this Government for that 
district, until Mr. Hastings gave the office of Judge of the City to 
AJi Ibrahim Khan after the troubles in 1781, 

The great and truly respectable character of that magistrate, 
would have rendered it a very difficult and unpopular measure for 
any Governor-General to have removed him, even if the plausible 
pretext of preserving an uniformity of system with our other pos- 
sessions iu this ]tart of India, by appointing European Judges of 
Adaulet, could with propriety have been admitted. But as not 
only the Court over which Ali Ibrahim Khun presides, but the 
utli.-r native Courts which we have since instituted in the principal 
towns of that district, arc subject to the immediate inspection and 
OODtrosI of the Resident, who acts as a coadjutor with the Rajah iu 
the government of the country, the measure of removing Ali Ibra- 
him Khan, which would he in the highest degree disgusting and 
otV'ii-ive to the natives, could neither be defended on the principles 
of expediency or system. 

I must likewise add, if Ah' Ibrahim Elian was to be turned out, 
or to die to-morrow, and it should then be thought advisable (•• 
appoint an English Judge for the city of Benares, the allowances 
to be annexed to that station would necessarily he regulated by 
those which have boon granted to the judges of Patua, Moorsheda- 
bad, and Dacca, and. without adverting to the impropriety of 
appointiug so very young a servant of the Company to au office of 
•o much gravity and importance, would render it impossible to give 


it to Mr. Treves, as, according to the Act of Parliament, he would 
not, from his standing in the sendee, be qualified to receive a 
salary of that amount. 

Besides my most earnest desire to gratify every wish of your 
Royal Highness, I really have otherwise a strong inclination to 
serve Mr. Treves, on account of the prudence of his conduct for 
some time past, and his attention to the duties of his present sta- 
tion. But from his being at the very bottom of the list of the 
Company's servants (except those of the present year), and vacan- 
cies in the Civil Line that would suit him falling but rarely, I 
cannot venture to say whether anything, or what, can be done for 
him during my stay in the country. I can therefore only assure 
your Royal Highness that I will not omit an opportunity, if it , 
should offer. 

So much time has elapsed since the date of your Royal High- 
ness's letter, and the situation of affairs at home is now so much 
altered in every respect, that, wishing as I at all times do, to 
avoid the subject of politics, I feel the strongest disposition to 
decline entering at all upon the unpleasant topic on which your 
Royal Highness has so folly and so earnestly expressed yourself, 
and no consideration should now induce me to speak upon it, if I 
did not apprehend that after the open and confidential manner in 
which you have done me the honor to write to me, my total silence 
might be attributed either to a want of candor or to disrespeot 

I shall not endeavour to combat with arguments any of the 
positions that your Royal Highness has laid down, not having so far 
forgot the effects of party on the minds of men, as to be sanguine 
enough to suppose that I should be successful, and as from the total 
change of circumstances, it could answer no useful purpose to make 
the attempt 

I will however rely with confidence on the natural liberality of 
your Royal Highness's disposition, and trust that my acknowledging 
a dissent from some of those positions, will not be ascribed to im- 
proper motives. 

I can at the same time with the utmost sincerity declare, that 
you will only do me justice in believing that no man can love and 
admire more than I do, your Royal Highness's amiable qualities and 
virtues, that I feel the warmest gratitude for your personal kindness 
to me, that I am a determined friend to the liberties of my country, 
the just prerogatives of the Crown, and the rights of the House of 
Brunswick, and that I should feel the highest gratification in being 
able to coincide on all occasions in political sentiments with the 
Duke of York ; but after having said this, I must honestly confess 

d 2 


that if I had been in England in the winter of 1788-9, 1 should have 
thought it my duty, however painful it might have been to me, to 
have taken a different line from his Royal Highness in Parliament. 

The war into which Tippoo so wantonly forced us, has in a 
few months swallowed up a large portion of the fruits of my three 
years' economy ; but the alliance which we have formed with the 
Marattas and the Nizam, and the connexion which we have success- 
fully established with the Nairs, and all the chiefs on the Malabar 
coast who are tributary to Tippoo, in addition to the very respectable 
state of our own military force both European and native, must, I 
think, in a few months, according to the common course of human 
affairs, put a period to the contest, and enable us to indemnify 
. ourselves from the usurped spoils of the aggressor, for the heavy 
expense which his violence and ambition have brought upon us. 

Tippoo has abandoned the rich and extensive country of Coim- 
batore to General Medows without obliging him to fire a single 
cannon-shot, and without material opposition of any kind. There 
were only a few skirmishes of cavalry, in which our troops killed or 
took about an hundred of his Irregular Horse, without the loss on 
their part of a single man. 

I have likewise from our last advices great reason to believe 
that Medows has by this time taken the fortress of Palacatcherry, 
which from its situation is very important, as it opens an immediate 
communication for him with the Malabar Coast, and puts it in his 
power to receive any supplies from thence, or reinforcements from 
the troops of the Bombay establishment. 

Our allies are in motion, and have no doubt already created 
much alarm and embarrassment to Tippoo ; but during the rains of 
the south-west monsoon, which prevail at this time in every part of 
India, except the Carnatic and Coimbatore, it cannot be expected 
that they should act with much efficacy. But they give the 
strongest assurances that they will adhere tb their engagements, 
and invade Tippoo's northern dominions in the month of October, 
with numerous and powerful armies. 

Your Royal Highness will easily conceive, that the probability 
of my not having it in my power to return next year to England, 
must, at my time of life, be a severe disappointment. But if we can 
bring this war to an honourable and advantageous conclusion, and 
I can have the satisfaction of leaving this country in a state of 
peace and prosperity, I shall think my labours amply repaid. 

I am, &c, 



Lord Southampton to Eakl Counwallis. 

[Received Aug. 1790.] 
MY DEAR LORD, London, March 6, 1790. 

Probably this will have the good fortune of reaching your 
hands safe, as I give it in charge to Ramus, late page of the 
backstairs to the K. He goes out recommended, as I under- 
stand, by H. M., as a free merchant. The man is almost broken- 
hearted, and is one of the debris of the wreck of last year's 
mysterious business. 1 I understand that he is to carry out letters 
from the K, the P. of W., and the Duke of Y. to your Lord- 
ship : they will be more useful credentials than any that I 
cJid giv/ With us politicks are greatly changed. Ill Aose 
who thought the P. of W.'s cause just, are proscribed, and all who 
acted with Mr. Pitt, are distinguished by some mark of favour : 
no one can blame him for availing himself of his power to secure 
the future adhesion of his party. As for myself, I come under 
the description of the proscribed, but do not feel any other marks 
of resentment, except a colder reception at Court from the man 
I love and honour, and from the Q., to whom I have great obli- 
gations. Such was my situation and under such circumstances 
did I stand at the moment, that I could take no other part than 
that which I did take ; and what would have been most curious 
was, that had the Regency taken place, it would most probably have 
made it impossible for me to have remained where I am. I dare 
not venture to write an explanation of this mysterious business. 
You are constant, I find, in your correspondence with the D. of 
Y., which I am glad of: we are not popular ; less so than our 
Elder Brother, yet there is always a stronghold with the Father, 
and a confidential communication that keeps things together, and 
may be productive of good, the great bar to that, is the want 
of affection in the present moment towards the Mother. It is a 
great misfortune, and I shall always thihk originated in error. 
Nature had certainly imprinted in th© Mother's breast a love to 
her Eldest Son, beyond the power of ambition and competition to 
eradicate, and I am convinced that the part that she took in the 
last year's business, was doubly to secure the power to her husband 
if he should recover, and use it as her son should direct, in case 
all chance of recovery should cease. By the time you return, 

1 Four pages, two German and two Eng- dismissed. There is no trace of any recom- 
lish, were known to hare given secret infor- mendation of this man by the King, and 
roation to the Prince of Wales, and were nothing could be less probable. 


C'bai-. 3 

tilings will have taken a strong and unalterable bias, and you 
will be able to form your own opinion. . . 

Respects from all here. Believe me, &c, 



Marquis of Lassdowse to Earl Corxwallis. 

[R«d™i Aug. 29, 1790.] 
My DEAR LORD, Lcodoo, Much 17, 1790. 

. . . I wish it was in my power to send you any intelli- 
gence Uiat might be useful or interesting, but I doubt very much 
whether it is in anybody's to tell you in what state yon will 
find things. The Ministry continue the same as you left it, 
but I believe there is no doubt of their being divided, and that 
principally on account of foreign affairs. Prussia complains of 
our tardiness, 1 and things are so ripe upon the Continent, that I 
imagine yon will find us either at war, or a general peace con- 
cluded. It is the fashion, particularly at Court, to suppose France 
hvra de combat for several years to come, that their nuances are 
irretrievable, and that a bankruptcy and a civil war must ensue 
before their Government can be settled ; but I cannot see myself 
any good ground for thinking so. 

Onr old Hand Nchlrifteu is become a very great Personage, 
and likely, as I am assured, to become a Cabinet Minister in 
Prussia: he preserves however his simplicity of manners and his 
philosoplucai turn. Irtird Wycombe tells me that the Dnke of 
Brunswick has taken up a line of the greatest reserve since the 
publication of Mirnbeau's book.' But I hope you have corre- 
spondents who inform you better on all these subjects. 

As for myself, you will find me as you left me, unconnected 
with any party, and consequently in the secrets of tiniic, luit 
■dways with the same regard and attachment 

Yum*. ,Vi-., 


I - ibtW A* .MiraWu, 1., Mwvli 9, 
IM», ■!. A|'.i 

. .).■ MurigniuM. 
■ >i-l |ntlittr.-ij ™tht an- Wi'll 
known. The book in which !-?i>l LwwWnc l'mwitane,' 

feci !(.■■ Mb "i" 

Bniniwick in much |jr»u«l, but frm eth*r 
peron mmtiunn! m s 1 ™" 1 * HMltd, ii»t the 
book •« ordrmi to hr burnt bi th* mminnti 
hsnpmui in 1'irii. He hu] |iwu>u>!r puB- 
; m, in * fit. *t».. • La Monimhx 




Lord Sydney to Earl Cornwalus. 

[Received Aug. 29, 1790.] 
My DEAR LORD, Grosvenor Square, April 19, 1790. 

I take the opportunity of the departure of some of the last 
ships for India to trouble you with a few lines. I have the happi- 
ness of acquainting you, that the King remains in the most perfect 
state of health. I do not believe that he ever was better since he 
was born ; and the difference he has made in his regimen, both as 
to diet and exercise, has had the best effect Though he has 
increased the former and diminished the latter, his life is very 
far indeed from being one of excess or inactivity. Our session of 
Parliament has been one of the quietest ever known. The Oppo- 
sition have had one pretty strong division for repealing the last 
year's excise upon tobacco, 1 in hopes of a cry against the excise, 
against the general election. Sheridan has made a most fulsome 
panegyrick on himself, and the point was, to show a reconciliation 
between the different branches of the Opposition. The Irish Par- 
liament is dissolved. There has been much abuse in the debates 
of the session there which has just ended, but it has chiefly been 
directed against the late Lord Lieutenant.* 

The French politicks go on progressively toward republicanism 
in the first instance, anarchy in the second, and what the chapter 
of accidents may produce in the last. x The Prince of Conti, 8 how- 
ever, has ventured to return to Paris. In this town many persons, 
whose sagacity and penetration I very much envy, foretell without 
hesitation how these disturbances will end, but as they are by no 
means agreed in their opinions, and I have not talents enough to 
enable me to decide between them, or even understand them, I 
do not undertake to transmit them. I am very impatient to hear 
what effect the changes and fluctuations in France produce in 
your part of the world. The French army is in a strange state : at 
Lisle the garrison is supposed to be driven into the citadel by the 
armed bourgeoisie, and would starve there, were it not for their threat 
of firing red-hot balls upon the town, if their provisions were stopped. 
This is one of many equally strange pictures of confusion. 

1 The numbers, April 16, were, Ayes 191, 
Noes 147 ; April 29, 141 to 72 ; and April 
30, 100 to 22. The previous year, July 12, 
70 to 20. 

9 George, 1st Marquis of Buckingham. 

8 Louis Francois Joseph, Prince de Conti, 
b. Sept. 1, 1734, d. March 14, 1814; m. 
Feb. 7, 1759, Fortunes Marie d'Est, dau. of 

Francis, Duke of Modena. He emigrated in 
1789, returned next year, and lived on his 
estates till he was arrested in 1793 ; released 
in 1795 he was obliged to leave France after 
18 Fructidor (Sept. 4, 1797), when he went 
to Spain. He was shut up in Barcelona 
during the whole time the French were in 
possession of that city, and died there. 



Chap. XII. 

Affairs in other parts of the Continent have not a very pacific 
appearance, but it is not easy to conjecture what turn they may 
take. The new King of Hungary * takes great pains to make 
himself popular by rescinding many of the absurd edicts of his 
brother and predecessor. 

So much for politicks. I am now very much out of the courant 
of them, and am very well pleased to be so. . . . 

My son has just entered into the holy state of matrimony with 
a very pretty and very amiable girL She is the second daughter 
of the late Lord de Clifford, 2 whom you probably remember better 
by* the name of Mr. Southwell Her character is everything I 
could wish it to be, and I cannot help adding that she is fortunate 
in being married to the best-tempered young man breathing. To 
be sure it is hardly modest in a Father to be making a panegyric 
upon his Son, but something is due to a young man whose whole 
life has been one continued scene of attention to his Parents. I 
trust that they have every reasonable prospect of happiness. . . . 

Believe me, &c, 


Warren Hastings, Esq., to Earl Cornwallis. 

[Received Aug. 29, 1790.] 
MY LORD, London, April 22, 1790. 

I have had the honour to receive a letter from your Lordship 
by one of the dispatches of the last season ; for which, and for 
the permission you have given me in it to continue my letters of 
introduction, I return you many thanks. But of thanks I have 
a large debt due from me to your Lordship for many and sub- 
stantial favours ; for your great goodness to my old domesticks ; 
for your distinguished notice of my friends; and for the liberal 
manner in which you were pleased to proclaim your allowance 3 
of the testimonials which were subscribed in my favour, and to 
authenticate them by the transmission of them to the Court of 

1 There being no King of the Romans at 
the death of Joseph, it was necessary to wait 
for an election before any person could assume 
the title of Emperor of Germany. Leopold 
wa**, meantime, called King of Hungary. 

* Edward, 17th Lord de Clifford, b. June 
6, 1738, d. Nor. 1, 1777 ; m. Aug. 20, 1763, 
Sophia, dau. of Samuel Campbell, Esq., of 
Mount Campbell. M.F. for Bridgewater, 
Nor. 1762, and for the county of Gloucester 
from Nor. 1763, to April, 1776. His dau. 

Sophia, b. June 10, 1771, d. Nov. 9, 1795 ; 
m. April 13, 1790, the Hon. John Thomas 

* The friends of Mr. Hastings were desirous 
of obtaining, especially from the natives, ad- 
dresses or testimonials in his favour. Lord 
Cornwallis, who had a very high opinion of 
Mr. Hastings, was ready to facilitate the 
preparation of such testimonials, although he 
thought it would be improper in him to take 
any active steps in promoting them. 


Directors. By the term allowance, I do not mean to measure the 
extent of my obligation for that act, but rather to mark my sense 
of its propriety. You might, my Lord, have done more to indicate 
your countenance of those subscriptions, had I been entitled to such 
a proof of your personal goodwill ; but, though I should have felt 
as I ought for the motive, I should have regretted that you had 
yielded to it Such a proceeding would have been construed into 
a transgression of the line of public duty, and have defeated its 
own purpose, by inducing a suspicion that the testimonials were 
extorted by the influence of authority. Considering the subject in 
its relation to your Lordship, I applaud the nice discretion with 
which you tempered a conduct impelled by a desire to promote 
the redress of an injured character. Regarding it merely as it 
affected myself, I am equally thankful for what you did, and for 
stopping precisely where you did stop. 

I have, &c, 

Wabren Hastings. 

Lieut.-General Grant to Earl Cornwalus. 

[Received Aug. 31, 1790.] 
MY DEAR LORD, Sackville Street, April 3, 1790. 

. . . We have had a very easy Session, not a late day 
but one, in the service of the Dissenters, when they were beat at 
three in the morning by a very large majority. I think all the Scots 
members were in the majority or were absent, except Sir Thomas l 
and Colonel Dundas, who voted for those levelling gentlemen. I 
understand that some of the high-flyers in Scotland will endeavour 
to bring the test business before the General Assembly, in hopes 
that the Kirk may be induced to take it up, which was not the 
case upon the late occasion, for the ministers were perfectly quiet, 
though in general they are well enough inclined to give trouble. 

. . . The popularity of the King and his Minister will 
operate strongly at the general election. The friends of Adminis- 
tration say that the Ministers, when the new Parliament meets, 
will be stronger by sixty. Opposition, on the contrary, insist that 
they will carry twenty additional friends. In Scotland, the Oppo- 
sition will certainly lose considerably. Sir Thomas Dundas 'tis 

1 Sir Thomas Dundas, 2nd Bart., created M.P. for Richmond from March, 1763, to 

Lord Dundas Aug. 13, 1794, b. 1741, d. March, 1768, and then for the county of 

June 14, 1820 ; m. May 24, 1764, Charlotte, Stirling till he was made a Peer, 
dau. of William, 3rd Earl Fitzwilliam. 



Cbap. XII. 

thought will be beat both in Orkney and Stirlingshire, 1 but his 
son * stands candidate for the University of Cambridge, and I am 
just told that Lord Euston is in danger, which I did not think was 
possible : it certainly will be an extraordinary event if a Scotsman 
should get the better of the Duke of Grafton's son at Cambridge. 
Our friend Phillipson will be astonished, for he laughed at the idea of 
Dundas canvassing, as Lord Mountstuart's son s declined, for he was 
pressed to stand for the University. Sir Elijah Impey visits 
Stafford 4 in return for many favours received from Sheridan. 
Burke hints that he wishes to retire ; I don't believe it. The 
unfortunate Anstruther, 6 who was to have gone out Chief Justice 
to India, will not be able to come into Parliament at the next 
election. Sir Gilbert Elliot 6 will be in the same predicament. 
Welbore Ellis 7 will probably retire, Weymouth and Melcombe 
Regis having fallen into Pulteney's hands. Ellis don't like to 
make a new bargain, indeed, I have heard that Pulteney does not 

1 In the county of Stirling, Sir Thomas 
Dundas beat Sir Alexander Campbell by 28 
to 22, but in Orkney, Mr. Balfour beat Colonel 
Dundas by 19 to 13. 

3 Lawrence Dundas, afterwards 2nd Lord 
Dundas, created Earl of Zetland July 2, 1838, 
b. April 10, 1766, d. Feb. 19, 1839; m. 
April 21, 1794, Harriet, dau. of General 
John Hale. The poll at Cambridge was ; — 

Right Hon. W. Pitt 509 

Earl of Euston 483 

Mr. Dundas 207 

* John, Lord Mountstuart, afterwards 4th 
Earl of Bute, made Marquis of Bute March 
1, 1796, b. June 30, 1744, d. Nov. 16, 1814 ; 
m. 1st, Not. 12, 1766, Charlotte Jane, dau. 
and coheir of Herbert, 2nd and last Viscount 
Windsor; 2nd, Sept. 7, 1800, Frances, dau. 
of Thomas Coutts, Esq. M.P. for Bossiney 
from Jan. to May, 1766, when he was created 
Baron Cardiff; ambassador in Spain for a 
short time in 1783. His father, the Minister, 
nominated him Auditor of the Imprest, a 
sinecure of at least 12,000/. a year, which he 
held for many years. His son John, b. Sept. 
25, 1767, d. v.p. Jan. 22, 1794 ; m. Oct. 12, 
1792, Elizabeth, dau. and sole heir to the 
title and estates of Patrick, 5th Earl of 
Dumfries. He was M.P. for the Cardiff Bo- 
roughs from Not. 1790 till his death. 

4 Mr. Sheridan was returned without a 

* Afterwards the Right Hon. Sir John 
Anstruther, younger son of Sir John An- 
struther, 3rd Bart., b. March 27, 1753, d. 
June 26, 1811; m. Maria, dau. of Edward 
Brice, Esq., of Berners Street. Chief Justice 
in Bengal, 1798 to 1806. M.P. for the An- 

struther Boroughs from Dec. 1782, to June, 
1790; Cockermouth to May, 1796; An- 
struther Boroughs again to July, 1797, 
and a third time from Dec. 1806, till his 

• Sir Gilbert Elliot, 4th Bart, created 
Oct. 10, 1797, Baron, and Feb. 24, 1813, 
Earl, of Minto, b. April 23, 1751, d. June 
21, 1814; m. Jan. 3, 1777, Anna Maria, 
dau. of Sir George Amyaud, Bart. Viceroy 
in Corsica in 1795-6, during the whole time 
it was under British authority ; Minister at 
Vienna, July 2, 1799, to Aug. 21, 1801 ; 
President of the Board of Control, Feb. 12 to 
July 16, 1806, when he was made Governor- 
General of India, which office he held to Oct. 
1813. M.P. for Morpeth, July, 1776, to 
Feb. 1777; Roxburgh, to March, 1784; Ber- 
wick, 1786 to 1790 ; and lastly for Helston, 
till June, 1795. 

7 Right Hon. Welbore Ellis, created Baron 
Mendip Aug. 13, 1794, b. 1714, d. Feb. 2, 
1802; m. 1st, Nov. 18, 1747, Elizabeth, 
dau. of the Hon. Sir William Stanhope, 
K.B.; 2nd, July 19, 1765, Anne, sister 
and heir of the Right Hon. Han* Stanley. 
Lord of the Admiralty, Feb. 1747, to Dec. 
1755 ; Joint Vice-Treasurer of Ireland thrice 
between Aug. 1756, and Sept. 1777 ; Secre- 
tary at War, Dec. 1762 to July, 1765; 
Treasurer of the Navy, June, 1777, to April, 
1782, when, on the resignation of Lord G. 
Germain, he was made Secretary of State, 
which office he held for only two months. 
M.P. for Cricklade, Weymouth, and Ayles- 
bury, from Dec. 1741 to March, 1768; 
Weymouth again, Nov. 1774 to June, 1790 ; 
and Petersfield, from April, 1791, till he was 
made a peer. 




intend to Bell, he is out of humour that the title of Bath l was given 
to Lord Weymouth, and rather appears inclined to Opposition. 
I am told that a great little Duke, 2 haying lost sight of the 
Ordnance, repents most heartily what he did last year, and is 
inclined to wheel, but he will not be received jwith open arms. 
Emolument wm a sad object for him to think o£ . . . 

People are tired of Hastings* trial, and it probably would be 
brought to a conclusion when Parliament meets on the 22nd, if 
Burke did not insist upon going on with the enquiry, but a new 
Parliament 3 will undoubtedly put an end to a vexatious persecution, 
and a considerable unmeaning expense ; for, supposing him to be 
guilty of some of the charges brought against him, he surely has 
suffered sufficiently in the course of four years, and his fortune* 
must be amazingly reduced, for the expense of his defence has 
been very great. But my idea upon the whole is that he will be 
indemnified for the expenses, and that he will be put in a high 
situation to make up for his sufferings, — but that is a private 
opinion, for I have no ground to go upon. 

After the dissolution of Parliament there will be a promotion 
of Peers, some of the Scots will be made Peeip of Parliament, but 
before that takes place they will take the advantage of their votes 4 
for the sixteen. Douglas 5 and Fife 8 are to be peered, and Sir W. 
Erskine 7 is come to town to be made a Baronet Poor Heathfield 
is going abroad to be married to our old German acquaintance : 
his whole fortune is in his power, — they say 60,000 to 70,000/., 
exclusive of his 1500/. pension, which is not settled upon the 

1 Mr. Pulteney's daughter was created, 
July 23, 1793, Baroness, and, Oct. 26, 1803, 
Countess of Bath in her own right. 

* Hugh, 2nd Duke of Northumberland. 

8 The new Parliament, Deo. 17, 1790, 
determined, by 143 to 30, that a dissolution 
did not abate an impeachment. 

4 Scotch Peers having English titles were 
supposed not to be entitled to rote for the 
representative Peers, but that doctrine was 
overruled by the House of Lords in deciding 
upon the merits of this very election. Only 
13 Peers were returned, six others having each 
33 rotes. After a protracted scrutiny, and 
long legal arguments, two only of the six 
were declared duly elected. 

* Archibald Douglas, son of Sir John 
Stewart of Gran tally, and Lady Jane Dou- 
glas, only sister and heir of Archibald, only 
lhike of Douglas. Created Lord Douglas 
July 8, 1790, b. July 10, 1748, d. Dec. 26, 
1827; m. 1st, June 13, 1771, Lucy, dau. of 
William, 2nd Duke of Montrose ; 2nd, May 
13, 1783, Prances, posthumous dau. of Fran- 

cis, Earl of Dalkeith, son of Francis, 2nd Duke 
of Buccleugh. M.P. for Forfar County Jan. 
1782 to 1790. His claim to the Douglas 
estates was disputed by the guardians of the 
Duke of Hamilton, on the ground that he was 
a supposititious child. This gave rise to the 
celebrated Douglas cause, which was ulti- 
mately decided by the House of Lords, Feb. 
17, 1769, in favour of Mr. Douglas. 

6 James, 2nd Earl of Fife (Irish honours), 
created Lord Fife in England, June 19, 1790, 
b. Sept. 28, 1729, d. Jan. 24, 1809; m. 
June 4, 1766, Dorothea, dau. and sole heir 
of Alexander, 9th Earl of Caithness. M.P. 
for the county of Banff from Nov. 1754 to 
March, 1784, and then for the county of 
Elgin to 1790. 

' Sir William Erskine, of Torrie, created 
a Bart. June 21, 1791, b. March 27, 1728, 
d. March 19, 1795; m. Mav 29, 1767, 
Frances, dau. of James Moray, Esq., of Aber- 
cairny, and 'widow of George Druramond, 
Esq. of Blair Drummond. 



Chap. XII. 

title. He cannot bear his son, 1 and his friends are afraid that 
he will make very improper settlements with regard to his family ; 
none of them dare speak to him. Colonel Loftus, 2 who you may 
remember in America, has five children, and is to be married to 
Lady Elizabeth* Townshend, 8 with her father's consent Lord 
Sydney's son is to be married. His uncle Charles M^nt to him and 
said, — I have always intended to leave you 10,000£, but I expect 
to live a long time, and as you may have use for the money now, I 
think I may as well give it you at present, — and did so : that was 
handsome in your cousin, and j nave ^ 

James Grant. 

Major-general Grexville to Earl Cornwallis. 

[Received Sept. 26, 1790.] 
MY DEAR LORD, New Burlington Street, April 26, 1790. 

. . . I have but little news to communicate to you, as 
things here remain pretty near in the same state as when I last 
had the honour of writing to you. The dissolution of Pari 1 is 
hitherto kept a profound secret, some think it will take place in 
the course of Summer or Autumn, others think it will die a natural 
death ; in the mean time canvassing goes on very briskly in some 
counties, but from what I can collect Mr. Pitt has nothing to fear 
from the present complexion of things in regard to a new Parlia- 
ment, his own popularity and the horror which the reasonable 
and thinking part of the Nation entertain of the leaders of Oppo- 
sition, will I hope have its due weight and influence in the general 
election, nothing but a war, which I am in great hopes we shall 
be able to avoid, could possibly remove Mr. Pitt from his present 
situation. The state of affairs in France and in the Netherlands is 
pretty near the same — as bad as it can well be. The King of 
Prussia has been making and still continues to make great pre- 
parations for war, and it was thought some time ago, upon his 
signing a treaty of alliance with the Porte, 4 offensive and defensive, 

1 Francis, 2nd and last Lord Heathfield, a 
General and Colonel 4th Dragoons, b. Dec. 
31, 1750, d. Jan. 29, 1813, unmarried. 

2 Colonel, afterwards General William 
Loflus, Colonel 2nd Dragoon Guards, and 
Lieut-Governor of the Tower, b. 1752, d. 
July 15, 1831; m. 1st, Margaret, dau. of 
Maccarel King, Esq., of Lesson Hall, county 
Dublin ; 2nd, May 7, 1790, Elizabeth, dau. of 
George, 1st Marquis Townshend. M.P. for 
Tamworth from Nov. 1802 to 1812, and 

then for Yarmouth, Norfolk, to 1818. In 
Ireland for Bannow from 1797 to the Union. 

8 Lady Elizabeth, wife of the preceding, b. 
Aug. 1766, d. March 21, 1821. 

♦This treaty was signed Jan. 31, 1790. 
The engagement was to attack both Austria 
and Russia. It included a reciprocal gua- 
rantee, and various commercial articles. The 
Porte further undertook to try and persuade 
Austria to abandon her Polish provinces. 



that a war was inevitable. It is however strongly reported at pre- 
sent that he is gone to Breslau to negotiate with the two Imperial 
Courts, and it is rather thought that the new King of Hungary 
will come into his terms, provided they are not too exorbitant The 
present moment is certainly too favourable for His Prussian Majesty 
to let it slip by without taking some advantage of it, but how far 
he will be supported in any unreasonable claims which he may wish 
to push, I know not, but am inclined to believe that some check has 
already been put to them. Politicks at all times are very much 
an affair of speculation, but more particularly so in the present 
moment, from the very unsettled and confused state of things upon 
the Continent, I shall therefore not trouble your Lordship any 
further upon a subject I am so little able to talk upon, and with 
which, thank God, I have so little to do. I am sorry to say how 
much I feel myself disposed to concur in sentiments with you, in 
regard to forming connexions and associating with princes. The 
conduct of a certain person, who has so cruelly disappointed both 
you and myself, still continues such as to give me great uneasiness, 
more especially as I see no great hopes of amendment. . . . 

I have the satisfaction to acquaint you that His Majesty is in most 
perfect health and spirits, and that he may long continue so, is the 
sincere wish of every good subject. And now, my dear Lord, I shall 
hasten to conclude with assuring you that we all look forward with 
the greatest pleasure and impatience to this time twelve months, 
when we hope to see you return in good health to enjoy the society 
of those who are happy enough to be honoured with your friendship. 
I am, my dear Lord, with the truest attachment, 

Ever yours, &c, 

. R. Grenville. 

P.S. May I beg leave to trouble you to remember me to my 
friend Boss? I flatter myself that this will be the last letter I 
shall have to direct to you on the other side of the water. 

The Prince of Wales to Earl Cornwalus. 

[Received Oct. 1790.] • 
MY DEAR LORD, Carlton House, April 16, 1790. 

It is so long since I had last the pleasure of hearing from 
You y* I am quite afraid You have forgot Your old Friends on this 
side the Water, I therefore think it high time to assure You y l there 
are a few of us who have had the pleasure of passing many pleasant 



and happy ITours in Your Society who ever are most Iiappy in heat- 
ing be it ever such short Letters, y 1 Yon are well and situated to 
Y f satisfaction. By this time You must liave heard of the treat- 
ment the shameful unjust treatment our little worthy Friend 
Ix>thian has experienced from the Minister, 1 nevoid expiiiiutr much 
more upon tliis Subject was it not so perfectly of a piece with 
every thing V has ban b^Katti m-t >n\ly upon other Individuals, 
l>n( u[Hin every Mbtirc Mid relation of the King's Family, who 
int'il from principles of disinterested honor, y' liad it not happened 
one might have Iwe.u astonished y l for once, the natural mean, 
paltry, and revengeful disposition <>f the Minister, did not demon-' 
strati" itself in the odious and oppressive tight w* now it lias in 
every instance in w h either could w dared give it vent. I will not 
my dear Lord intrude further upon y r time as I know how much it 
must naturally from y' situation be taken up, however, before I 
conclude, I must just mention to You how much I wish to recom- 
mend to y' protection Young Mr. Watte ' who is I believe in the 
Company's service, I understand y' his wish is if possible to get 
enual rank in the Begulars to y' w h he lias in the Company's 
troops, I do not know whether this is an easy matter to be done or 
not, I must leave y' entirely my dear Lord to y* better judgment 
and knowledge of the possibility of effecting these matters, how- 
ever 1 only hojM! y l sh d this plan not be possible to l>e arranged 
yon will have the goodness to employ the Young Man in some other 
line to \v h You may deem he has abilities. Pray excuse liui 
and scrawl, and believe me my dear Lord, 

Ever most truly Y' Friend, 



AT lW.Sii.U.. 

[ltnrivcl Not. 1790.] 

My Lord, fa* M j™. ». i 

. . . Itefore concluding this letter, we think it proper t" 
ol>serve, tluil «r Imve not been inattentive to the various letters 
from you rfUpftffjng the island i if Stilsette, and the wishes of the 
1'oonah Government to obtain the possession of it, and we are per- 
fectly aware of the expectations we have given you of nrcivitig 
particular instructions from us on tliat subject, but eiremiiMiiiieed 

> William Henrr Wnk Lord Cotmnllti to Baglanit, whtn 1k otriainol ■ nmntiHlnn 

i.mI i i apl* with Uiii nsqiinl, wd Mr. in llw uraiv. and J. Nor. ISiH. C1pL.11. .iU. 

WaUa, pnrttf owlnj lo bud Wllh. rctunwd Wart 1k.Il* l:.-ct. 


as we are, we feel it impossible to give any precise directions. Thus 
far we can say, that the island of Salsette does not appear in itself 
so essential to our interests, as to entertain a wish to keep that 
island if a proper equivalent is offered, but as nothing resembling 
a proper equivalent has yet been mentioned by the Marattas, we 
have of course no proposition before us upon which we can exercise 
our judgment or give a decision ; we do not even observe whether 
the proposition made by the Bombay Government, of obtaining in 
return for Salsette, the surrender of Broach, with the Maratta and 
Guicowar Chout at Surat, has ever been brought under serious 
S discussion. 

We enter fully into everything stated respecting the Cuttack 
country, and entertain no hesitation that if Salsette could any way 
be made an instrument in negotiation for obtaining that country, 
it could not be made subservient to any more proper purpose ; but 
your last letters gave us little reason to entertain expectations of 
that kind. Having therefore put you in possession of our general 
sentiments on this subject, it must rest with you to cultivate any 
opportunity that may offer of acting upon them. 

We have, &c. 
Minute of the Governor-General. 

Nov. 6, 1790. 

I know that the other members of the Board participated in 
my anxiety concerning the present state of the war with Tippoo 
Sultaun, and are equally apprehensive that the late occurrences in 
the country of Coimbatore, may be attended with several disadvan- 
tageous consequences to the public interest 

The general success of the operations of the southern army since 
the commencement of hostilities, and particularly the speedy reduc- 
tion of the important fortresses of Dindigul and Palacatchery, and 
the gallant behaviour of the detachment under the command of 
Colonel Floyd, 1 have undoubtedly occasioned great detriment to 
the enemy, and, in the opinion of all who are candid and know the 
truth, "have done singular honour to the British arms. It cannot 
however be denied that the retreat of Colonel Floyd's corps, and 
the loss of the artillery which he was obliged to abandon, have fur- 
nished the enemy with plausible means of imposing upon his own 

1 Colonel, afterwards General Sir John of Madras ; 2nd, July 29, 1805, Anna, dan. 

Floyd, BarL, so created Jan. 23, 1816, ofCrosbie Morgell, Esq., of Castle Morgell, 

Colonel 8th Dragoons; b. Feb. 22, 1748, d. and widow of Sir Barry Denny, Bart. He 

Jan. 10, 1818, m. 1st, Jan. 29, 1791, Re- was in action in Germany before he was 12 

becca Juliana, dau. of Charles Darke, Esq. years old. 


subjects and upon our allies, by laying claim to a victory, and the 
real interruption that has been given to the collection of provisions, 
and the loss of magazines that has been sustained by Tippoo's irrup- 
tion upon that occasion, will, I am much afraid, be attended with 
the bad effects of preventing our army from entering the Mysore 
country before the commencement of the Carnatic rains, and con- 
sequently of reducing it to a state of entire inactivity till the month 
of January next. 

I have the highest opinion of General Medows's zeal for the 
public good, as well as for his professional abilities, and I am per- 
fectly convinced that no exertion would be wanting on his part, in 
expediting every arrangement which may be necessary to continue 
without interruption, or to resume without delay, the execution of 
our offensive operations, which can alone produce an honourable 
termination of the war ; but if unfortunately our armies in the 
Carnatic should not be able to act before the beginning of January 
next, we should not only be under great difficulties to account for 
the delay to the satisfaction of our allies, but we should also have 
the most serious grounds for apprehension, that Tippoo would avail 
himself of that opportunity to turn his whole force against the 
Mahrattas and the Nizam, and endeavour either to weaken their 
power, or intimidate them into a negotiation for a separate peace. 

Under these circumstances it has appeared to me, that, exclu- 
sive of every measure that may be adopted for promoting our own 
offensive operations against the Mysore country in the beginning 
of January, it may be of great consequence to the public interest 
that some immediate steps should be taken, which may tend to 
animate and encourage our allies to persevere with firmness in the 
favourable disposition which they have lately shown to perform 
their engagements ; and although I am not vain enough to suppose 
that the military operations would be conducted more ably or with 
more success by myself than by General Medows, yet from the 
station which I hold in this country, and from the friendly inter- 
course which I have hitherto had the good fortune to maintain 
both with the Nizam and the Peshwa, I conceive it to be possible, 
that my presence in the scene of action would be considered t>y our 
allies as a pledge of our sincerity, and of our confident hopes of 
success against the common enemy, and by that means operate as 
an encouragement to them to continue their exertions and abide 
by their stipulations. 

I am aware that some inconvenience may arise by my absence 
from the seat of Government, and that the existing laws do not 
describe the powers which ought in such a case to be delegated by 


the Supreme Board to the Governor-General. But notwithstanding 
these objections, I am so fully impressed with the belief that the 
public interest will be on this occasion best promoted by my under- 
taking the direction of the war in person, that I have resolved, with 
the approbation of the Board, to proceed to Madras in the beginning 
of the next month ; and should the Board concur in opinion with 
me on the propriety and utility of this measure, I need hardly 
suggest, that it will become necessary to invest me with such powers 
as may be thought suitable to my station of Governor-General, and 
which may appear to be calculated to enable me to apply the whole 
force of the Company with energy for the prosecution of the war, 
or to avail myself with promptitude and effect of any favourable 
opportunity that may offer, for negotiating and obtaining an honour- 
able and advantageous peace. 

Enjoying as I do the high satisfaction of living on terms of cordi- 
ality and friendship,' both public and private, with my colleagues in 
office, and well acquainted as I am with their earnest desire to 
support my endeavours for promoting the public prosperity, I could 
not entertain a doubt, even if I had not formerly on a similar occa- 
sion been flattered with the most liberal declarations of their confi- 
dence, that the measures for the internal government of Bengal 
which I have hitherto pursued, and in the success of which my 
share of responsibility is great, will, during my absence, be uniformly 
supported and punctually executed. The completion of the settle- 
ment of the revenues upon the principles which have been already 
adopted, and adherence to all regulations that have been esta- 
blished, and a strict regard to economy in all branches of the 
public expenditure, are amongst the principal objects which I trust 
will command the attention of the members of the Board ; and from 
my knowledge of their disposition, I have the most implicit reliance 
on their communicating with me upon all points of internal business, 
in the manner that will best tend to promote the public good, and 
to preserve my authority in this Government 

The Members of the Council may on the other hand be assured, 
that I shall correspond and communicate my sentiments to them, 
with as much punctuality and expedition as the nature of the 
Service in which I am going will allow, and that I shall not only 
give an accurate detail of any material transactions or occurrences 
that may happen, but also endeavour to render a satisfactory 
account of every part of my public conduct ; I shall likewise on 
all occasions receive their advice and suggestions with all the 
attention and deference which is due to private friends, and to the 
acting Members of the Supreme Government. 



Earl Cornwallis to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas. 

DEAR SlR, Calcutta, Nov. 12, 1790. 

. . . The flattering prospect of a speedy and advan- 
tageous termination of the war, which I held out to you in my 
letter of the 8th August last, is now a little clouded. We have 
lost time and our adversary has gained reputation, which are two 
most valuable things in war ; I am afraid I was too much in the 
right, when I doubted the propriety of Musgrave's plan of attacking 
Trppoo's southern dominions. 

It is vain now to look back, we must only consider how to 
remedy the evil, and to prevent the ill effects which our delay may 
occasion in the minds of our allies. It immediately occurred to 
me that nothing would be so likely to keep up their spirits, and to 
convincQ them of our determination to act with vigour, as my 
taking the command of the army ; I have accordingly declared my 
intention of embarking for Madras in the first week of next month, 
and besides the 73rd Regiment, and a detachment o£ 12 or 14 
hundred sepoys, I mean to endeavour to transport in small vessels 
called dhonies, about the end of next month, our 1st Regiment of 
cavalry, completed to six troops by drafting the men and horses of 
the 2nd, three or four hundred horses for remounting the Madras 
cavalry, and one thousand large bullocks for the service of the 
artillery. If this attempt should succeed, of which I entertain but 
little doubt, the novelty and vigour of the undertaking will un- 
doubtedly have a considerable influence upon our friends and our 

Some inconvenience must necessarily attend my leaving Bengal, 
but the three Counsellors have all promised so fair, and Stuart has 
given me such strong assurances, that he will do nothing without 
consulting the official people in whom he knows I principally con- 
fide, that I flatter myself no material mischief will happen. 

It will give me great concern if a war with Spain should take 
place, not to be able to give any assistance, but I dp not at present 
see that it will be possible to do it, even in the most limited degree. 
I shall write more fully to Mr. Grenville on this subject, and in 
the hurry of business in which I am now engaged, I must refer you 
to my letters to the Court of Directors, for the business of this 
county. I am> & a> 



Eakl Corxwalus to the Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry. 

DEAR JAME8, Calcutta, Nor. 13, 1790. 

Our war on the coast has not succeeded hitherto so well as 
we had a right to expect Our army, the finest and best appointed 
that ever took the field in India, is worn down with unprofitable 
fatigue, and much discontented with their leaders, and the conduct 
of both Medows and Musgrave highly reprobated. In these circum- 
stances I have no other part to take but to go myself and take the 
command, and try whether I can do better: I shall therefore 
embark in little more than a fortnight for Madras in the Vestal 
frigate, with the melancholy reflection that I had hoped about 
that time to hare been bound for a happier port I have in this 
war everything to lose and nothing to gain, I shall derive no 
credit for beating Tippoo, and shall be for ever disgraced if he 
beats me. 

I send you a copy of a letter which I have written to Brome, 
which contains fully my sentiments about the future disposal of 
him, and I believe it agrees pretty much with yours, except that 
perhaps you would not have given so free a choice about the army, 
hot I remember what I felt at his age. Now, my dear James, let 
me beg of you to act with confidence about him, and if any other 
ctirumntances should arise, against which I have not in my direc- 
tion* provided, be assured that I shall approve of whatever you 
think right ; I gave carte blanche in my last about his shooting, of 
which you know I wish him to be fond, and I should hope that by 
degrees the great care about his health might be done away. 

. . . The measures which Administration ordered us to 
take in this country in the event of a war with Spain were wiso 
and spirited, and, if we had not b$en engaged in this odious contest 
with Tippoo, would probably have had a most decisive effect on 
the war, and put a great deal of money into the Commodore's 

. . . The Queen Indiaman was so long on her passage, tliat 
I received only a few days ago your letter of the 23rd of Feb. 
You tell me in it that I am accused of being remiss in my eor- 
rvspimdcnce with a certain i>ersonage. Nothing can be more false, 
t*Jt I have answered every letter from hiin by the first ship that 
•ailed from hence after I received it The stile of them, although 
pervmally kind to excess, has not been very agreeable to me, as 
they have always pressed upon me some infamous and unjustifiable 
jol*, which I have uniformly been obliged to refuse, and contained 
much gross ami false utilise of Mr. Pitt, and improper charges 

E 2 


against other and greater personages, about whom, to me at least, 
he ought to be silent. Your truly affectionate brother, 


Earl Cornwalus to Viscount Brome. 

MY DEAREST CHARLES, Calcutta, Nov. 16, 1790. 

I am convinced that we both looked forward with equal 
earnestness to an happy meeting in May or June next, but this is 
a world of disappointments, and instead of embarking with the 
prospect of embracing you and Mary, and enjoying the society of 
my nearest relations and best friends, my duty to my country 
obliges me to go to Madras, in order to take the field against 
Tippoo Sultaun, who has proved a more formidable enemy than we 
at first apprehended. 

The moment I can leave this country with honour, I will do it, 
and I am sure you would not wish me to do it sooner, in the mean 
time the thought that is nearest to my heart is how to dispose 
of you. 

I had always intended that you should stay at Eton till the 
Christmas holydays after you were seventeen, and it would be no 
great sacrifice to you to stay till the Easter following, which would 
be very near the time of my return, if the war should admit of my 
going home about January twelvemonth. 

I shall in the course of next summer be able to form a pretty 
good judgment how that is likely to turn out, and if there should 
at that time be appearances of my being still detained, the Bishop 
must ultimately decide what you are to do upon your leaving 

You will then be too young to lay aside all thought of improving 
your mind ; the question will therefore be whether you shall go to 
the University, or to some foreign academy, where you will learn to 
speak French and perhaps German, as well as the exercises of 
riding, fencing, and dancing, and be accompanied by your tutor, 
that you may not forget all your past studies ; I must own that I 
am not partial to the University. 

As I hope to be able to give you an easy fortune, I do not wish 
you to go into the army, especially as I have doubts of the strength 
and hardiness of your constitution, and I earnestly exhort you not 
to do it, unless you feel a decided and insuperable inclination for 
that profession, in which case I will not withhold my consent, for 
it is your happiness and not my own, that I am to consider. But I 


think it my doty to warn you, if you really mean to be a soldier, 
aud aspire to military reputation (without which I am sure you 
would not put on the idle trappiugs), that it is a thorny path, full 
of disappointments, and that I have had years of heart-aches, for 
momenta of gratification. 

You are a sensible Lad : reflect on what a most anxious Father 
ban said to you, and then decide for yourself. At any rate, if you 
shall determine for the Army, which I sincerely hope you will not, 
except under the circumstances I liave described, of your feeling so 
strong an impulse as to make it in your opinion necessary for your 
happineas, your doing so need not interfere with any part of the 
plan I liave mentioned, except your going to the University, for you 
may get a commission with a year's leave of absence to complete 
voor education. 

I shall tell the Bishop what I have said to you, and you will 
consider him as acting in every resj>ect for me, till I come home, 
with this only difference, that as he is not impelled by the same 
powerful bonds of nature which engage a Parent's heart, you have 
more obligation to him for his care and tenderness, and 1 am per- 
suaded vou will never fail in the most dutiful behaviour towards 

* lim - I am, my dearest Charles, 

Your truly affectionate Father, 


Karl Curs w alms to Sir William Jones. 

HlB, Calcutta, Nor. 17, 1790. 

I take the lil>erty of sending the Foujdary propositions, 
avrtmling to your obliging |M»rmission, and earnestly request that 
you will use no ceremony, with them, but scratch out and alter 
even- part that you do not approve. 

I iiliall consider it as a great favour, if you will give them as 
early a |>eru*al as possible, # for I am very anxious to put them in 
a way of coming forward, before I embark for the coast, and I have 
fixed Saturday or Sunday fortnight for my departure. 

I am, with the greatest esteem, &c, 


The feelings of the violent party in France had extended to 
Oie French settlements in India. In Muy, 1790, the inhabitants of 
Chandt-ruagurv liad formed themselves into a Committee, and had 


practically deposed the legally appointed Governor, the Chevalier 
de Montigny. 1 The Governor-General in Council did not choose 
to recognise this usurped authority, and refused to transact any 
business with this self-constituted body. 

The Comte de Conway and M. Dupuis, 1 to whom respectively 
as Governor and Intendant du Hoi, the management of the affairs 
of France east of the Cape of Good Hope was committed, had 
meantime represented to M. de Montigny, that without a supply 
of money from Bengal, it was highly improbable that they could 
maintain their authority over the troops in the Isle of France. 
M. de Montigny totally failed in raising money, but Lord Corn- 
wallis agreed to lend him, out of his private resources, 40,000 
rupees (4000?.). This sum proved insufficient, and the Supreme 
Council therefore agreed to advance 110,000 rupees, including the 
40,000 already paid. 

The Governor-General in Council to the Court of Directors. 

Honourable Sirs, Fort waiiam, Nov. n, 1790. 

We are concerned to inform you that the violent and un- 
authorized conduct of the Committee of the Inhabitants at Chan- 
dernagore, has forced us to interfere in their internal dissentions 
in a manner that we were very desirous to avoid. 

On the 3rd of September, a letter from Colonel Bie, the Go- 
vernor of the Danish settlement at Serampore, acquainted us that 
about four o'clock that morning, the house at Ghiretty, at which 
Colonel De Montigny, the Commandant of Chandernagore, had 
taken up his residence, had been surrounded by an armed force 
from that place, and that Colonel De Montigny and the other gen- 
tlemen residing with him, had been made prisoners. 

Although we had for some time winked at the breaches of 
treaty committed by the inhabitants of Chandernagore, in erecting 
works and mounting cannon at that place, yet we thought we 
could not, consistent with the dignity of this Government, submit 
tamely to the gross insult which they offered to us, in presuming 
to violate the Company's territory by inarching armed men over 
part of it, in order to cany their plan of seizing their countrymen 

1 Francois Emanuel Dehaies, Chevalier de 13, 1753, d. Jan. 7, 1832 ; Intendant du 

Montigny, a Lient.-General, Governor of Roi, 1789; First Secretary of Embassy at 

Chandernagore and the French possessions in Amiens, 1801 ; Governor of the Indian pos- 

Bengal, b. April 7, 1743, d. June 27, 1819. sessions of France, 1816 ; and died Pair de 

He had seen much service. France. 

a Andre 4 Julien Comte du Puy, b. April 


atGyretty House into execution. We therefore directed the Town- 
major the next day to proceed to Chandernagore, and deliver to 
the inhabitants, or to their Committee, certain declarations and 
propositions of this Government, for the purposes therein men- 

In order to show that we were in earnest in making these de- 
clarations, three Battalions of Sepoys were ordered to cross over 
from Barrackpore to Ghyretty, to be in readiness to proceed to 
Chandernagore, if such a movement should be necessary, after a 
fixed time given to the inhabitants to reply. 

On the 6th of September the Commanding officer of the detach- 
ment that proceeded with the Town-major to Gyretty, informed us 
that the President of the Committee of the French Inhabitants 
had communicated to him their resolution to put Colonel De Mon- 
tigny immediately to death, should the English troops march from 
Gyretty towards Chandernagore. 

On receiving this information, we again sent the Town-major 
to Chandernagore, with another declaration to the inhabitants of 
that place, the object of which was to prevent the perpetration of a 
crime so ivpugnant to every feeling of humanity. . . • 

A small French schooner, which was overtaken in the vicinity 
of Diamond Harbour, submitted to be searched without making 
any material resistance, and in consequence our orders were exe- 
cuted without injuring the vessel or any of its passengers or crew. 

Colonel De Montigny and three French gentlemen, who had 
bw»n taken at Gyretty on the 3rd of September, were found in 
confinement on board the schooner ; and as they were desirous of 
being released, they were set at liberty. Four other Frenchmen 
who had been taken on the same occasion were also found on 
board, but were left in the vessel, as they declared that they did 
not wish to be set on shore. 

In thus asserting your just rights, we have every reason to 
believe that we also did an act of great humanity, the wretched con- 
dition in *hich the prisoners were found, the crowded state of the 
srhooner, and the very scanty stock of provisions on board, totally 
dtupmportioned to the numlier of the crew, made it highly pro- 
bable, that not only the former, but a great part of the latter, would 
have fallen victims to this rash and unjustifiable undertaking of 
the French inhabitants. \\ e ar ? y £ Ca 


Sir William Jones to Earl Cornwallis. 

My LORD, Court Home, Nor. 20, 1790. 

The adjournment of the Court having given me . a whole 
day of leisure, I have spent the morning in reading, with great 
attention, your Lordship's minute on the administration of criminal 
justice in the provinces, and in perusing the papers which accom- 
pany it. I read them all with my pen in my hand, intending to 
write without reserve all objections that might occur to me ; but 
I found nothing to which I could object, and did not meet with a 
single paragraph to which, if I were a member of the Council, I 
would not heartily express my assent The power of pardoning, 
which (in para. 44) is reserved to the Court, should be always exer- 
cised, I think, by the Governor in Council in his executive, not his 
judicial, capacity ; and in para. 64 the words, which is always to be 
received with circumspection and tenderness^ are applied to the accu- 
sation, though I presume they were intended for the prisoner's 
confession. These are trifling remarks, but I cannot start one 
serious objection, and think the whole minute unexceptionably just, 
wise, and benevolent I am with great respect 

Your Lordship's ever faithful servant, 

W. Jones. 

Minute of the Governor-General, December 3, 1790. 

All material preparatory arrangements being now nearly 
completed, it is my intention to proceed on the 5th inst. in the 
yacht, to embark at Diamond Harbour on board the Vestal frigate 
for Madras. 

I trust that an honourable termination of the war in which we 
are now engaged will, before a long period elapses, admit of my 
returning to the duties of my station in Bengal. But I cannot 
forbear to avail myself of this opportunity of expressing the satis- 
faction that I feel of knowing that the management of the public 
affairs, will, during my absence, devolve upon colleagues in govern- 
ment for whose principles and public spirit I have the highest 
respect, and of repeating my strongest sense of the manly and 
liberal sentiments by which they have been uniformly actuated, 
since the infraction of the treaty by Tippoo Sultaun, in adopting 
and supporting every measure that has appeared to be calculated 
to vindicate and maintain the honour and interests of the Com- 
pany and of the British Nation. 


After tlie apprehensions which I entertained for Mr. Stuart's 
life, during the late crisis of his dangerous illness, I feel some con- 
solation for his absence this day, from the reasonable prospect which 
his present situation affords that his health will soon be completely 
re-established ; but I cannot avoid regretting that he is still unable 
to receive my assurances in person, that from my knowledge of the 
integrity of his principles, joined to the advantage of the experience 
which he has acquired in conducting the business of this Country, 
I consider his recovery at this juncture, as it mill fall to his lot to 
take the principal lead in it, to have been an object of no less 
importance to the public interests, than it has been a source of joy 
to his private friends. . . . 

The flattering marks of personal confidence and friendship 
«hich I have constantly experienced, both in my public and private 
capacity, from the members of the Hoard, have made the most 
buting impression on my mind, and claim my warmest acknow- 
ledgment I shall always think it fortunate when opportunities 
may offer to enable me to give convincing proofs of my regard and 
e*teem for them, and they may be assured, that they shall have no 
reason to alter the favourable opinion which they have hitherto 
expressed «f me, by any part of my future conduct. 

Earl Corxwallw to the Bishop of Lichfield axd Coventry. 

I >EAB JAME8, Calcutta, Dec 5, 1790. 

. . . To-morrow morning at daybreak I sliall embark 
for Madras, with a head full of care, and an acliing heart Although 
I ahall have no time to write long letters, you may de{>end ujkhi 
(laving a line from me by every possible opportunity. If Brome 
should decide for the Army, you will be so good as to s|>eak in my 
name to 8ir William Fawcett, who would immediately mention 
it to the King : it would be immaterial what corps he entered into, 
a* I would not have him join any regiment till my return. You 
ha\«* had so much trouble about all my affairs, that I should have 
U^u \ery sorry if y«»u luul given yourself any additional plague 
nUnjt tin* Suffolk election, but lions 1 was the only oue of the 
tanduiate* that I was the least anxious about, and when 1 men- 
tioned Hun bury to you, I only meant to convey, that, although it 

" Sir Join Kou«, 6th Bart., enat*d Lord WiUoo, Eaq., of Bilbo*, County Limerick, and 
Bern* Mar JS, 17W, and male Karl of Strad- 2nd, Feb. «23, 179*2, Chatlotte Maria, dan. of 

», Jaljr 18, lB.'l, b. U»j J<», 1736, d. Abraham Whittaker, Kaq. M.I*. for tht 
A a*. 17, 1*27, n. Ul, Jan. '26, 1788, Kranrrc Count y of Suffolk from <At. 1780 till he 
JultdAa, oaly daa. and heir of Kdward WarUr mad* a IVrr. 


was a bitter pill, as I think him a very unworthy representative of 
the County, still I believed I must be for him, for old acquaintance' 
sake, in preference to any new candidate. 

I shall now for some time think of nothing but the Mysore war. 
God send that I may get well out of that scrape ! My Bengal 
arrangements and the settlement of the revenue, have answered 
beyond my most sanguine expectations. 

I am, &a, 


Earl Cornwallis to Sir Charles Oakelet, Bart. 

SlR, Fort St. George, Dec 17, 1790. 

It has given me great satisfaction to learn since my arrival 
here, that the extravagant charges which have been made by the 
officers who have been entrusted with the expenditure of the 
public money, with the detachment that has joined the Nizam's 
army, has not only attracted the serious attention of this Govern- 
ment, but that several of the measures which appeared to me to be 
necessary for censuring and correcting abuses so miaous to the 
Company's interests, have already been adopted. 

I am not willing to impute the conduct of the persons con- 
cerned, to the worst of the motives from which it may be supposed 
to have proceeded. But if, instead of deliberate peculation, they 
may have only been guilty of a blameable inattention to public 
economy, I consider them as deserving of strong marks of dis- 
approbation ; and that, although the censure applies more particu- 
larly in the first instance to tie paymaster, who, in the different 
offices of which he performs the duties, has made the greatest part 
of the exorbitant charges, it also with the utmost propriety extends 
to the commanding officer of the detachment, who, instead of re- 
straining, gave a sanction to those charges ; and I am sorry to 
add, that such charges as have been made by the commanding 
officer of the detachment of artillery, have also had a very unsatis- 
factory appearance. 

I therefore recommend that those three gentlemen may be 
immediately recalled, allowing the command of the whole corps 
to devolve upon the senior Captain, and that of the detachment 
of artillery upon the senior artillery subaltern, until a Captain 
can be spared from hence for that duty ; and that a civil servant 
in whom you can confide, may be sent with all convenient despatch 
to replace the present paymaster. 


Your own zeal for the public good will suggest to you such 
steps as may be proper to take at a convenient time, for investi- 
gating the parte of the conduct of the gentlemen whom I have 
recommended to be recalled, that have appeared to be culpable, 
and I request that the gentlemen who succeed to their stations 
may be cautioned that it will be particularly expected from them, 
that they shall furnish no grounds for similar complaints against 
them, in the discharge of the duties of the stations to which they 
shall be appointed 

I have the honour to be, &c., 

Earl Cornwallis to Captain Kennaway. 

SlB, Fort St. George, Dec. 20, 1790. 

. . . The siege of Gopaul does not seem likely to be 
brought to a speedy conclusion ; but in other respects his Highness 
appears to be more in earnest than he has hitherto been in the 
prosecution of the war, and I trust that he will in a short time 
have reason to feel more confident 

The junction of our two armies and their march in pursuit of 
Tippoo to Tritchinopoly, has for a time left his Highness's opera- 
tions in Cannamore unprotected. But, although I would have you 
at first confine yourself to general assurances that I am determined 
to act with the utmost vigour, I think it right to inform you that 
I have directed General Medows to move immediately towards the 
centre of the Carnatic, and that I mean to march in two columns 
through the Western Passes, and, unless Tippoo chooses to fight, 
to begin my operations with the attack of Ossoor and Bangalore. 

The knowledge of my intentions will enable you to give advice 
with boldness, and you will disclose them by degrees, as the 
progress of our army shall render their concealment of less con- 
sequence. ... lam, &c, 

Major-General Medows to Earl Cornwallis. 

MY DEAR LORD, Camp near Tritchinopoly, Dec 21, 1790. 

I received your s of the 25th of November, with your 
Minute of Council yesterday ; as well as yours of the 15th of this 
month. * 


To receive your orders, to understand them, and obey them, 
are the same thing. I shall march the army to Trinomalee as 
soon as possible, and I hope to set out this day sennight. I think 
Caroor may be left as it is, and the garrison of Coimbatore, ex- 
cept the company of Topazzes, sent to Palghautcherry, and the 
garrison at Palizaut sent to CoL Hartley 1 or General Aber- 
cromby, two brigades shall be left at Tritchinopoly for the puiv 
pose you mention, or to make strong convoys if they should here- 
after be wanted. An escort I hope will return from Madura and 
Dindigul, with bullocks, with money and rice, and one from Tan- 
jore with your escort, which I have directed to escort your friend 
Buhcagee Kazonath, the Maratta vakeel, if he chooses to join here. 
We shall bring eight brass eighteen-pounders, and two iron ones, 
bringing all the grain and arrack we can. 

I wait to finish this for your explicit instructions which I 
expect to-day, and which, as soon as I clearly understand, I will 
implicitly obey. 

The Dindigul convoy is the only thing I know can detain me, 
and they ought to be here on Monday, and if so, we may cer- 
tainly march easily on Wednesday. 

Be assured I will exert myself to execute your plans as if they 
were my own, and be delighted should they prove the best| 

We both want nothing but success I 

Dec 21. 

I received your instructions yesterday, and would wish you 
should join your army before you divide it, that you may see the 
world of followers and baggage that I shall have to defend against 
his swarms of cavalry, with one regiment of dragoons. I have never 
thought our army or cavalry could be divided. I fancy we shall be a 
gpod deal more than thirty miles asunder, and Baillie was undone 
at eleven ; however you may be sure I will do my best and push 
for Sussoor while my rice lasts. I shall have but four iron 
eighteens, and I believe but seven brass. The Dindigul convoy 
may delay us a day or two, tut I hope nothing can prevent our 
being off by the first of the New Year at furthest. 

I am, &c/, 

Wm. Medows. 

1 Colonel, Afterwards Major-General James no farther step till his seniors who had been 

Hartley, b. 1745, d. Oct. 4, 1 799, unmarried, passed over should hare regained their former 

He had been in the Company's service, and position : in consequence he was taken into 

been promoted, for his distinguished conduct, the King's service, and made Lieut-Colonel of 

out of his turn, to be Lieut.-Colonel. Subse- the 73rd. 
quently it was ordered that he should receive 



Major-general Medows to Earl Cornwallis. 

MY DEAR LORD, Camp near Tritchinopoly, Dec. 26, 1790. 

I was fevoured with yours of the 22nd this day ; and shall 
comply with your aversion to brass eighteens. I have four iron 
and four brass, and shall send into Tritchinopoly two of the last 

I propose sending no more infantry with Colonel CockerelTs 
detachment, and all the cavalry but one regiment ; and then the 
Company's European battalion and two regiments of coast sepoys 
that are joined to Floyd's corps, and called the advance, as I 
think I have not afterwards, with but one regiment of cavalry, 
more than will be necessary to protect my baggage and artillery, and 
fight, if it should be necessary, the enemy ; but before I arrive at 
Trinomalee, I shall be able to receive your further instructions. 
I hope to march on Wednesday, and if not, am sure will do it on 
Friday. ... 

I wish to God you would meet us there. Oh ! to eclipse the 
brilliant action of Colonel Hartley ! 1 

Adieu ! my dear Lord, sincerely yours, 


W. Medows. 

Earl Cornwallis to Lieut.-Colonel 

£>EAB , * Fort St. George, Dec 29, 1790. 

It was with the greatest surprise and concern that I last 
night received your letter of the 24th, inclosing one which you 
had intended to have sent on the 22nd, and which from the former 
letter of that date which I had received, I had been induced to 
hope was for ever laid by in your drawer. 

I have little to add to what I said yesterday, 2 except to re- 

. mind you (if the instance of Pearse 8 had made any impression 

upon you) that Pearse did not come to the coast as an artillery 

officer, but as an officer commanding a brigade in the line. Had 

1 Colonel Hartley had, Dec. 10, 1790, with taken. Fumickabad surrendered in conse- 

one regiment of Europeans, two of sepoys, quence on the 12th. 

and 500 Travancoreans, 1500 men in all, * It has been thought unnecessary to print 

attacked and totally defeated a large corps of both letters. 

Tippoo's troops, 13,000 strong, near Calicut. 8 Colonel Thomas Deane Pearce, d. June 

Colonel Hartley lost 52, the enemy about 15, 1789. He was second to Hastings in his 

1000 killed, and 900, including their general, duel with Mr. Francis. 


he been considered as an artillery officer, he must have commanded 
all the artillery of the army. 

It is vain however for rae to expect that, in your present 
temper of mind, any reasoning I can offer about Duff 1 can have 
any weight with yon. 

Despairing to convince you, of what lam most perfectly con- 
vinced, that no offence has been committed against you, I hope 
that I am not too sanguine, when I flatter myself that you now 
believe that no offence was intended against you ; and if this hope 
is well founded, I must sincerely exhort you to reflect on the step 
which you are going to take, and to consider well whether it is 
worth your while, merely for the sake of giving a public mark of 
your resentment against me, who at least never intended to injure 
you, to sacrifice in so great a degree the interest of your country, 
and the honour of the Bengal army, in which you have spent so 
many of your best days. 

You cannot but be sensible of the pernicious effects which must 

attend your quitting the command of the detachment at this 

critical period, and how unfit the Major whom I named for the ser- 
vice, entirely in compliance with your wishes, and who has been so 
little accustomed to the native troops, would be to take your place. 

I hope never to be driven to the necessity of taking any public 
notice of your letter, and I certainly shall not do it till we meet 
In the mean time turn the matter well over in your mind, and 
put the question fcrirly to yourself, whether, if disaffection and de- 
sertion should prevail in your Brigade, it will not in your retire- 
ment give you many painful sensations to have been a principal 
cause of the failure of the campaign, and whether it may not be 
very possible that those who now encourage your ill-humour, will 
be the first to abuse you for leaving your post, at a time that your 
services were so much wanted. Believe me &c. 

Major-General Medows to Earl Cornwallis. 

MY DEAR LORD, Camp near Tritchinopoly, Dec. 29, 1790. 

We march to-morrow with four iron eighteens, and only two 
of your detested brass. I propose at present marching three days and 

1 Colonel, afterwards Major-General Patrick was called Tiger Duff, from having been se- 

Duff, of Hatton, Banff, d. 1803, m. Jan. 10, verely lacerated by a tiger, which he is said to 

1 794, dau. of Hay, Esq., of Blaireye. have squeezed to death. 

He was a large and very powerful man, and 


halting Sunday, and then marching the other five running, which 
will bring us to Trinomalee, where I shall expect your commands 
as to when I am to send off one division of the army to Arnee, 
and when to begin to march with the other division myself; the 
men carry ten days' rice, which is a great effort, for in general they 
carry but five, but by this exertion we shall have, when we arrive 
at Trinomalee, above forty days' rice for our fighting men. The 
followers, that is the allowed followers, Bet out with twenty, and 
where they will get more, God knows. 

Adieu, my dear Lord. The greatest blessing will be success ; 
God send it soon ; and may you ever believe me, what I must 
ever be, Sincerely yours and Boss's, 

Wm. Medows. 

Earl Corxwalus to Sir William Fawcett. 


Deab Fawcett, Fori st Gtorgc, Dae. so, 1790. 

I found the 14 th and 15th Regiments of His Majesty's 
Klectoral troops, which are in garrison at this place, so very weak 
as to tie by no means in a condition to answer the gracious inten- 
tions of His Majesty, when he consented to permit them to remain 
fur a time in this country, if it should be thought that their services 
could lie of use. 

The only mode that occurred to me of fulfilling His Majesty's 
wish**, was to direct Colonel Wagenheim 1 to re-enlist all the 
noldien* who could be prevailed upon to renew their engagements 
in the Hanoverian service, to serve for one year in His Majesty's 
14th Electoral Regiment, and to order the officers and staff of the 
Knli Regiment to return to Europe in the Company's ships of this 
season, with the invalids, and such men as refuse to enlist either in 
the Hanoverian or the Company's service. 

Colonel Wagenheim, who is a very respectable and zealous 
Officer, has executed my orders with earnestness and success, and 
wo nhall by these means obtain the services of a good regiment of 
about 7()0 men, completely and properly officered 

1 C«4#**l, afterwards Major-general Chris- been wounded and taken prisoner, and whom 

Xmfk Angus* to* Wajpahetm, b. Marco 2i, General Wagvahetm had taken into his own 

1741, 4. June -'», ltM"; m. after hi* return tent till he recovered. Genera] Wagenheim, 

fmaa lad*, a dan. of Baron Ldw Ton Stein- after a little consideration, said he remero- 

fnrtk. Whan Bemaaott* took pnaw— iiw of berad the riirnmatanoe, and ahonld be happy 

HaavMrr, (General Wagenheim among other* to know what had become of the sergeant. 

nil Wrst. Kernadotte asked him if about whom he had felt much interest. M That 
he had been present at the «ef* of Cuddalore, sergeant," *aid Bernadutte, " b now before 

Wing aawwerad in the amrmatire, it*jutml you, and will be too happy to piove he has 
af he moJUt^i a r'tench sergeant « ho bad not forgotten fotmer kindness." 


I am sensible that by acting as I have done, I hare gone a 
little beyond the letter of my instructions, but knowing as I do 
the anxious concern which His Majesty takes in the prosperity of 
every part of his dominions, and being sensible that the present 
state of our affairs in this country, could not have been foreseen at 
the time the orders respecting His Majesty's Electoral Regiments 
were sent from England, I considered it my duty to do what I 
thought best for the public service. If in the arrangement of this 
business, I have inadvertently acted in any respect contrary to the 
intentions or wishes of my Royal Master, I trust to his goodness, 
who well knows my zeal and devotion to his service, for forgiveness. 

I am, &c, 


Earl Cornwallis to Sir Charles Oakeley, Bart., and Council. 

GENTLEMEN, Fort St. George, Dec. 30, 1790. 

I deferred giving my sentiments on the subject of your 
letter dated the 19th ultimo, addressed to the Governor-General in 
Council, until I should see the report of the Committee which was 
appointed to examine and investigate the grounds of the complaints 
that were exhibited by his Highness the Nabob of Arcot, against the 
two Messrs. Hollond and their Dubash Paupiah, and which I was 
informed, upon my landing at this place, would soon be prepared. 

Having now perused that report, as well as the enclosures which 
you transmitted with the above-mentioned letter, I must declare 
that the reasons for believing that the two Messrs. Hollond and 
their agent Paupiah have been guilty of the flagrant acts of pecu- 
lation and corruption with which they have been charged, are so 
strong and convincing to my mind, that I consider it to be the duty 
of the Honourable Company's Governments in this country to take 
every step in their power to oblige those three persons, or either of 
them, to submit to the issue of a trial for those offences before a 
competent court of justice. 

The Court of Directors will take such measures as they may 
think expedient respecting Mr. John Hollond, who is now in Eng- 
land ; and it will be proper in you to consult the Company's Law 
officers on the most regular and effectual mode of proceeding to 
bring Paupiah to justice in this country ; but Mr. Edward John 
Hollond can be tried nowhere but in Britain for the crimes of which 
he has been accused, and his presence at home becomes indis- 
pensably necessary for that purpose. 

17*0. THE H0LL0NDS. 65 

My inclination would lead me to avoid making use of personal 
harshness towards Mr. Edward Hollond, as far as might be compatible 
with a due discharge of my public duty, and if it had appeared 
that tie had engaged a passage to England in any of the Honourable 
Company's ships of the season, I should have only proposed that 
your Board should have given an order in the secret department to 
the commander of that ship, after Mr. Hollond's embarkation, to 
hold himself responsible for retaining him in safe custody, and for 
not allowing him to land again, until he should receive instructions 
concerning him from the Court of Directors. But I cannot learn 
tliat Mr. Hollond has taken measures for returning to Europe in 
any of the Com|>any*s ships, and under charges of such enormity, 1 
doubt whether it would be justifiable in you to accept bail of any 
extent, for his surrendering himself in England ; and I do not think 
it proper, if it can be avoided, to put him under so close a confine- 
ment on shore in this climate, as would effectually prevent him 
from making his escape. 

My opinion therefore is conformable to the latter suggestion in 
your letter, that he should l>e compelled to embark in the first 
Company's ship that may be despatched from hence for Europe, 
and as the Rodney may be now hourly expected from Bengal, I 
recommend that measures may be taken by the Board, for securing 
Mr. Hollond's person, and for embarking him as soon as that ship 
comes to an anchor in these roads, in order that he may employ the 
period between the day of his embarkation and that of the destiatch 
of tht* ship in the arrangement of his private affairs ; and that you 
should alao render the commander of the Ifexlney responsible for 
keeping Mr. Hollond in safe custody, until the Court of Directors 
•hall give further orders respecting him after his arrival in England. 

I have the honour to be, &c, 


Earl Corxwalus to the Right Hon. Henry Duxpas. 

Dear Sib, Fort st. George, r*c. 31, 1790. 

My instructions to Medows and Abercromby, copies of which 
aiv enclosed in my letter to the Court of Directors, will explain 
my plan of o(>eration*. I shall, I am afraid, notwithstanding tho 
fftipplk* from Ilengal, find it difficult to procure a sufficient number 
of Itillocks, and gill more so of drivers, to carry on a projier l>at- 
t*-ring»train for our intended sieges, but I shall leave no ex|*»dient 
untried to effect it Tho western garrisons are so well stored 
VOL. 11. f 



Chap. XII. 

with grain, that I have no great apprehension of our being dis- 
tressed for that article, at least for oar fighting-men, provided we 
can make these sieges. 

As we appear to have full as many troops on this coast as, with 
our means of carriage, we can make use of, I have determined to 
send the 73rd regiment to Abercromby, and if from the evacuation 
of Coimbatore, and consequent reinforcement of Palacatcherry, he 
should get two or three battalions from the latter, I should hope that 
he may be in a condition to give us important assistance, and I 
think that we shall then have brought every man into active service 
that it has been possible to employ. 

I hope you will give Medows full credit in England for his 
generous and noble conduct on the trying occasion of my super- 
seding him in his command. I knew the excellence of his temper 
and of his heart, but he has really in this instance surpassed my 
expectations. It is besides but justice to him to observe, that, owing 
to untoward accidents, the first intelligence that he received of my 
coming was attended with the most mortifying circumstances, for 
although I had, out of delicacy, kept my resolution a profound 
secret for three weeks after I had written my intentions to him, it 
unluckily happened, owing to the interruption of the posts, that 
he first heard of it from the Madras Board. . . . 

I have not yet read the Report of the Committee, appointed 
to inquire into the Nabob's complaints against the Hollonds and 
their Dubash Paupiah ; l but I am told that several of the charges 
are clearly proved against them. The Military storekeeper, who 
purchased his office from them, is inclined to speak out, provided 
that the punishment for his share of the transactions should 
extend no further than the loss of his present employment, and 
that his pretentions for future preferment should stand upon his 
former good character; and I own that I feel much disposed to 
acquiesce in his terms, as it is of such infinite importance for the 
public benefit to bring delinquent Governors and Councillors to 
punishment, and, in this instance, to substantiate a positive proof of 
this most gross and pernicious species of corruption. 

The whole system of this Presidency is founded on the good old 
principles of Leadenhall-street economy — small salaries and im- 

1 Avndanum Paupiah Braminy. The du- 
bashes are a claw peculiar to the southern 
part of India, and act as stewards, interpreters, 
or cash-keepers, and in former times, occa- 
sionally as the medium of communication be- 
tween the British and native governments, 
•specially with the Nabob of Aroot Paupiah 

was one of the most eminent of his class, and 
had, in the palmy days of Benfield and others, 
made, by very corrupt means, a large fortune, 
which however melted away when the Carna- 
tic frauds and forgeries were investigated. 
He died, almost ruined, it is said of grief and 
vexation at his losses, Jan. 1809. 


mon*e perquisites, and if the Directors alone could be mined by 
it, everybody would say they deserved it, but unfortunately it is 
not the Court of Directors, but the British nation who must be the 

We must however put an end to the war before we can attempt 
any serious reform, and my thoughts for some months to come will 
I** wholly occupied in endeavouring to reduce the overgrown 
power of Tippoo. . . . I am, &c, 


F *J 

• » 



Arrival of Lord Cornwallis at Madras — Mr. Hollond sent to Europe — Movements 
of the army — Siege of Bangalore — Convention with the Marathas — Siege of 
Coimbatore by Tippoo — Successes of Lord Cornwallis — Inquiry into Mr. 
Hollond's conduct — Prospect of terminating the war — Conduct of the Nizam 
— Tippoo attacked and defeated — Offers to negotiate — Account of the cam- 
paign — Proposed Congress — Political situation of India — Debate in House 
of Lords — Votes of approbation in both Houses. 

Lord Cornwallis arrived at Madras Dec. 12, 1790, and, in the 
words of the Supreme Council, " his presence in the scene of action 
was considered by our Allies as a pledge of security and of our con- 
fident hopes of success against the common enemy/ 9 

Though the results of the last campaign had fallen short of the 
expectations entertained at its commencement, some objects of 
great importance had been attained. The forts commanding most 
of the main roads had been captured, and experience had pointed 
out the deficiencies which existed in the equipments of the army, 
and shown how they might best be remedied. 

During the whole of this campaign Lord Cornwallis wrote only 
two despatches to the Court of Directors on the details of his 
operations. These, necessarily of great length, are printed in the 
Appendix, and it is therefore advisable to give a slight sketch of 
the movements of the army, in order to render intelligible the 
letters addressed by Lord Cornwallis to his subordinate officers, to 
the Residents at the several Courts, and to the Government at 

On the 29th of January Lord Cornwallis assumed the command 
at Vellout, where the army had been assembled a few days before, 
and on February 5th moved towards Vellore. His intention was to 
besiege Bangalore, a place of very considerable strength, about 200 
miles from Madras ; but fearing that Tippoo, if he penetrated his 
designs, would lake possession of the passes through which he must 
necessarily ascend the Ghauts, he indicated an intention of moving 
by the passes of Amboor and Baramahal. Suddenly turning to the 
North and then to the West, he reached the pass of Moogla, and 
with his whole army took up his ground on the table-land of Mysore 
without losing a man, or even firing a single shot On the 5th of 
March Bangalore was invested, not without some opposition on the 


part of Tippoo's cavalry ; but the casualties on the side of the 
English did not exceed five men, and the whole of their stores were 
safely collected on the plateau. This successful operation, in 
which great military skill was exhibited, animated the whole army 
with confidence, and the stern repression of the first act of licentious 
pillage which occurred, effectually put a stop for the future to all 
similar outrages, and inspired the natives with such confidence, that 
the cultivation of the land was not interrupted, and on more than 
one occasion was carried on, even within half a mile of the British 
batteries while actually firing on the breach. 

The siege of Bangalore was steadily prosecuted without any 
untoward event, except that the indiscretion of Colonel Floyd (who 
was himself very severely wounded) brought on a sharp skirmish, 
attended with a heavy loss of horses, which could ill be spared from 
the weak numbers of the British cavalry. The pettah was stormed 
on the 7th of March with the comparatively small loss of 131 men, 
but among them was Lieut-Colonel Moorhouse, 1 commanding the 
artillery, who was killed at the gate. 

The stores of grain found in the pettah were of great import- 
ance, as they furnished food for the followers of the army, by that 
time in great distress for want of provisions ; but forage became 
very scarce, the cattle were daily dying of hunger, and the ammu- 
nition was nearly exhausted. The loss of the heavy guns would 
probably have followed the raising of the siege, which would have 
equally depressed the spirits of the British and encouraged Tippoo, 
and have rendered the prosecution of the war almost impracticable. 
Under these circumstances, Lord Comwallis determined to storm 
the Upper Town. On the night of the 21st, the troops advanced 
to the attack, and the storming party, though it did not amount 
to one-fourth of the garrison, surmounted all obstacles and tri- 
umphantly planted the British colours on the summit of the fort, 
notwithstanding that Tippoo's whole army, fully aware of the 
intended attack, was encamped nearly within gunshot of the place. 
One large detachment of the Nizam's cavalry, about 10,000 
strong, joined the English in April. Unfortunately their General, 
Tejwunt Sing, 2 a Hindoo, was totally incompetent for the com- 
mand, and was even suspected of being a traitor. So far from 
acting as skirmishers and reconnoitring the ground, his troops 

1 Colonel Moorhouae rose from the ranks, general respect, and his amiable character uni- 

and had become a most distinguished officer, versa! attachment ;" b. 1754, killed March 

To use the words of Colonel Wilks, " Nature 7, 1791. 

had made him a gentleman — uneducated, he * Raja Tejwunt Sing. He turned out to 

had made himself a man of science— a career be a most inefficient officer, if not worse, 
of uninterrupted distinction had commanded 


kept in the rear of the British army, and instead of foraging for 
themselves, they actually plundered villages within the English 
lines. Notwithstanding these impediments, Lord Cornwallis moved 
forward as rapidly as the exhausted state of his draught-cattle 
would permit, and reached Arikera on the banks of the Caveri, 
about 9 miles east of Seringapatam, on the 13th of May. The 
river had already begun to fill, and it was almost impossible to 
establish a safe communication with the other bank, an operation 
necessary to enable Lord Cornwallis to co-operate with General 
Abercromby, who was advancing from Bombay, and was then 
within 50 miles. Tippoo assembled his force to prevent the further 
progress of the English army, but on the 15th he was driven from 
all his positions with considerable loss, the Nizam's cavalry acting 
with some energy. But this victory did not remove the difficulties 
under which Lord Cornwallis laboured, and he was obliged to move 
towards the fords of Caniambaddy, nearly 20 miles distant, where 
he hoped to cross the river. Before he could reach it, it became 
evident that the equipments of the army were exhausted. The 
artillery for the last two days had mostly been drawn by hand, and 
the scarcity of provisions amounted almost to famine. Tippoo's 
cavalry had so completely cut off all communications, that Lord 
Cornwallis had no accurate information as to the progress of Ge- 
neral Abercromby's army, and was totally ignorant where the 
Maratha cavalry might be, but believed that they were at the dis- 
tance of some hundred miles. Added to this, the season was now 
so far advanced, as to leave little hope that, under the most favour- 
able circumstances, it could be possible to reduce Seringapatam 
before the commencement of the rainy season. Lord Cornwallis, 
under these circumstances, destroyed his battering-train and heavy 
baggage on the 22nd, having transmitted orders to General Aber- 
cromby to retrace his steps towards Bombay. On the 26th the 
march towards Bangalore commenced ; the difficulty of transporting 
the sick being so great, that the native cavalry was dismounted in 
order that their horses might be used for that purpose. Scarcely 
had the army moved from its ground, when a large body of cavalry 
made their appearance on the left flank. Instant preparations were 
made to receive this supposed enemy, when to the astonishment and 
satisfaction of all, the firing, which was commencing, was stopped 
by the exclamation of a horseman that it was the advanced guard of 
the Maratha army, and a few hours later, Hurry Punt l and Pur- 
seram Bhow 2 rode into the camp. So perfect had been the means 

1 Hurry Punt commanded the Maraihas in s Puraeram Bhow had long been a distin- 
the war with Tippoo in 1786 ; d. about 1794. guiahed officer in the scrricc of the Peahwa. 





employed by Tippoo in intercepting intelligence, that neither when 
at a distance, nor when within a few miles of his camp, did a single 
messenger despatched by the Marathas ever succeed in reaching 
Lord Cornwallis. Had they arrived but a few days sooner, the 
fate of the campaign would probably have been altered. Certainly 
neither artillery nor baggage would have been destroyed, and pos- 
sibly the siege of Seringapatam might not have been raised. No 
other native power ever equalled the Marathas in providing food 
and* forage for their own troops, and their habitual skill was in this 
instance most useful to the British. The Maratha bazaar, amply 
provided with food, furnished full supplies to the English army and 
its followers, but, according to the usual mercantile habits of that 
tribe, at almost exorbitant prices. 1 After remaining a few days 
in their position to cover the large convoys which were following 
the Maratha army, the English pursued their march, capturing one 
oar two insulated forts which impeded their movements. Before 
reaching Bangalore, a convention was entered into with the Ma- 
rathas, who were to receive about 150,000Z. as the price of their 
assistance. As the money could not easily be supplied from the 
Treasury either of Fort St. George or Fort William, Lord Corn- 
wallis took upon himself the responsibility of arresting the sum 
intended for the Chinese investment. Had any proof been required 
to show how judicious was the decision of Lord Cornwallis to take 
the command himself, this alone would have sufficed ; for no one 
but a Governor-General, confident that for private and political 
reasons he would be folly supported at home, could have ventured 
to take such a step, and without it, the alliance with the Marathas 
would probably have been dissolved. 

The operations of the other armies which had been intended 
to co-operate in the reduction of Seringapatam, were not very 
important. The Nizam's troops, to whom were added a British 
Contingent of two battalions of Sepoys, and some European 
artillery, after great delay invested Capool, October 28, 1790, but 
H did not surrender till April, 1791. Some other forts were also 
captured, and in that quarter Goorumconda alone remained in the 

monds of the first water to the silver earring 
of a poor plundered Tillage maiden, from 
oxen, sheep, and poultry to the dried salt 
fish of Concan ; almost everything was seen 
that could be presented by the best bazaars of 
the richest towns ; but, above all, the tables 
of the money-changers, overspread with the 
coins of every country of the East, in the 
open air, gave evidence of an extent of mer» 
cantile activity utterly inconceivable in anv 
camp excepting that of systematic plunderers, * 

He was mortally wounded and taken prisoner 
in Sept. 1800, in action near Putnnkoodee, 
against the Raja of Kolapoor and Chitour Sing. 
1 " The bazaar of a Mahratta camp," says 
Colonel Wilks, " presented an exhibition of no 
ordinary character, and to their famished 
visitors exhibited a picture of the spoils of the 
East and the industry of the West. From a 
web of English broad cloth to a Birmingham 
pmknifr, from the shawls of Cashmere to the 
second-hand garment of a Hindoo, from dia- 


possession of Tippoo. The Marathas, who were also supported by 
a British detachment, commenced in like manner the siege of 
Darwar, which held out from the beginning of January to April 
4, 1791. The surrender both of Capool and Darwar was hastened 
by the intelligence of the fall of Bangalore, though even the 
latter would have availed nothing, but for the courage and dis- 
cipline of the English contingents, on whom fell the whole weight 
of conducting both these sieges. The rapid movements of the 
Marathas brought under subjection the country north of 4he 
Toombuddra, and they joined Lord Cornwallis, as has already 
been mentioned, near Chercooli 

General Abercromby encountered no serious impediment in 
his march, and had reached, without loss, the Upper Ghauts, 
when he was ordered by Lord Cornwallis to retrace his steps. He 
accordingly buried his artillery, and fell back into the British ter- 
ritory. His movements had been materially aided by the Raja 
of Coorg, 1 whose history would at any time have been considered 
worthy of the age of chivalry. The whole tale is most romantic, 
and his character stands out in strong relief, as compared with those 
of other Eastern Princes. Throughout the war he was a most 
faithful Ally, and he received his recompense when the treaty of 
peace was signed. 

In the early part of the year Tippoo had, on more than one 
occasion, professed his desire to enter into negociation, and imme- 
diately after the retreat from before Seringapatam, opened fresh 
communications. Lord Cornwallis had previously insisted on re- 
ceiving written propositions from Tippoo, but he yielded to the 
representations of Hurry Punt, and agreed that commissioners 
should be appointed by each party. He therefore consented that 
duly authorized Ministers should proceed to Bangalore. Tippoo, in 
accordance with his usual policy, endeavoured to sow distrust among 
the Allies by opening a separate communication with the English, 
which he accompanied with a Khelaut, and a present of fruit To the 
intense delight of the whole army, who had no wish for peace, they 
saw the following morning the loads of fruit returning unaccepted. 

Another similar attempt was made in August, and Apajee 
Bam arrived on the part of Tippoo, but Lord Cornwallis, consider- 
ing that his own position placed him on an equality with Tippoo, 

1 Beer, or Vira, Rajindra, b. 1768,d. 1808. ants have sadly deteriorated from the Raja 

His daughter at first succeeded him, but was mentioned above. The misgovernment of a 

replaced by his brother Lingo, grandfather of later Vira Kajindra, the son of Singa, ren- 

the young Princess of Coorg who has em- dered his deposition an act of necessity. See 

braced the Christian faith, and is now (1857) Wilks's • Mysore' for the details about the 

residing in this country. The male descend- Raja of Coorg. 


would only treat with an envoy, through the intervention of a ple- 
nijxrtentiary on his own part Apajee Ram, whose instructions 
did not allow him to adopt this course, was therefore obliged to 
depart without having even obtained an interview. 

The months of July, August, and September, were spent in 
reducing the numerous Droogs, or hill forts, which studded the 
country and intercepted the communications of the army. Some 
fturrendered without resistance, very short sieges sufficed for the 
subjugation of the remainder, till the British forces came to Nun- 
dydroog, a granite rock of tremendous height, totally inaccessible 
on every side but one. It was defended by a large garrison under 
one of Tippoo's best officers, and yet such was the skill and cou- 
rage of the British, that it was taken by storm on the 19th of 
October, having been invested only 22 days. The total loss of the 
assailants was 120, of whom only 30 were killed or wounded in the 

The siege of Coimbatore by Tippoo deserves some notice. As 
the post had not been considered tenable, it was ordered to be 
evacuated, but Lieutenant Chalmers, 1 after removing everything 
valuable, thought he might be able to hold it, though the force 
under his command consisted only of 120 of an irregular native 
corps, and 200 Travancoreans under a young Frenchman, M. Migot 
de la Combe. s One 4-pounder and two 3-pounders formed the 
whole of his artillery. After two montlis of open trenches, the 
\Amce was assaulted, but the enemy were repulsed with great 
daughter on the 11th of August, and on the same day Major Cup- 
log*.*' arrived with a small force to relieve the place. He threw in 
»>me reinforcements, which raised the garrison to 700 men, but 
the siege was recommenced October 6, by a force of 8000 regulars, 
with a large body of cavalry and irregulars. Major Cuppage again 
attempted to relieve them, but failed in the endeavour, and Lieu- 
tenant ( *haliners was compelled to surrender November 3, when he 
obtain**! most honourable terms ; but they were grossly violated, 
and he and his brother officers were sent close prisoners to Seringa- 
|«itam. (outrary however to Tippoo's usual practice, they were 
veil tn*ati*d. I>onl Cornwall in hud strongly disapproved of the 
retention of ( oiinliatore, considering, justly as it proved, tliat it 
">uld not In* permanently retained. But he {Missed strong eulo- 
pums on tin* conduct of Lieutenant Chalmers, at the same time 

1 Linrteaant, afterwanfe Major-* leneral Sir he mukl not a*rrrUin whether he wm preatai 

J *a rb»ltwrm, K.<'.H. ( d. Marrh 31, IK 19. during the Mcuod siege, nor what ultimately 

* M*<v4 «4» U < ombr wm in thr *erric+ of b*aune of him. 
tW Nap of Travaooor*. He hrhartil with et- * M»>»r, atVrwanli Colonel John Cubage, 

gallaat/T. < oWl WUka state* that d. March SI, 1S34. 


Major Cnppage for not having taken move effectual 
measures for his reliet 

Every fort between the coast of Coromandd and Bangalore 
was now in the possession of Lord Corn wallis ; a few, and those the 
strongest, on the road towards Seringapatam, remained to be sub- 
dued. Of these the most important was Savendroog, called also 
the a Hill of Death," 1 situated upon a granite mountain, apparently 
inaccessible from below. The circumference at the base is eight 
miles, and at about two-thirds of its height the rock is divided into 
two citadels, quite independent of each other. The siege began 
December 10, and on the 21st at midday the assault was ordered. 
A lodgment had been effected close to the breach, and the troops 
escalad^d a precipice on the eastern side, so steep that, when the 
storm was over, they were actually afraid to descend it. The 
rapidity and impetuosity of their advance was such, that they 
entered the western citadel along with the fugitives. Not a single 
European soldier or sepoy was killed on this occasion. Ootradroog 
was next invested. In it were seven distinct lines of ramparts one 
behind the other. It was attacked the day following the summons, 
some of the gateways were blown open, but most of the lines were 
oscaladecL A few wounded were the only casualties attending the 
capture of this important place. 

The Marathas had not been as prosperous in their under- 
takings. They had besieged Gorumcoonda for some time, and 
although, with the aid of some British artillery, they had been 
able to capture the pettah, they were afterwards driven out of it 
with severe loss. 

The attention of Lord Cornwallis had been so engrossed with 
his military operations, that he had little time to devote to civil 
arrangements ; but it will be seen that he did not neglect that part 
of his duty, though all material questions were postponed to 
another year. 

Earl Cornwallis to Charles Warre Malet, Esq. 

SlB, Fort St. George, Jan. 3, 1791. 

. . . The answer given by the Durbar to Tippoo's pro- 
posals was as satisfactory as I could reasonably expect, but I 
should wish in future that it might be agreed between the con- 
federate powers, that if overtures should be made from Tippoo to 
one of them, the party to which he may address himself should 

1 From the insalubrity of the vicinity. 


require specific proportion* from him, and refer them to the Allies 
for their sentiments before any answer is returned. . . . 

After what has passed between Nana Furnaveze and yourself, 
relative to his leading the Peshwa to the field, the decision must 
now rest with the Minister; but in the mean time, you should 
urge his making every amends in his power, even for the sus- 
pense, by using the utmost exertions to increase the armies in 
the field. I take it for. granted that Hurry Punt will act with 
fidelity if Nana earnestly requires it, but I must desire that you 
will tell the latter from me that, although I cannot be supposed, 
after the implicit confidence which I have so often placed in his 
honour, to suspect that he would employ any Chief, whom he 
believed to be adverse to the general interests of the confederacy, 
y**t as it is known throughout Hiiulostan that Kasta 1 1s the friend 
tif Tippoo, I conceive that it must damp the ardour of the soldiers, 
and be highly prejudicial to the common cause, to suffer a near 
relation of his to attend the army, and that I am under the neces- 
sity of objecting against it in the strongest terms. . . • 

I am glad to find that you have been able to set Colonel 
Frederick* in motion. I have no personal acquaintance with 
him. but I have been told that his temper is violent and ungo- 
vernable, (tenoral Alx k rcrom)>y lias promised me to recall him 
if he should have any disagreement with the Mahrattas, and I 
must dt*iiv tliat you will give the General the earliest informa- 
tion of the apfieanuico of any symptoms of ill humour between 

t,,,m - • • • lam, Ac, 


Eael Corxwallxs to Captain Kkxxaway. 

SlB, F"t &• <'«"£«, Jan. 3, 1791. 

The tardiness of the arrival of the reinforcements from 
lU-npd, and eHjHM'iiilly of the bullocks for our battering-train, 
without which our entering the Mysore country could be attended 
mitli no solid advantages, will occasion considerable delay in the 
rt»tnni«'iie<*!ii<'tit of our mareh. But you may with confidence 
a*»urv the Nizam that not a moment's time shall bo unnecessarily 
(•*t. and. without making too early a communication of the exact 
i»bj*<eU of my plan, you will continue to encourage him to expect 

1 KwtM, or MaJbo fUo Italia, impri***d * <*<»luoel Charfe* Frctforu-fc, too uf Sir 

fc? tfc* !V*wa in IKmI. Thu fomilr wm (*h»H« Kmtrnrk. K.R., b. Oct. », 1748,4. 
•*r *4 th* pnaa|«l Jaghcdtf* under Um ftUrch 13, 17V1, uuutrricd. 


the most complete and efficacious co-operation, and yon may add, 
that, as soon as I enter the enemy's territories, I will endeavour 
to communicate with the different Chiefs, who, I should hope, 
would be likewise instructed to write to me, and that if at any 
time I should think it for the advantage of the common cause to 
join a body of our troops to any of the confederate armies, I shall 
most readily adopt that measure. 

I have great doubt, from what you say, whether any essential 
benefit would be derived from the Nizam's taking the field in 
person, and it must be a matter of the most serious consideration 
both for the Minister and for yourself, whether the risk of losing 
part of his influence with his Master by his absence, might not 
outweigh any good consequences that would be likely to issue from 
his presence Vith the army. 

My own wish would undoubtedly be, that the Minister would 
take the command of the army in person, as I should then feel a 
confidence that its operations would be supported by the whole 
power of his Highness's Government ; but you may inform Azeem 
ul Omrah, that, after taking my suggestions into consideration, I 
shall leave the decision upon that point entirely to himself. 

Yours, &c, 


Major-General Medows to Earl Cornwallis. 

[Secret. Received Jan. 6.] 
MY DEAR LORD, Camp at Worrangoor, Jan. 4, 1791. 

Here we are without any let, check, or impediment, — the 
Maratta Vakeel admiring very much (indeed it was the only thing 
he seemed to admire, though Irode him along the whole line) the 
ease with which the four iron 18-pounders were got over some diffi- 
cult places. 

That we may surmount all difficulties as easily, and of which I 
have no doubt after you join us, is the sincerest wish of him who 
is, in the sincerest manner, 

Most truly yours and Boss's, whilst 

Wm. Medows. 


Major-General Medows to Earl Cor^walus. 

MY DEAR LORD, Camp at Pannadoor, Jan. 7. 1791. 

I received youre of the 31st yesterday ; and am not a little 
happy that my letter must have anticipated your wishes with 
regard to my intentions. 

I received yesterday a letter from General Abercromby, and 
one from Colonel Hartley. Cannanore surrendering so soon proves 
Tippoo defends places no better than he attacks them. 

He is ambitious, and may be a great statesman, which I doubt, 
bat I deny that he is a warrior or a hero ; and I mean that the 
three Governors, the Nizam, and the Peshwah, should dine at 
Seringapatam, with the old Queen of Mysore 1 sitting at the he&d 
of the table. One is just as likely as t'other, but it is more than 
likely we may crush this disturber of the public peace, if it is not 
sounder politicks only to cripple him; but for my own part I 
freely confitts I should prefer the dignity and justice of dethroning 
this cruel tyrant and usurper, and restoring the kingdom to the 
Hindoo family — the lawful owner — to the wiser policy perhaps of 
only clipping his wings so effectually that he could soar no more in 
oar time. In the mean time 

I am ever yours and Ross's, whilst 

Wm. Medows. 

To Mekr Muotval Dees" (Sted Sahkb). 

Jan. 17, 1791. 

Ii<>nl Cornwallis has received your letter dated the 1st of 
Jamadi ul Awal, and has understood its contents. 

He directs me to say in answer to it, that Tippoo Sultann well 
knows that it has been his earnest desire, since he has had the direc- 
tion c if the affairs of the English Company to adhere strictly to trea- 
ts*, and to live in peace with all the neighbouring states ; and that 
it was the flagrant violation of the articles of the late treaty of peace 
that Tippoo committed, by the unprovoked attack which he made 
apem the Itajah of Travancoro, the Ally of the Company, that 
obliged him, after having tried every conciliatory proposition in 
vain, to draw the sword in defence of a Prince who had a right by 
Uvaty to claim his protection. 

r, Am. of Copaad Raj, and widow 1 799, on the death of Ti|»poo. 
»4 Chmm Kaj whan HyAr had deihroonl m > lf«*r Mijunal Itoro, or Syad Sahrb. Ht 

17*»3. Cntani Kaj't m bri prrriou* wife was a relation of Tippoo, and wa» kUkd May 
4m4 in 1794, baring a chlki :$ jmn okt, who 4, 1799, at tbt ftorm of &ringaj«tam. 
" latha tarontof hfe anewton in 


The innocent inhabitants of both circars must unavoidably 
•offer much distress daring the continuance of the war, which 
is a subject of great concern to Lord Cornwallis, although the 
blame and responsibility rests solely with the aggressor ; but he 
desires me to remark, that, whilst the English troops abstain from 
all violence against defenceless people, and direct their efforts 
against armed enemies only, the Tillages that are in flames and 
die mangled carcases of the wretched ryots which are spread orer 
the face of the Carnatic, exhibit a very different scene, and render 
Tippoo peculiarly accountable for carrying on war with a cruelty 
which can produce no advantage to himself bat which' disgraces 
human nature. 

Lord Cornwallis likewise directs me to add that he should be 
happy to see peace restored, when reparation can be t)btained for 
the losses and injuries which the English and their Allies have 
suffered, but that it could answer no useful purpose that either side 
should depute a person to the other to treat on the terms of peace, 
until certain preliminary conditions can be settled. When he was 
forced into this war, Lord Cornwallis thought it proper to form 
alliances with other powers, who had likewise sustained great losses 
and injuries by the violence and ambition of Tippoo and his 
Father; and as he is a faithful observer of his engagements, he 
cannot now agree to any terms of peace until those Allies, as 
well as the English, shall obtain ample indemnification and 

If Tippoo has any propositions to offer, Lord Cornwallis will 
not decline to receive them in writing directly from himself, and, 
after having transmitted them for the consideration of the Allies of 
the Company, and having obtained their opinions upon them, he 
will return an answer. 

Earl Cornwallis to Captain Kennaway. 

SlR, Fort St. George, Jan. 18, 1791. 

. . . I was glad to see that my intended plan of opera- 
tions was received with so great satisfaction by the Nizam and his 
Ministers, and their strong expressions of confidence and offers of 
directing the movement of their troops, according to the instruc- 
tions they may receive from us, give us reason to be convinced of 
their sincerity. 

A general systematic arrangement for directing the efforts of 
the Confederacy would no doubt have been desirable, but when the 


armies of the three combined powers advance into the enemy's 
country, circumstances must unavoidably produce a general co- 
operation, although no precise plan should have been previously 
concerted for that purpose ; and in the mean time we must bear 
with their dilatoriness and jealousies of each other, as I do not 
think it would answer any good purpose for us to press the Courts 
of Poonah and Hydrabad further, to do what the former does not 
appear earnestly to wish, and what the latter seems determined to 
avoid, — I mean a junction of their forces. 

Our plans will admit of our exceeding the expectations of both 
these powers, as instead of furnisliing only an additional detach- 
ment we shall be in a situation to support them with our main 

• rm y- • • • I am, Ac, 


Gccxral Mkdows to Earl Cornwajllis. 

MY DEAR LORD, Camp at Stn«penn«loor, Jul 26, 1791. 

We are here without anything extraordinary, after a longiah 
j**gtg march, and we go to Yellout to-morrow, where I expect 
yourself or your orders. Endless are the applications for going to 
tb«* f ^residency, which I refuse without exception till I see you or 
b***r from you upon the subject But if I do neither to-morrow, 
Floyd is so im|iaiient to be married to Hiss Darke, 1 that though 
Im* st*« through her, as we always do before marriage, " as through 
a # lass darkly," yet as I think Abradate * so worthy of Panthee, 
I nhall make him an exception and let him go. , . . 

And I am ever yours, Ac., 

Wm. Medows. 

Earl Corxwallis to the Right Hox. Hexrt Dusdas. 

I >EAB SIR, Fort 5H. Goot^, Jan. 27, 1791. 

The calm and southerly winds which, contrary to the order 
<>f tilings, have ho cruelly prevailed for these last five or six weeks 
in the Iky of tiengal, and hitherto disappointed us of the greatert 
part of our cavalry and bullocks, have likewise greatly retarded 
the arrival of the Rodney, and given me an opportunity of sending 
you a few more lines by that conveyance. 

}^L ^- ^ *»'*?• «* » » Two chrctm in M«W <*„ Scod-f* 
ctoHnm, of wbom out vag mnncc of • Akames*, oo to CJmud Cft—* 



Chap. XIIT. 

The army arrives this day in the neighbourhood of Poonamale, 
where I mean to join it on the 29th, and hope to begin my march 
on the 3rd. I flatter myself that if things go tolerably right' I 
have time enough to take Seringapatam before the rains, but there 
is not much to spare. 

Stuart is doing vastly well in Bengal, and Cooper, who knows 
that I opposed his nomination, has acted a most honourable part, 
and consults on all points with those whom he believes to be best 
acquainted with my sentiments, so that I feel confident that nothing 
will go materially wrong in that country. When I see Medows I 
will press him to speak out, and to determine on no account to 
depart from his word about his stay in Bengal. Stuart talks of 
going home next season, and every care must be taken to keep 

from being temporary Governor-General, for although he is 

perfectly honest and disinterested in all pecuniary matters, yet he 
is so eccentric and so unfit for any kind of government, that he 
would as effectually ruin the country as a Eumbold l or a Hollond. 

I trust you will exert yourself in Duncan's favour, in the event 
of Stuart's going home ; remember that I speak not for Duncan, 
but for the public. 

I have sent you Mr. Edward Hollond, whom we were obliged 
to embark with the appearance of force, and in such horror and 
detestation is he held in this settlement (which God knows is 
many degrees from correctness) that no European attended him to 
the boat, or showed him the least countenance, as is commonly the 
case when under the hand of power ; but he walked to the beach 
leaning on the neck of the brother of his Dubash Paupiah. 

I am, &c., 


Earl Cornwallis to Captain John Kennaway. 

SlR, Fort St. George, Jan. 28, 1791. 

. . . Acquainted as I am with the general character 
which His Highness bears of a propensity in his disposition to 

1 Sir Thomas Rumbold, Bart., so created 
March 23, 1779, b. Jan. 1736, d Nov. 10, 
1791. He married three times, 1st, a Miss 
Berriman, 2nd, a Miss Price, 3rd, April 28, 
1772, Joanna, dan. of Edmund Law, Bishop 
of Carlisle. Governor of Madras from Feb. 
1778 to April, 1780. The supposed pecula- 
tions of Sir Thomas were brought under the 
notice of the House of Commons, and a bill 

was introduced in 1782 to sequestrate his pro- 
perty, and to prevent his leaving the kingdom, 
and was renewed, with some modifications, in 
1783; but all proceedings against him were 
ultimately dropped. M.P. for Shorehara from 
Dec. 1770 to 1774. Elected for Shaftesbury 
in 1774 and 1780, but unseated both times 
for bribery ; and for Yarmouth, Isle of Wight, 
from April, 1781, to March, 1784. 


intrigue and procrastination, I must acknowledge that his zeal in 
the prosecution of the war, and the readiness, which he has shown 
of late to allow his operations to be guided by my advice and 
recommendation, have given me particular satisfaction ; but I must 
at the same time confess that I have felt no small concern at the 
frequent symptoms of jealousy and heat which he discovers in his 
discussions with the Mahrattas, because a coldness, and still more 
a declared difference, between those two powers would be extremely 
embarrassing to me, and prove highly detrimental to the general 
interests of the Confederacy. 

My wishes undoubtedly were that there should not only have 
been a general co-operation amongst all their forces, but in par- 
ticular that they should have cordially agreed in forming an united 
army, nearly upon the plan that was proposed by the Poonah 
Government, at the time that Hurry Punt was ordered to take the 
field, and I was only induced to desire that the latter measure 
should not be pressed upon them either by Mr. Malet or yourself, 
from my having considered the nomination of Basta to attend 
Hurry Punt, and some other circumstances, as marks of a want of 
earnestness on the part of the Mahrattas, and from His Highness's 
aversion to allow any part of his troops to act with Hurry Punt 
being so openly avowed. ... I am, &c., 


The Secret Committee to Earl Cornwallis. 

[Received Jan. 31, 1791.] 
My LORD, East India House, Aug. 4, 1790. 

You will observe by the enclosed copy of our letter to Sir 
Charles Oakeley, that we have directed an inquiry to be made into 
the various acts of corruption that are said to have been committed 
by Mr. John Hollond during the time he filled the Chair at Madras. 
It has been rumoured that representations have been made to 
your Lordship, by some respectable person or persons resident at 
that settlement, upon the same subject, with an offer to come for- 
ward and substantiate the charges, provided they were previously 
assured of your Lordship's support. We desire therefore that your 
Lordship will aid the present inquiry, by affording every possible 
encouragement to the persons who have thus voluntarily offered 
evidence in support of the charges, and by such other means as 
shall, in the opinion of your Lordship, facilitate the object we have 
in view, that of vindicating the national character by punishing 

VOL. II. o 


the offenders by a due course of law, transmitting to us the result 
of your inquiry by an early opportunity. 

We are, &c. 
Earl Cornwallis to Stephen Lushington, 1 Esq. 

SlB, Camp at Velhout, Feb. 4, 1791. 

I have received by the John Packet your letter dated the 

16th of September last, respecting Mr. . You will have seen 

in the general letter transmitted by the Princess Amelia, the 
answer of the Board to the paragraph to which you allude. It was 
painful to us to give such an answer, and it was difficult in a public 

letter to be sufficiently explicit ; but the truth is, that Mr. 

is so very eccentric, and has led so strange a life, and been in such 
a state of apathy for several years, that he is absolutely unqualified 
to hold any efficient office, and there are no offices now on the 
Bengal establishment worth his holding, that are not efficient 
I beg leave to assure you, Sir, that I lament very much that 

Mr. 's habits and propensities have put it out of my power 

to give a public proof, by a ready compliance with your recom- 
mendation, that I am not insensible of the civilities which I 
have received from you since I have been connected with the East 
India Company, and to mark my respect for the character of his 
Father, lam, &c, 

Earl Cornwallis to Majob-General Musgkave. 

SlR, Camp at Vellout, Feb. 4, 1791. 

As it is possible that Tippoo may move with his whole force 
to Madras, and make an attempt upon the Black-town, as soon as 
our army has proceeded four or five days on its march to the west- 
ward, I wish you to detain the detachment of the 73rd Kegiment 
which is destined for the Malabar Coast, until some judgment can 
be formed of the enemy's intentions. Whenever you shall receive 
advice that a considerable part of Tippoo's force has moved to the 
westward or southward, you will please, without loss of time, to 
embark the detachment on board the Queen Indiaman, to join 
General Abercromby at Tellicherry. 

1 Mr., afterwards Sir Stephen Lushington, M.P. for Helston, St. Michaels, Penryn, and 

Bart., so created April 26, 1791, h. June 17, PJympton, from Nov. 1790 to April, 1807. 

1744, d. Jan. 12, 1807, in. 1771, Hester, An East India Director for many years, and 

dau. of John Boltitro, Esq., of Aspenden Hall. Chairman 1790-91, 1795-96, 1799*1800. 


Should I have occasion to order any movement of the troops 
stationed to the southward of the Coleroon, I will endeavour to 
give you the earliest notice of it In the mean time you will re- 
commend it to the Board, to dispose of those troops in the manner 
that you may think best for the protection of the country, or to 
bring a part of them to the northward either by land or water, if 
the latter can be done without violence to their religious prejudices. 

If a rupture with France should take place, you will keep a 
watchful eye on everytliing that is going on at Pondicherry, and 
prevent as much as possible any communication between the 
< rtivernor and Tippoo ; but as the force left in the Carnatic will 
not be calculated for undertaking a regular siege, I cannot hope 
that you will be able to make yourself master of the place, unless 
an opening should offer for attempting a surprise, or it could be 
effected by the means of intelligence and assistance from discon- 
tented people in the garrison. 

I need hardly add, how earnestly I wish that you may live on 
the most friendly terms with the Government of Fort St George ; 
and as I know Sir Charles Oakeley to be as anxious as yourself, or 
as any man, to promote the public good, I am sanguine in my ex* 
peetatkms that no material difference can arise between you. I am 
persuaded that you will have no wish to interfere with any of the 
patronage or |x>wers which have been usually exercised by the 
Hoard ; and although your duty will be to offer such representations 
and advice, as in your judgment shall appear best calculated to for- 
ward the public sen ice, yet that you will always recollect that as 
tho ultimate responsibility is with the Civil Government, it is also 
inmimbent u[>nn you to acquiesce without anger or murmur in their 
ofiinioti, when it happens to differ from your own. 

I havo the honour to be, <£c, 


Earl Corxwalus to Captain Kbxkawat. 

SIR, C*mp at Veilorv, F«b. 12, 1791. 

AfW completing my battering-train, I propose to move on 
the 1 1th iiifft.. by Cliittoor and Hoogly; and I expect to ascend 
the pass, whi<h is not fifty miles distant from hence, on the 20th 
or 21st 

The head of the pass is about 110 miles from Bangalore, to 
which place I shall immediately direct my march, and which I 
hope to invest by the 5th or 6th of next month. It may not lie 

u 2 

84 LORD OORNWALL1S. Cha*. Xin. 

amiss, as a lesson to our friends, that you should observe how punc- 
tual I have been to the time which I mentioned two months ago. 

I shall endeavour to communicate with Assud Ali Khan 1 by 
the help of the friendly Polygars, and in the mean time I wish you 
to encourage him to come towards us, as he will be very useful in 
preventing Tippoo's irregular horse from cutting off our supplies, 
and he can always retire upon our army, whenever he apprehends 
that he is likely to be attacked by a superior force. 

I am, &c, 


Earl Cornwallis to Captain Kennaway. 

SlB, Camp, Palimaneve, Feb. 21, 1791. 

On the day before yesterday, a letter was brought to me 
by a person of some consequence, attended by a camel Hircarrah 
from Tippoo himself, nearly to the same purport as that which 
was written to me by Seyd Saheb, and to which I shall give nearly 
a similar answer. 

In the mean time I have dismissed the bearer of the letter and 
his attendants, and returned a Ehelaut which he likewise brought 
for me. And as soon as I shall judge it expedient to despatch 
an answer, I shall transmit to you and to Mr. Malet copies both 
of it and of the letter, to be communicated to his Highness and 
to the Peshwa's Ministers. 

I am perfectly sensible of your zeal and good intentions in 
proposing that the Minister's son should be invested with that 
command. But as an unexperienced young man would be inca- 
pable of conducting an army without the assistance of some of his 
subordinate officers, and as it is not certain that he would allow 
himself to be guided by those of the best abilities and most honour- 
able principles, I am inclined to think that upon the whole, it 
would be most convenient for me that such a man as Rajah Teije- 
wunt is described to be, should remain in that command, and you 
will therefore regulate yourself accordingly, in case the subject 
should again come under discussion. . . . 

You will press the Nizam to enforce my request with positive 
orders from himself, and you will explain to his Highness, as I have 
done to the officer commanding the army, that the reason for 
limiting my request to cavalry, is principally because this army is 

1 Assud Ali Khan was next in command to Lord Cornwallis, as he had betrayed the 
Tejwunt, but was an object of suspicion to English at the battle of Ali vera. 


amply provided with infantry and artillery, and that it is also a 
material consideration with me, that the movement of cavalry alone 
may be no rapid, as to render it almost impossible for the enemy to 
obstruct our junction, I ^ ^ 

Earl Cornwallu to the Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry. 

Camp at Pallenumera, Feb. 23, 1791, 7 milea 
DEAR J AMIS, to the weetward of the Ghaut*. 

I take this opportunity, which will probably be the last I 
shall have tliis season, of informing you that everything hitherto 
has gone as prosperously as I could wish. I have brought all my 
heavy artillery and stores over the mountains without any acci- 
dent, and to-morrow I shall begin my march for Bangalore, and I 
hope for Seringapatam. 

We have changed our climate very much since we ascended 
the Ghauts, and have got, what to me is a great comfort, cold 
nights. Our thermometer rises 30 degrees from five in the morning 
to one in the afternoon, from 66 to 96 and upwards ; l tliis morning, 
which was remarkably cold, it was down at 60 ; these great and 
sudden changes have not yet affected the health of our men, but I 
am mit without my apprehensions on that score. Two or three 
months must probably bring this war to a crisis, and I shall then 
be able to form some judgment about the time of my going home. 
The winding up of the business, and settling the claims of our 
Allies, as well as our own, must be a work of time, and can only be 
dune by me ; Mcdows likewise speaks very doubtfully about going to 
Bengal, and unless he could bring himself to pay much more attention 
to business than he has hitherto done, I can hardly advise or wish it 

Give my love to Brome and Mary. Tell the former I wish he 
could see the elepliants helping the heavy cannon through bad roads 
with their forehead and their trunk; you may assure Charlotte • 
that Charles Madan s is in health, and in every respect just what 
his most anxious friends could wish him. 

Believe me to be, your truly affectionate Brother, 


» The ranatioc tn often much greater, wallia, b. Jan. 29, 1756, d. March 11, 1794, 
The t'ditor hat beard from hit rather, wboat m. April 8, 1756, (for. Spencer Madan, after- 
tent wat of count very large and kept at ward*, 179*2, Bishop of Bristol, and Feb. 6, 
cm! at fHMMbk, that th« difference of tern- 1794, Buhop of Peterborough. 

prr*tttr» between night and middae fro- * Captain, afterwards Colonel Madan, ton 

<<ue»tlr esreedtd 5"°, and occasionally tha of the preceding, b. 17H2, d. Keb. 16, 1830, 

tumi m km Unt wat ll(/°, or tten more. m. Jan. 16, 179 J, Francea, dau. of tha Re*. 

• CWri4Har t d*n, of ChaxU 1 ti UH Com- Or. Falconer, of the Cleat, LkhrieU. 


General Order. 

Feb. 26, 1791. 

Lord Cornwallis has too high an opinion of the zeal, honour, 
and putlic spirit of the Officers of the Army, to doubt for a moment 
that every individual among them felt the same concern and indig- 
nation that he did himself, at the shocking and disgraceful outrages l 
that were committed on the last march. His Lordship now calls 
in the most serious manner for the active assistance of every Officer 
in the army, and particularly those commanding flanking parties, 
advance and rear guards, to put a stop to these scenes of horror : 
which, if they should be suffered to continue, must defeat all our 
hopes of success, and blast the British name with infamy. 

Earl Cornwallis to Captain Kennawav. 

SlR, Camp at China Baleporam, April 2, 1791 . 

. . . After the communication contained in your letters, 
I must acknowledge that it was with the utmost astonishment and 
disappointment, that I received on the 31st ultimo, a letter dated 
the 23rd, which enclosed a copy of Eajah Teige Wunt's letter to me 
of the 22nd, conveying an account of the most absurd and un- 
founded information that he stated to have been received by him, 
of the measures that Tippoo had taken to prevent the junction of 
his Highness's cavalry with this army, and informing me, that 
regardless of my requisition, and of his Master's public orders, he 
had determined to remain at Winipilly, a place not above the 
distance of two moderate marches from Gungycotta, until he should 
hear from me that I had sent a detachment of infantry and guns to 
meet him at Cliittagong. 

As the Rajah must have had good grounds to suppose that- his 
letter would reach me at the critical period of my being engaged 
in the siege of Bangalore, in presence of Tippoo at the head of his* 
whole army, I am under the necessity of viewing the dilatoriness of 
his progress, and his motives for writing that letter, in the most 
disadvantageous light ; and though I wish it to be done in guarded 
language, I must desire that you will on this occasion express my 
dissatisfaction to his Highness and the Minister, in the strongest 

You will state to them that after the most deliberate reflection 
upon the Rajah's conduct, it has appeared to me that it can only 
be accounted for by one of the three following reasons. 1st. That 

1 Several villages had been plundered and a r. and nine men were executed for this 
burnt by some marauders of the British " 


hn public orders have been counteracted by private instructions ; 
2ndly, that his Highness lias entrusted the command of a large 
part of the force of the state to a man who is no soldier ; or 3rdly, 
that the Rajah has been actually corrupted by Tippoo's money, 
liut you may assure them that my mind has immediately rejected 
all attention to the first supposition, though the impression that 
ivtnaius upon it of the probable existence of one or both of the 
latter causes, leaves me little reason to hope that I can ever 
confide in the Rajah for giving me a hearty support in carrying on 
this war. 

You will at the same time, after desiring them to call to their 
recollection the openness and fairness of the whole of my public 
conduct towards his Highness, the vigour with which I have com- 
menced the operations of the present campaign, and the celerity 
and success with which I took my measures after the reduction of 
Bangalore, to prevent Tippoo from disturbing tho march of his 
Iiighness*s cavalry, clearly give them to understand, tliat I will not 
tamely submit either to evident breach of engagement, or to strong 
mark* of deception, and that in the present case, unless, instead of 
receiving frivolous excuses, I shall soon see the most satisfactory 
gnmuils to expect the speedy junction of the above-mentioned Ixxly 
of cavalry, I ahull not waste time in waiting for them, but proceed 
with tliis army to the execution of my own plan of operations, with- 
out placing any further dependence upon their assistance. 

I am, Arc, 


Sift, Camp near China Baleporam, April fl, 1791. 

I rude forward this morning a little before the line of inarch 
to look at the encampment, and when I came nearly to the camp 
colour* on the extremity of the left wing, I was advised not to go 
any farther at there were none of our troops before me. I urged 
the iiii|NftViil»ility of that fart, as there was a regiment of cavalry 
Sent forward for the very purpose of securing the villages and 
country within a mile, or a mile ami half, of the skirts of the in- 
tended encampment, and as it wan imjKMsible that any officer who 
hail arri\ed at the command of a regiment could be so totally 
ignorant of his duty, and so unmindful of his own safety and that 
of the cuqjs committed to his charge, as to neglect to occupy the 
height* on the left of the camp, over which there was a road lead- 
ing directly to the enemy's army and to the garrison of Rymcrbod. 


I was however mistaken, and on my return I found, to my great 

astonishment, Major and his whole regiment dismounted 

under a hedge, and solely occupied in foraging a village in the 
very centre of the encampment, leaving two large villages that 
were full of forage on the left of the line, and even the Quarter- 
masters and camp-colour men of the left wing to be destroyed or 
carried off by a small party of the enemy's horse. It appeared to 

me, that even Major 's regiment itself, without a single man 

mounted, or vidette to look out, might have been surprised and 
had its horses carried away by a small detachment of active Sepoys. 

I am sensible that, in strictness, the duty of my station would 

require that I should call Major to a more rigorous account, 

but in the present instance I shall content myself with directing 
you to assemble the . Commanding Officers of the regiments of 
cavalry, and, after reading this letter in their presence, to repri- 
mand Major in the most severe terms, for hia un-officer like 

behaviour and gross inattention to my orders. 

I am sorry to add, that although I did not see it myself, I am 
informed that Major * • * acted yesterday nearly in the same 
manner ; I must therefore desire that you will communicate my 
displeasure to him, and inform the Commanding Officers of corps in 
general, that if anything of this nature should again occur, I shall 
think it my duty to take other means that will be effectual to en- 
force an implicit obedience to my orders. 

I am, &c, 

Earl Cornwallis to C. W. Malet, Esq. 

SlB, Camp 7 rnilea N.W. of Molwaggle, April 16, 1701. 

... I have received your private letter dated the 21st of 
February, and although the expedient you mention for quickening 
the motions of our Allies, is as repugnant to my feelings as it can 
be to yours, yet in the present important crisis, I should not in my 
opinion be justifiable, if I do' not make use of the same weapons 
that have been so successfully employed against us. 

I shall therefore leave it to your discretion to proceed as far 
in the business as you may think it advisable, assuring you at the 
same time that I shall approve of whatever is done for the pur- 
pose of producing vigour and dispatch, in a quarter wJiere it is so 
much wanted. I am, &c, 



Earl Corxwalus to Sir William Fawcett. 

Camp 24 milit to the wtrtward of Amboor, 

Dear Fawcett, April 19, 1791. 

After encountering many difficulties, and suffering great dis- 
tress for want of forage, you will see by the public accounts that 
the troops under my command took Bangalore by assault on the 
21st of last month. I have since been obliged to move consider- 
ably to the northward, in order to effect a junction with a large 
body of the Nizam's horse, and am now come to the neighbour- 
hood of Amboor, to receive some reinforcements and a supply of 
stores and provisions from the Carnatic. I shall begin my march 
on the 22nd for Seringapatam, calling at Bangalore for the bat- 
tering-train. Abercromby is waiting for me at the head of the 
Courga Pass, within thirty-five miles of the Capital, with a good 
body of troops and supply of provisions, and some 18-pounders. 
We are run in point of time rather nearer to the monsoon than I 
could wish, but as I understand that in general the rains are not 
violent on the eastern side of the Ghauts till the beginning of 
June, I flatter myself we shall not be too late. My worthy and 
gallant friend Skelly has been at the head of every attack this 
war, and led the Grenadiers and Light Infantry into Bangalore. 
He is ruining himself by serving as a Brigadier-General upon the 
pay of Major, ami aj>jx>intments have been so unfairly, though 
uninUutioually, snatchtxl from me for far less worthy objects, that 
I see no prosj>ect of my being able to give him any rank. I 
shall be much obliged to you if you will represent this most 
humbly in my name to Ills Majesty, assuring him, that, from a 
regard to the merit of the officers serving under me, I should be 
higtdy gratified at his conferring some mark of his favour upon 
Major Skelly. I am$ & a> 


Earl Curnwalus ro Sir Charles Oakeley, Bart., and Council, 

Fort St. George. 

OfcXTLKMEX, Camp at VeriuKkghtrrjr, April 20, 1791. 

I liave been favoured with your letter dated the 22nd ult 
in the military dejiartment, and applaud your earnest desire of 
paying even' mark of respect in your power to the memory of 
Lieutenant-! olonel Moorhouso. 

I doubt very much whether it will now be possible to find the 


body, but I shall order a search to be made for it, and if success- 
ful, I shall direct it to be removed as soon afterwards as may be 
practicable, to Madraa ! y^e, &c#j 


Earl Cornwallis to Rajah Teige Wtot. 

May 10, 1791. 

When I yesterday took leave of yourself and Assud Ali 
Khan, I felt a degree of confidence that my representations had 
made some impression on you. I have however now the mortifica- 
tion to find that I was totally mistaken, for instead of 3000 men 
under some Chiefs of character, it has just been reported to me by 
Captain Dallas, 1 that there were not thirty more than 200 of your 
troops of inferior quality sent to join him; and notwithstanding 
your repeated promises to the contrary, our line of march was 
never more crowded and embarrassed than this day, by your nume- 
rous foragers and followers of every description, who ought to have 
marched and foraged on the left flank of the cavalry, where the 
country was in many places very open, but who, as usual, were 
hastening forward to fight with our guards for the few bundles of 
straw which they had been able to save from Tippoo's horse, and 
which are so necessary to preserve the existence of the bullocks 
that are drawing the heavy artillery to Seringapatam. 

I have the highest respect for his Highness Nizam Ali Khan, 
your Master, and I am convinced of the sincerity of his disposition 
to fulfil his engagements in the most honourable manner : so much 
backwardness therefore on your part to concur with the troops 
under my command in measures that are absolutely necessary to 
promote his Highness's interests, as well as those of the other 
confederates, greatly surprises me, and it will render it incumbent 
upon me to state to his Highness the disappointment I have ex- 
perienced, in having hitherto received no kind of support or assist- 
ance from the numerous body of cavalry, which, from his anxiety to 
act with vigour against the common enemy, he was pleased to put 
under my direction. 

1 Captain, afterwards Major-General Sir under Captain Dallas, in the hope that he 

Thomas Dallas, G.C.B., b. 1759, d. Aug. might render them efficient; but all his 

12, 1839. About 2000 of the best of the exertions were unarailing. 
Nizam's cavalry had been placed specially 

1791. DEFEAT OP TIPPOO. 1)1 

Earl Coritwallis to Sir Charles Oakeley, Babt. 

SlR, Camp near Svmgaptfam, Umj 16, 1791 . 

I have the honour to inform you that I had an opportunity 
yesterday of attacking Tippoo, and of giving him a total defeat ; 
the vicinity of Seringapatam, and the batteries which he had 
erected on the north aide of the island, saved his army from de- 
struction. His loss of men must however have been very consider- 
able, and, besides a number of colours, we took four pieces of brass 

The difficulties of my own situation, in respect to forage and 
provisions, and particularly on account of the advanced season of 
the year, are not much relieved by this event, and indeed are very 
serious ; and the obstacles wliich this river presents to a junction 
or co-operation with General Abercrombie (and which had never 
been described in any written or verbal account of it) appear at 
present almost insurmountable. j am> £ a 

Earl Corxwalus to C. W. Mallt, Esq. 

SlR, Camp near Seringapatam, May 17, 1791. 

. . . I received a letter from Hurry Punt on the 14 th 
dtiaritig mt» to communicate with his son, who was in the neigh- 
borhood of (tungyeottah, and to direct him what route to take to 
join me, to which I answered that when he approached nearer 
to u»s I would give him every information in my power to enable 
him to form the junction. 

I have hitherto hud no accounts of the motions of Purseram 
Bhow, since the surrender of Darwar, and as there seems to be 
so much lukcwaniincss or slowness on the part of Hurry Punt, I 
must n»!ifc**8 I do not think it would l>o prudent in me to adopt 
any plan which df|M*nd<Hl for success on the direct assistance or 
co-o{>enition of either of these Chiefs, j qjn g.^ 

Earl Cornwalus to Captain Kexnaway. 

Silly Cm»|> noar Seringapatam, May 17, 1791. 

. . . You know that since his Highness s trooj* have 
finwl this army, 1 have liod reason to complain, that instead of 
giving the hinallost assihtance they have been a mobt intolerable 


burthen to us. I was however pleased with the alacrity which they 
showed in the action of the 15th, and I have reason to believe that 
if the ground had been more favourable for them, they would have 
contributed to render the success of the day more decisive. 

As this is the first action of consequence in which the Nizam's 
troops and ours have acted together, I have to present to his 
Highness the four field-pieces that were taken from the enemy, as a 
token of my personal respect for him, and of my desire to cement 
and perpetuate the friendship that exists between us, and I have 
offered to put Rajah Teige Wunt into immediate possession of 

them - I am, &c, 


Earl Cornwallis to Tippoo Sultaun. 

Maj 19, 1791. 

I received your letter in the middle of the night I left 
my last encampment, and the wounded men I gave in charge to 
your servants, who were the bearers of your letters, will no doubt 
have been safely delivered to the person that you sent for them. 

The desire that you express in the letter to enter into a 
negotiation for terminating the differences between the two Go- 
vernments, was highly satisfactory to me ; but at the same time 
I was equally disappointed at your passing over unnoticed the 
declarations that I have repeatedly made to you, that I do not 
think myself at liberty to treat for the restoration of peace, 
except in concert with Nizam Ali Khan and the Peishwa, who 
are engaged in a treaty of alliance and confederacy with the 

Although the present situation of affairs might encourage me to 
hope that the arms of the Allies would continue to be successful, 
and although my late advices from Europe have informed me 
that the disputes which had subsisted for a few months between 
England and Spain had been amicably adjusted, which relieves 
me from the apprehension of being interrupted in the prosecution 
of operations by the interference of any European power whatever, 
yet you may be assured that I am earnestly desirous to put a stop 
to the miseries which millions of innocent people must suffer by 
the continuance of this destructive war, and that if you are dis- 
posed to make the concessions and compensations to the Company 
and to its Allies which justice demands, I shall cordially use 
my best endeavours to promote a speedy restoration of public 


I shall not enlarge upon the regret which I felt, when I found 
that you were determined to violate the late treaty of peace and to 
lucre me into this war, but, having undertaken it in defence of 
one of the Company's Allies, I am resolved that in endeavouring 
to bring it to a conclusion, my conduct shall be regulated by the 
same regard to honour and good faith towards all the other powers, 
with whom I have entered into treaties of friendship and alliance ; 
and I ran only repeat to you, that, whilst the Allies adhere to their 
engagements with me, no consideration could induce me to be less 
attentive to their interests than to those of the Company. 

I must, therefore, as a proof of tho sincerity of my inclination 
to {iromote the re-establishment of peace, recommend to you, after 
reflecting upon the causes of the war, the great expense and num- 
berless inconveniences which it has occasioned to tho Company and 
to the other powers engaged in hostilities against you, and tho 
grounds upon which they may expect to obtain a compensation 
fur them, to transmit in writing to me such propositions, as in your 
opinion ought to satisfy the different members of the confederacy ; 
and if they should appear in the same light to me, and you should 
in addition to them agree to give me sufficient security that you 
will not, before the conclusion of the treaty, depart from them, 
I shall not only recommend tliat a Congress of Deputies from all 
parti*** concerned sliall be immediately assembled at some conve- 
nient place to endeavour to adjust the terms of a general peace, 
but I will also consent, if you should wish it, to a cessation of 
arms for a limited time and under certain conditions, which may 
lie easily arranged, in order to facilitate the conduct of the nego- 
tiations At the same time, to provide against your being a 
sufferer by following my advice, I will engage my word of honour, 
which I am incapable of forfeiting, that I will immediately restore 
to you such pledges or hostages as you may place in my hands, 
if the negotiation should fail in consequence of the Company's 
Allies not being satisfied with the propositions that I may transmit 
from you for their consideration. 

In a case in which the interest of the Company's and your 
Government were alone to bo 4iscusscd, I should, without tho 
least difficulty or hesitation, receive a confidential person from 
you to treat with me upon them, but on the present occasion I 
still think myself under the necessity of declining the proposition, 
because I am not only determined to act in the most open and 
honourable manner towards the Comjwny's Allies, but I am even 
unwilling to take any step *hich could furnish the least ground 
for jealousy or suspicion of my endeavouring to elude our treaty, 


and to gain any exclusive advantages to the Company in a secret 

I have written the above with a view to prevent the total ruin 
of this country, which must be the infallible consequence of a 
continuance of the distresses to which the wretched inhabitants 
are at present subjected, and it will make me happy to hear that 
what I have said has made a proper impression upon you. 

The Persian Translator to Syed Ahmed All 

May 27, 1791. 

I have received your letter and have understood its con- 
tents. • . . 

As Tippoo Sultaun has been pleased to direct you to send a 
present of fruits through me to Lord Cornwallis, I have mentioned 
it to his Lordship, who has desired me to reply to your letter that 
in the present situation of public affairs, his Lordship cannot with 
propriety receive a present, but that, whenever peace shall be 
re-established between the two Governments, he will be happy, by 
every means in his power, to encourage and increase a friendly 
intercourse. . . . 

Earl Cornwallis to Sir Charles Oakeley, Bart. 

SlR, Camp at Solure, July 2, 1791. 

. . . Humanity, as well as good policy, calls loudly 
upon us to make the same provision for carrying the native sick 
of the Madras troops upon a march as those of the Bengal 

It is hardly credible that so shocking a practice could have 
existed so long, and that successive Generals could, without mak- 
ing the strongest remonstrances to Government, have seen their 
wretched soldiers, either with a broken bone or a violent fever, 
squeezed into a blanket and carried by two of their comrades. 
The loss of the two bearers from the ranks is not the only mis- 
chief which arises to the public service from this false and cruel 
economy ; for the disgust which it creates among the Sepoys occa- 
sions great desertion, as an instance of which I need only mention, 
that 22 of 24 men of Captain Brown's 1 battalion who deserted 
in one month were employed in carrying the sick. I have 
taken it upon myself to authorise the payment of the same allow- 

1 Captain, afterwards LieuL-General Archibald Brown, d. May 4, 1825. 


mace for doolies as that which is paid to the Bengal Captains, to the 
native corps on your establishment during the war, to commence 
the first of J una 

The doolies of the Europeans are entirely worn out, and many 
bearer* will be wanting for that service, I must therefore re- 
commend to you to order three hundred doolies to be prepared 
immediately, and fifteen hundred bearers to be engaged in the 

Three hundred platform carts will likewise be wanted for the 
imc of the army, and they should be provided as expeditiously as 

I shall move on the 4th towards Bangalore, from whence the 
arrival of Captain Head's 1 convoy will enable me to proceed in a 
very few days to Ouasore. j ^ &Cf 


Earl Corxwallis to Captain Oram.* 

Sin, Camp ne»r Rangalnre, July 11, 1791. 

Captain Read lias this morning communicated to me the 
contents of your Utter to him dated the 7th instant, and I look 
upon the endeavours tliat you liave used to procure the surrender 
of Kiahnagcrry by negotiation, as a strong proof of your zeal to 
promote the public good. 

From the accounts that I have received of that fort, the diffi- 
culty of taking it by force would be so great, and the possession of 
h in my opinion would bo of so much im]>ortaneo to us, that I shall 
readily agree to pay 8.11. 6000 for obtaining it by a private nego- 
tiation with those who can deliver it up. You may therefore con- 
liler yourself as authorised by me to promise this, and to give 
them security to their satisfaction for your paying them that sum 
for its surrender, provided they will give you counter-security, by 
putting you in possession of their families, to surrender it to a 
deUrhmcttt from this army tliat sliall at a concerted time be sent 
to summon it. 

In order to enable you to speak with confidence, and to act 
with efficacy and desjiatch in this business, I shall on the 15th inst 
detach a Iwttalion under the command of an intelligent officer, who 
will be instructed to proceed in the first instance to Trippaton, for 
the protection of the part of the Barramoule valley which lays 

1 Catrtjun, afWwanU Colonrl, Alciaixkr M'afiiain.alWward* Li«»ut.-0oloD«l, J*ok» 

Uml, i Mftjr 19, 1*4, rt MalU. Oram, <t Aug. 13, 1799. 


between that place and Amboor, and to take every step that may, 
after your consulting together, appear best calculated to bring this 
point to a successful conclusion. ... I conclude that the people 
who may agree to give up the place, will, in addition to other con- 
ditions, require security for all their private property, and per- 
mission to reside in the Company's territories, and I shall therefore 
confirm your promises upon both these heads ; and you may also 
inform the person that you have employed as an agent in this 
affair, that if the object shall be accomplished by his means, I shall 
think him deserving of a liberal reward for his services. . . . 

As it is of the greatest consequence for the public service that 
the Maratta dealers should be perfectly satisfied with the treatment 
that they receive in the Company's territories, and that Hurry 
Punt's army should be able to draw supplies of grain from the 
Carnatic with facility and at reasonable rates, I desire that you 
will even open a bazar at a moderate price from the public store 
of paddy at Vellore, rather than suffer the Binjarries to be dis- 
appointed in obtaining without delay full ladings for the bullocks 
that they may carry with them ; and I shall only add, that you 
must take the utmost care to prevent the smallest duty in any 
shape whatever from being exacted from them at the bazars, or in 

passing or repassing any of the * in your district, and that I 

shall put a great value on the exertions that you make to carry my 
wishes respecting the supplies to the Maratta army into complete 

I shall send a company of sepoys, under the command of an 
European Officer, with these Binjarries, to give them confidence 
and protection. ! am> & Ct> 


Earl Cornwallis to the Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry. 

DEAR JAMES, Camp near Bangalore, July 13, 1791. 

I had so short notice of the sailing of the Leopard that 
I determined not to write a single line by that conveyance, but 
to trust that the Commodore or Sir C. Oakeley would tell you 
that I was well ; and I was the more encouraged iu this resolution 
as the Swallow Packet, which is to sail in the first week of Sep- 
tember, will in my opinion be nearly as soon in England. As the 
communication, however, is now quite safe between the army and 
Madras, I wish to tell you that my health has not suffered, although 

1 Illegible. 


my spirits are almost worn out, and that if I cannot soon overcome 
Tippoo, I think the plagues and mortifications of this most difficult 
war will overcome ma You will have heard that after beating 
Tippoo's army, and driving him into the island of Seringapatam, 
I was obliged, by the famine which prevailed amongst our followers, 
and especially the bullock-drivers, by the sudden and astonishing 
mortality amongst our cattle, owing to the scarcity of forage and a 
contagious distemper which unluckily attacked them when they 
were too weak to resist, it, and by the unexpected obstacles to my 
forming a junction with General Abercromby, in time to attempt 
the enterprise before the rising of the river, to destroy my battering 
guns and to relinquish the attack of Seringapatam until the con- 
clusion of the rains. Had the numerous Maratta army, which 
joined me on the 26th of May unexpectedly and without my 
having received the smallest previous notice, arrived a fortnight 
sooner, our success would have been complete, and that event which 
Mr. Francis and Mr. Hippesley l seem so much to apprehend — 
the destruction of Tippoo's power — would have actually taken place. 
It is however much crippled, and if he should not propose during 
the present rains such terms as the Allies can reasonably accept, I 
trust we shall take such precautions as will render our next move- 
ment to Seringapatam effectual. The political state of India is so 
much changed since the date of the orders which were read relative 
to the power of the Marattas, and Hyder's forming a barrier for us, 
that a man might with as much propriety have said to the Elector 
of Saxony, in the middle of the Seven Years' War, — To be sure the 
Prussian troops are doing no great good to your country, but yet 
you are lucky to have such a neighbour as Frederick, he forms a 
noble barrier for you against the King of Sweden, whose power was 
very troublesome to your family in the beginning of the century. 

I now come to domestic matters and my own situation. I see 
no prospect of my leaving this country before January, 1793. The 
question then is, what is to become of Brome ? If he should not 
insist on being a Soldier, I should incline, in the present state of 
Europe, to his going to the University, where I should wish that he 
might be induced to give a due attention to books, but in other 
respects I do not think that he should be too strictly watched from 
mixing in the gaieties and levities of those of his own age, as I have 

1 Mr., afterwards .Sir John Hippesley, and widow of Henry Hippesley Coxe, Esq., of 

Bart., ao created April 30, 1796, b. 1745, Stone Easton House. He was sent to India 

d. May 3, 1825 ; m. 1st., Feb. 1780, Mar- by Lord North in 1781, and came home in 

piret, dau. of Sir John Stuart, Bart., of 1787. M.P. for Sudbury from Nor. 1790 

Allanton ; 2nd, Feb. 16, 1801, Elizabeth, to May, 1796, and from Nov. 1802 to 1818. 
«hu. of Thomas Horner, Esq., of Mells Park, 



seldom seen that extraordinary care succeed. If he will be a 
Soldier, he had better go to some German academy, and, amongst 
other things, apply to the learning that language, the want of which 
I have often regretted. All this, however, I submit to your judg- 
ment. There may be letters from you now at Madras, which would 
make me unsay all I have said. The last I have received from 
you, from the difficulty that there has been in our communication, 
is dated the 28th of November. Be so kind as to. order out 'every- 
thing as usual next year, and desire Carbonell to send fifteen chests 
of claret. 

I am truly concerned that you have had so much plague about 
Eye, to which I am afraid that nothing can put a stop but my 
return. . . . Tell Brome and Mary, with my love, that I had 
not time to write to them, and assure Mrs. Cornwallis, and all 
your own family, of my sincere regard and best wishes. 

I am, &c, 


Earl Cornwallis to Captain Kennaway. 

SlR, Camp near Ooesore, July 16, 1791. 

. . . You will see by my letter to the Nizam, that in 
consequence of Tippoo's compliance with the condition prescribed 
to him by Hurry Punt, of writing separately to each member of 
the confederacy, I have consented to Apajee Ram's coming to 
camp to make his proposals. 

I long resisted this measure, more from an apprehension of its 
creating suspicion and jealousy in the mind of his Highness, than 
from a sense of its being in any other respect either improper or 
impolitic. But the arguments stated by Hurry Punt in favour of it 
liad great weight. He said that if the negotiation was to begin 
by the proposal of terms in writing, it was according to all usage 
the part of the victors, and not of the vanquished, to make such 
proposals ; that the desirable object, in his opinion, was to know as 
soon as possible whether Tippoo was inclined to make such con- 
cessions as were likely to form the basis of a treaty, in order to pre- 
vent our employing our time and thoughts in sending deputies and 
assembling a congress, when perhaps they ought to be wholly occu- 
pied in the most vigorous preparations for war, and that as no 
answer was to be given to Apajee Ram, and as the only use to be 
made of his communication was to enable the confederates to deter- 
mine, from a knowledge of Tippoo's sentiments, whether it was 


worth while to assemble a congress, he thought there could be uo 
room for jealousy in either of the parties. 

The earnest desire whicb Hurry Punt expressed that I should 
agree to the reception of Apajee Bam, and the confidence I felt 
that the Nizam would be persuaded that I would take no step which 
could be in any manner prejudicial to his interests, induced me to 
acquiesce ; and I have now to request that you will state the matter 
fully to his Highness, and assure him that no answer shall be given • 
without his approbation, communicated either immediately to my- 
self, or by Meer Allum, or some other confidential person whom he 
may think proper to depute. 

Oos8ore was evacuated yesterday. The garrison were preparing 
to destroy the works, but the brigade which I sent to take posses- 
sion of it advanced so suddenly upon them, that they had not time 
to effect their purpose in any material degree. 

I have directed Colonel Duff, who commands in Bangalore, to 
prepare some guns in case his Highness should want them for the 
attack of Garumconda. X am &c 


Earl Cornwallis to Sir Charles Oakeley, Bart. 

SlR, Camp 7 miles west of Ryacotta, July 23, 1791. 

The strong hill-fort of Ryacotta, the garrison of which had 
been reinforced by the Killedar and two companies of Sepoys who 
had retired from Oossore, surrendered last night to Major Gowdie ; 
and I have directed that officer to proceed with his brigade to the 
attack of Veriabudderdergam, which is the strongest fort in this 
country next to Kishnagerry. 

As we could not possibly have taken Ryacotta if the garrison 
had been disposed to defend it, and as it held out a day or two 
longer than it would otherwise have done in consequence of the 
presence of the Killedar of Oossore, I trust that I am not too san- 
guine in hoping that since there is no Killedar of Oossore in Veria- 
budderdergam, that place will not give us more trouble than Rya- 
cotta. I am, &c, 


ii 2 


Earl Cornwallis to Sir Charles Oakeley, Bart, 

SlR, Camp 8 miles south of Oossore, July 30, 1791. 

I yesterday received a letter from the Board, dated the 21st 
instant, informing me of the enemy's irruption into the Coimba- 
tore country. 

I have looked forward to an event of this kind as almost certain, 
from the time that our army retired from the neighbourhood of 
Seringapatam, but as I understood that Lieutenant Chalmers 1 
had orders to abandon Coimbatore whenever he had reason to be* 
lieve that any heavy guns would be brought against it, and as from 
General Medows's report I considered Caroor to be in no great 
danger from such a force as the enemy in his present situation was 
likely to detach to so great a distance, I did not think that we 
should be exposed to any serious loss or mortification in that 

You will easily conceive therefore, that I feel no small concern 
when I found that Lieutenant Chalmers had suffered himself to be 
invested in so wretched a post as Coimbatore, and with so feeble a 
garrison, by a detachment which he. knew to be provided with 

I know of no possible succour that Lieut. Chalmers can have 
received, and conclude, from what I have heard of Coimbatore, that 
before this time he must have been obliged to surrender. . . . 

I am, &c, 


Earl Cornwallis to Captain Kennaway. 

SlR, Camp 7 miles south of Oossore, /Lug. 2, 1791. 

. . . I am very glad to find the Nizam's troops are ad-' 
vancing to Garamconda, the capture of which place would un- 
doubtedly be attended with great advantage. Four battering guns 
are prepared at Bangalore for the attack of that fortress, and will 
be despatched whenever his Highness shall send an escort and 
cattle for them. ... 

It is of great consequence in every point of view that the Nizara 
should execute his intention of sending his Son and the Minister 
with the reinforcements destined to act against the common enemy. 
I therefore desire that you will urge him in the strongest terms to 

1 The defence of Coimbatore did Lieutenant real facts he bestowed high commendation 
Chalmers the greatest credit, and when Lord upon him. 
Cornwallis was made acquainted with the 


prv them an early dismission, as I cannot help apprehending, from 
the procrastinating disposition of the natives of this country, and 
particularly of his Highness's court, that unless they are stimulated 
to exertion by frequent representations, the commencement of our 
operations, which should not be much later than the middle of 
DcUsber, may be retarded by waiting for them. 

I am sorry to observe from your last letter that the Nizam 
itvmi to entertain an idea of employing Assud Ali Khan again in 
the field, because I consider him to be a man not only of a trouble- 
some and unmanageable disposition, but of principles that render 
him highly unworthy of his Highness's confidence, and I have no 
objection to your conveying those sentiments of him both to the 
Nizam ami to the Minister. ... I am &c. 


Earl Corxwalus to C. W. Malkt, Esq. 

SlB, Camp 7 mita south of Oonore, Aug. S, 1791. 

. . . However prevalent the spirit of intrigue may be in 
all Astatic Durbars, I do not apprehend that either of our Allies can 
have a serums intention to depart from their engagements, or that 
they would venture to prefer a little temporary advantage to be 
held at tlie mercy of Tipjioo, to the solid {xissession of what they 
may reasonably ex|>ect to acquire, in conjunction with, and under 
the guarantee of, the other confederate Powers. 

I have seen enough of the Military Chiefs of both states to be 
quite certain of the dread they have of Tippoo's force, and of their 
wfmcifHuaiess that they could not resist it without our assistance. 
I can therefore hardly doubt that the policy of the conduct which I 
have supposed the Courts of Poouah and Hydrabad to adopt would 
occur to themselves without any suggestion on our part. It may 
not however be amiss, that you should take even' favourable oppor- 
tunity in your conversations with the Minister, of placing it 
strongly before his view. 

From the circumstance of my having acquiesced, at the earnest 
recommendation of Hurry Punt, to receive Apajee Itam, you will 
easily conceive that I have no desire to assemble a Congress, until 
I shall be able to form some judgment from the overtures of the 
Vakeel, whether the measure is likely to be attended with success. 

The |*opo*al of a i ongress was lianlly a mutter of choice with 
me, for after Tip|too*s repeated declarations that he could not 
transmit to me in writing the concessions wliich he* was dis|>o*cd to 


make to the Confederates, I did not think it consistent with my 
professions, or consonant with my most anxious wishes for peace, 
to adhere rigidly to the line which I at first prescribed, and to 
decline to point out some other plan by which a negotiation might 
be opened, and situated as I then was, without a prospect of being 
joined by any person of rank or confidence from the States in alli- 
ance with us, I saw no other mode that would not have created 
jealousy and alarm at Foonah and HydrabacL 

At the same time, however, although I am not anxious for a 
Congress, nor certain that even Tippoo himself is at present de* 
sirous of it, yet I do not think it right that a direct objection should 
be made to the measure by the Peshwa; and as Meer Allum is 
now on his way to the army invested with full powers from the 
Nizam, and it would be highly unreasonable that the interests of 
two of the Confederated Powers should be exposed to danger or in- 
convenience by delays occasioned unnecessarily by the third, to the 
conclusion of a peace, I must desire that you will state my request 
in the most explicit terms to the Minister, that Hurry Punt, or any 
other person that he may think proper, may be invested with 
similar powers on the part of the Peshwa, in case Tippoo should at 
any time be disposed to make such concessions as would satisfy 
the Allies. . . . Yours, &c, 


Earl Cornwallis to Colonel John Murray. 

DEAR SIR, Camp 7 mile* south of Oonore, Aug. 6, 1791. 

I received a few days ago your letter dated the 19th of June. 

Whatever opinion I gave on the circumstances of your appoint- 
ment, after your arrival in 1788, were dictated by my ideas of the 
spirit and intention of the Act of Parliament, according to the only 
interpretation which I then thought, and which I still think, can be 
given to it Nothing personal was ever meant on my part, and I 
am sure you will easily believe that after the ready and zealous 
assistance which you have afforded me, as well in your official 
capacity as in acts entirely separate from it, and which must have 
been attended with much disagreeable trouble and labour, it cannot 
be my desire that you should meet with any mortification. . . . 

We some time ago gave Tippoo permission to send a Vakeel, 
who has arrived this day, to make some propositions, but I have 
no reason to hope that they will be such as will be suitable to the 
expectations of the Confederacy. Our preparations for the attack 


of Seringapatam, as soon as the season will admit, are in the mean 
time going on briskly, and from the general situation of our affairs 
there seems to be every reasonable appearance, that we shall be 
able before long to bring this business to an honourable termination. 

I am, with great esteem and regard, &c, 


Earl Cornwallis to the Bishop of Lichfield ato Coventry. 

DEAR JAKES, Camp near Oossore, Aug. 20, 1791. 

The cares and troubles you have had about my dear Boy, 
Culford House, the estate, &c., although they have been in a con- 
siderable degree burdensome to you, have yet been attended with 
so many pleasant and satisfactory circumstances, that I trust the 
gratification which you have occasionally felt has made up in a 
great degree for the uneasy sensations they have cost you. But 
that is not the case with the borough of Eye : there everything has 
been, and I am afraid will continue to be, plague and vexation. 
Whatever my future resolutions may be in regard to the borough, 
on finding an insurmountable spirit of disinclination to the ancient 
connexion with our family, and of general discontent, I should at 
least wish, before I took so strong a step as to renounce all con- 
nexion with it, to try the effects of my return, and of passing some 
time at Brome. I do not therefore hesitate to authorize you to 
endeavour to support the interest at all events till I come home, 
and to recommend your purchasing all the land you can in Eye. 
If poor Phillipson should in the interim occasion a vacancy, I leave 
the choice of a successor entirely to your discretion, desiring only 
that he should not be ill-disposed towards those with whom I have 
acted. Whitbread 1 would have been most perfectly agreeable to 
me, but from what I saw in the papers, I conclude that he must 
come in for Steyning ; I should doubt Bathurst's liking to come in, 
or the borough liking to choose him. 

The predilection which you expressed for Cambridge in your 
letter of the 14th of February, made me repent of the letter that I 
had written to Brome in November last, which recommended the 
plan that you had proposed, and to which in your letter of the 4th 

1 Samuel Whitbread, b. Aug. 20, 1720, d. from Nov. 1774 to June, 1790, and for Stey- 

June 8, 1796, m. 1st, 1751, Harriet, dau. of ning from March, 1791, to May, 179<J. At 

Haytor, Esq.; 2nd, Aug. 13, 1769, Mary, the time this If tier was written Mr. Whit- 

dau. of Charles 1st Karl Cornwallis. By his bread supported the Tory interest iu Bed- 

firat wife he was father of Mr. Whitbread, so fordshire. 
long a leading politician. M.l\ for Bedford 


of April you have again reverted. I have seen so many good men 
and so many bad ones produced from the same systems, that I 
scarcely think any one of all those which a rational man could 
choose for his Son or Ward, would be capable of depraving a good 
mind or of rendering a virtuous youth vitious. I do not here mean 
the frailties to which all young men of life and spirit are liable, and 
which cannot be guarded against without hazarding worse conse- 
quences, and without rendering the person unfit for the society and 
circle in which he ought to live. Having said this, you will see that 
I shall be tolerably easy and confident under any measures that you 
may have adopted. I doubt only about Mr. Hayes being a proper 
person to go with him ; he appears to me by his letters to expect 
too much from him, and I should suspect that he will always forget 
that he is out of the fourth form. All this however I submit 
entirely to you, well knowing that it is much easier to object to one 
man than to find another. 

I certainly cannot leave this country till the beginning of 1793, 
and I trust it cannot be in the power of my evil stars to de&in 
me longer in it My plan of attacking Seringapatam before 
the swelling of the Caveri Kiver did not succeed from various 
causes, which could neither be foreseen or avoided. The attempt 
however, besides the victory which it gave us over Tippoo's whole 
force under the walls of his Capital, was attended with many im- 
portant consequences, and in particular it brought forward two 
large Maratta armies in haste to join me, which would otherwise 
have probably remained many months at a great distance from the 
scene of action, and employed themselves solely in collecting the 
resources of the country they had overrun. 

We are now making the most vigorous preparations to pro- 
secute the war after the breaking up of the monsoon on the Mala- 
bar coast. I have not however been inattentive to proposals of 
peace, and permitted two of Tippoo's Vakeels {Envoys) to come to 
the neighbourhood of our camp, but as they declined to open any 
negotiation with deputies to be appointed on our part, but insisted 
on transacting business personally with the Maratta General and 
myself, I have desired them to return immediately to their Master. 
When Tippoo finds that he cannot hope by indirect means to infuse 
jealousy amongst the members, and to disunite the Confederacy, I 
can hardly doubt that he will offer such terms as we can with 
safety and honour accept ; and I can most truly assure you, what- 
ever may be said in Parliament to the contrary, that no man ever 
entered into a war more unwillingly, or would be more sincerely 
rejoiced to get out of it, than myself. 


Mr. Hippisley, who during the few years he resided in India was 
busily employed in making money, seems to be equally unacquainted 
with the geography of the country as with the facte which he has 
ventured to state. Cranganore is not on the sea-coast, it never 
was for an instant in the possession either of Hyder or Tippoo ; it 
has belonged exclusively to the Dutch, as well as Jacottah, since the 
beginning of the last century, without acknowledging the supremacy 
of any other power whatever. The Rajah made his proposals for 
the purchase to the Dutch with the approbation and sanction of Sir 
Archibald Campbell in 1788. In June, 1789, the Resident at Tra- 
vancore notified lo Mr. Hollond's Government that the Governor- 
General of Batavia had consented to the sale, and that the bargain 
was to be immediately concluded, to which notification Mr. Hoi- 
lond made no answer, and the Resident naturally concluded that 
he had no objection to the measure. Neither Sir Archibald's con- 
sent nor the notification to Mr. Hollond were communicated to me, 
and the first accounts which I ever received of the transaction, were 
by a letter from the Madras Board dated in August, 1789, which 
misstated all the facts and threw great blame upon the Rajah, 
and which produced the disapprobation of the measure which the 
Supreme Board declared in their letter dated in September. It 
was not from caprice that I afterwards altered my mind, but upon 
discovering the falsehood of Mr. Hollond's statements, who was at 
that time trying to extort money from the Rajah as the price of his 
consent The subsequent papers are all before the House. No- 
thing ceuld be so weak as Opposition's bringing on these questions, 
which could not possibly affect Pitt or Dundas, who were entirely 
ignorant of the whole business till some months after the war had 
taken place, and which must bring upon the movers the ridicule 
and odium of every man who wishes more earnestly for the honour 
and prosperity of his country, than for a place for himself. . . . 

Believe me, &c, 


Earl Cornwallis to C. W. Malet, Esq. 

£>1K Camp 8 miles east of Bangalore, Aug. 23, 1791. 

By your letters to me I find you are most perfectly ac- 
quainted with the characters of the Maratta Chiefs. 

It is not easy for a man of very different habits and temper to 
be a match for persons who possess the qualities you describe, yet 
I trust that I have not often been unguarded, and in the business 




iii' Am VtiVnrfi have hitherto defeated tin; designs of Hurry Punt, 
who appeared to have taken tljooi nun* or Ijjs protection, ami. by an 
unguarded letter wluch Apajee Ham wrote, seems to have pro- 
mised to introduce them tome. 

I positively declared that it never was my intention to treat 
wftfa tli'-m personally, nor did I think it became any of the prin- 
cipals, such as Hurry Punt, Meer Alluin, or myself, who possessed 
full powers from our respective Governments, to meet them, until 
they had explained to confidential persons deputed by us the "in- 
line of the terms on which Tippoo was willing to negotiate, and I 
objected to their being received wilh honours, or being admitted 
into our cam]), until the negotiation should be so far advanced as to 
give a certainty of a speedy accommodation, Jn the next line 1 
pointed out Oossore as a proper place for their present residence, 
where they would bo treated with great civility and supplied 
with everything they could want, and where our Deputies eould 
conveniently meet them, to enter upon the business of their 

In all this Hurry Punt, after much reasoning, and, as he de- 
clared, against his own opinion, uiost unwillingly acquiesced. Hut 
he was bo unguarded in Ids argument, as to give for a reason 
why he wished to see Apajee Itam, that he was an old aeqiimiit- 
■HB "1' hi*, and would sjieak BOON freely to him than to any other 
persou ; this reason, as yon may supjxjse, had no great weight 
with me. 

The Vakeels remained longer at Bnzgepon ' than I could have 
wished, and pretended, in order to gain time, that they would meet 
with onr deputies there, if T would not insist on their pang 1" 
Oossore; but on finding that I was nut to relax tn-m 
my first resolution, they are gone this day to Bangalore. OB tbj k 
way t" their Master. 

Hurry Punt in the mean time talks to me of his distress !"t 
provisions and the ruin of his cavalry, and to Meer Allum of the 
necessity of making peons. He w3\ proberjj hold tin m 
language respecting the dlatrtlWM of DOS m-my in bju 
Poonah, but you will have an Opportsntt] of fpTOg I ""—fUll 
refutation to those compUint*. at least as far as any bli 
imputed to me, iriuo I till pun that 1 have often repeated to him, 
thai t In- riiruatic is aa open to the Wwirtiw H '" ■ 
pnobMBng all kinds of grain and BnppliM of every description, 
or that by sending detachments into the I>iirrainuai and Salem 
countries, they would find the ntmost ahum 1 1 

1 I'lnppllf, 8W^)|*WC 


grain without expending a single rupee, or without the smallest 
hazard of any material interruption from the enemy; but that 
I cannot prevail upon them to avail themselves of either of 
those means to relieve the wants of which they so constantly 

I must however observe that the prices of rice and grain, in 
comparison to those to which we were long accustomed after our 
junction, are by no means high in their camp even at this moment. 

I shall probably in a short time be able to form a more certain 
judgement than I can at present of their real views and sentiments. 

I am, &c, 


Earl Cornwallis to Sir Charles Oakeley, Bart., and Council, 

Fort St. George. 

GENTLEMEN, Camp 8 miles east of Bangalore, Aug. 26, 1791 . 

Tippoo's Vakeels, Deleel Deel Khan 1 and Apajee Earn, having 
refused to proceed to Oossore, and open the business of their mis- 
sion to the deputies who would be sent thither to confer with them 
by Hurry Punt, Meer Allum, who is invested with full powers from 
the Nizam, and myself, and declaring that they had received orders 
from Tippoo which they did not dare to disobey, to proceed to the 
Camp, and to treat personally with Hurry Punt and myself, I did not 
see any means at present of opening a negotiation with them, as I 
conceived that it would be very imprudent to suffer the Vakeels of 
our enemy, with their numerous followers, to accompany our army ; 
and that it would be highly improper for Hurry Punt and myself, 
who in our present delegated situation may be considered as prin- 
cipals, personally to meet the deputies from Tippoo, before we know 
whether the outline of the terms they had to propose was such as 
would afford grounds for the commencement of a treaty. 

I desired therefore, as their continuance at Surgepore was very 
inconvenient to us, and could answer no good purpose, that they 
would return to their Master, and they accordingly went to Banga- 
lore on the 23rd, and departed from thence on the 24th instant . . . 

I have, &c., 


1 Deleel Deel Khan was a Mahommedan, Rain, who was a Hindoo, and the real ne- 
who for form's sake was sent with Apajee gociator. 


Earl Cornwallis to Sir Charles Oakeley, Bart. 

SlR, Camp near Bangalore, Aug. 31, 1791. 

. . . Our success in the Coimbatore country has greatly 
exceeded my expectations, and I have notified to Major Cuppage 
my warmest approbation of his and Lieutenant Chalmers' conduct, 
and have desired him to acquaint M. La Combe, that I shall 
express to the Eajah of Travancore the sense I have of his merit. 

Lieutenant Chalmers appears to me to be highly deserving of 
some peculiar mark of favour, and as in the Company's service 
there are scarcely any means of conferring military rewards on 
officers of his rank, I must submit it to your Honourable Board 
whether it would not be proper to give him some pecuniary gra- 

The season is now too far advanced to render it probable that 
Tippoo would detach a large portion of his army to invade the 
Southern Provinces, or even to make another attempt upon Coimba- 
tore, but in any event, no exertions in our power should be 
omitted in endeavouring to defend them. . . . 

I am, &c., 


Major-General Grexville to Earl Cornwallis. 

[Received Aug. 1791.] 
My DEAR LORD, New Burlington Street, Jan. 19, 1791. 

. . . As to our politics in this part of the world, I have 
but little to communicate to you, as I take for granted that you 
will liave heard long before this of our having settled the dispute 
with Spain relative to Nootka Sound ] in an amicable way, and 
much to the honour and credit of this country, having obliged the 
haughty Don (though very reluctantly) to give up, under certain 
restrictions on our part, their unwarranted pretensions to an ex- 
clusive navigation of the greatest part of the South Seas. The 
very steady and spirited conduct of Ministry upon this occasion, 
and the extraordinary exertions made by the country in fitting out 

1 The Spanish Governor of California had and a considerable land force were equipped 

seized a small fort built by the English at at an estimated expeuse of 3,000,000/. with 

Nootka Sound, an island about 20 miles long, a view of attacking Cadiz, or the Spanish 

separated by a narrow channel from Van- West India Islands, but Spain accepted the 

couver's Island, and called Friendly Cove by terms proposed, and a satisfactory convention 

Captain Cook. An ample apology and full re- was sigued Oct. 28, 1790. 
dress were required from Spain. A large fleet 




and completely manning so large a fleet in so very short a space of 
time, has raised us very high in the opinion of all nations, and has 
given us that weight which we ought to have, and which we had 
very near lost, in the negotiations and treaties now carrying on 
upon the Continent. I saw our Mend Ewart the beginning of last 
month ; he has been obliged to come over to England on account 
of his health, in order to try the Bath waters, from which he has 
already found considerable benefit ; he is very sanguine in his ex- 
pectations Jof our being able to conduct, and. to bring to a happy 
and to an advantageous conclusion, the very important concerns 
relative to a general pacification, and to establish a due balance of 
power amongst the Northern Potentates. The late successes of the 
Empress of Russia against the Turks 1 have made her Imperial 
Majesty so very obstinate and high in her demands, that it is 
thought she will refuse all mediation on the part of Prussia, who 
has concluded a treaty offensive and defensive with the Porte, and 
must of course interfere to save them from utter ruin. How far 
we shall be engaged in this business I know not ; the reports of the 
day talk of press-warrants, &c, &c ; if it should turn out so, I am 
afraid it will not be a very popular war.*, •. . . Your aversion 
to the society of certain great personages is but too well founded. 
" Quantum mutatus ab illo Hectore," when you first was intro- 
duced to him at H[anove]r. Nothing can be worse than our pre- 
sent situation ; if the loan, which I understand is negotiating upon 
the security of the three P — V should fail, we shall be obliged, I 
am much afraid, to cut and run. It grieves me to the soul (as I 
cannot help having an affection for him for his behaviour towards 
me, which is always the most kind) to see so fine a game lost, and 
it really vexes me so much, that I hate to talk upon the subject 

1 The capture of Ismail by Suwarroff, 
Dec. 11, 1790. Upwards of 33,000 Turks 
of both sexes and all ages perished in the 

2 Mr. Pitt tendered the mediation of Eng- 
land, which the Empress Catherine declined, 
On March 28, 1790, a message was sent to 
both houses to announce a large increase to 
the fleet. The Opposition violently resisted 
any interference with Russia. The address 
in favour of the measure was carried in the 
Lords by 97 to 34, and in the Commons by 
228 to 135. The question was renewed 
April 12 by Mr. Grey; April 15 by Mr. 
Baker; and May 25 by Mr. T. Grenville. 
Notwithstanding three satisfactory divisions 
—253 to 173; 254 to 162; 208 to 114— 
Mr. Pitt ultimately abandoned his plan. It 

on this occasion that Mr., afterwards Sir 

Robert, Adair was supposed to have gone to 
Russia with a secret mission from Fox. 

*' Or was it he— the youth whose ardent soul 
With half a mission sought the frozen pole." 


3 The Prince of Wales and the Dukes of 
York and Clarence. A large loan was effected, 
and a considerable portion of the bonds taken 
up in France, where they circulated at a 
heavy discount. One of the Fermiers Gene- 
raux having, in 1794, refused to receive them 
at par, was denounced as an aristocrat by some 
republicans who held the bonds. The whole 
of those financiers, thirty-one in number, 
among whom was the celebrated chemist 
Lavoisier, were thrown into prison for the 
supposed crime of one. Their trial and con- 
demnation followed as a matter of course, 
and they were all executed May 15, 1794. 


Cnxr. Sill. 

I liave however the consolation to acquaint you that the King 
never enjoyed a butter or so good a state of health as at present. 
I have frequent opportunities of seeing Him. being inviinl very 
often to make up the Queen's party at cribbage at Fnnlriagban 
llniisi'. 1 have likewise the satisfaction to assure you that He 
always speaks of your Lordship in the kindest manner possible, 
with every mark of Ills esteem and approbation. . . . 

Beltora me, iVi-.. 

l.\ I 

P.S. H the war against Spain liad taken plaee, the expeditii 
wluch was fitted Ollt, and was actually under orders of march fin 
Portsmouth, was to have been commanded, as report says, by Sir 
W.J [owe. . . . 

Likbt.-Gevfual (3&un TO Emu. CbunrjlUB- 


ell fa 
bj Sir 

[RewiTod Ang. 17*1.] 
MY DEAR LOBD, SackriUe Street, Mnrrh 3, IfM. 

A vessel sails for India to-morrow, and contrary to. the hopes 
and wishes of your friends, this letter will find you at I felcstte in 
June, in place of our having the expected pleasure of seeing you at 
dinner, to give an opinion about some claret, which I carefully 
keep by the desire of my friend Ross, who thinks that it may, in 
common with the proprietor, improve by ago. The war is unlucky, 
but the measure was unavoidable ; the expense is immense, hut it 
is to be hoped Tippoo Sultan's defeat, and the loss of a great part 
of his domiiuons, will soon put an end to the expenditure, and 
l'i-ili:.|'-. with a blessing ii] fin your endeavours, some useful aeqiu- 
-itimis to the Oompany may defray a part of the charge, which 
i- li.'iv computed to be at least four million sterling a-year. Your 
conduct and government meet with the strongest approbation of 
the latum at large, and of a great majority of the Bean "l" I "< mi- 
liums, where everybody without exception speaks with great respect 
of yon ; and even the gentlemen who are the most inclined to find 
I'm ill \sitlt theirar, UlplIM great regard for your personal character ; 
I nit _v<ki know this country, and will not Ik- surprised or hurt at onr 
not being unanimous in our Approbation. A motion was made by 
lay, 1 reprobating the war. and the tntAtn eoocJodad 

1 Mi. llippnk-j manrl (Feb. 28) tiut »Wc Tnruioiin, and urging pOK* In t* 

nrlnin papcre ihmilil bt rtwl, ami thai Mi. uuuli (id inv I-nun. Tlwjr w*ie riffiallvrd 

Knincla prupand OUruMB rtaulutiont oon- mithout n liiilusn. Mr. Dundu movml, 

Jmaataai nm tliiiin that had l«*n dune March 3. WOnUr rw u tutioM tkrlai'ing thai 




with the Nizam and Mahrattas, without mentioning you ; but as 
that evidently conveyed an implied censure upon your conduct, it 
was thought necessary by Mr. Pitt and Dundas, that the House, in 
justice to your Lordship, should express their fullest approbation of 
your conduct in every particular. The House was well attended, 
and Dundas introduced the motion, leaving it to its own merits and 
the conviction of the House, without saying a word. Very little 
was said, but by Francis, the " Chicken of the Law" 1 Taylor, for 
Hippesley, who was absent, and for himself. Mr. Fox was up at 
different times ; had great respect for Lord Cornwallis, which had 
even increased since you went abroad ; but he could not approve 
of the war, which he thought might have been avoided. Dundas 
seemed to be inspired when he got up to answer everything which 
had been expressed or alluded to in the course of the debate, and 
declared that his wish was to remain silent upon the merits of your 
administration till you returned; but the sort of censure which 
had been thrown out, made it necessary to show Europe, Asia, and 
the world, that your conduct in every particular met with the fullest 
approbation. I never heard him speak so well, and I sat just 
behind Mr. Pitt and him ; and to do the Minister justice, he appears 
to me, as far as I can judge, in and out of the House, to give your 
conduct his hearty, warm, and cordial approbation ; his sentiments 
were delivered fully upon the subject, when Hippesley made his 
motion; he speaks so well and so ably at all times, and in so 
superior a style to all the rest of mankind, that it is impossible to 
make use of the word best to any of his speeches ; but as he had 
spoke so fully the preceding day, he only spoke occasionally last 
night in answer to Mr. Fox, who did not speak at length, but was 
up at different times. The House of Commons at present puts me 
a little in mind of the American war. Tippoo has not such power- 
ful and numerous supporters as Jonathan had, but if the devil was 
to appear in the figure of an Asiatick Prince, and disturb the peace 
and quiet of the British Government, he would find some Mends 
in this country, though it is flourishing, rich, and happy in its pre- 
sent situation. . . . 

I am a letter in Boss's debt, but I have not time to write by 

the conduct of Lord Cornwallis had been 
highly meritorious. These were carried with- 
out a division. Mr. Taylor, during the 
debate, recul a speech from Mr. Hippesley, 
who was too unwell to attend. 

1 Mr., afterwards the Kt. Hon. Michael 
Angelo Taylor, b. 1758, d. July 16, 1834; 
in. Ang. 7, 1789, Frances, dau. of Sir 
Henry Vane, Bart. M.P. for Poole, Aid- 

borough, Durham, Rye, and Ilchester, from 
May, 1784, to June, 1831 (except in the 
Parliament of 1802), and for Sudbury from 
Dec. 1832, till his death. It was in a debate, 
Feb. 9, 1785, on the Westminster scrutiny, 
that he called himself " a chicken of the law." 
On that occasion he voted in the majority 
against Mr. Fox. 


this conveyance, as a gentleman having got into my house has kept 
possession all the morning, in spite of all the hints I could give 
him, and has hardly left me time to say that I ever am, &c, 

James Grant. 

Earl Cornwalus to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas. 

DEAR SlR, Camp near Bangalore, Sept. 3, 1791. 

It gave me great satisfaction to find that my ideas corre- 
sponded so nearly with your own on the subject of the Charter. I 
can assure you that they were given with the best intentions, and 
that after much reflection since the time I wrote, I ham seen no 
reason to make any material alteration in them. 

We do not differ in our estimation of the value of Guzerat, but 
I am well convinced that unless the power of the Peshwa's Govern- 
ment should fall to pieces by an internal convulsion, we can never 
obtain possession of it but by a Maratta war, which is a price that 
I believe neither of us at present are inclined to pay for it. 

In the adjustment of the treaty which must 'terminate the 
present war, it would probably cause great embarrassment even to 
hint at such a proposition, for our good Allies want no spur to 
awaken their suspicion and jealousy ; and exclusive of their almost 
unconquerable tenaciousness of ancient possessions, I am persuaded 
that the smallest appearance of a wish on our part to extend our 
tetritories, and increase our strength so near to the seat of their 
Government, would at the present juncture have the worst effect 

If contrary to all probability they could be brought to nego- 
tiate for an equivalent, I do not think that it would be practicable 
to arrange it with them, and indeed I fancy from the earnestness 
which they show to get the management of the negotiation into 
their own hands, that it is their intention to take, if they can con- 
trive it, a great deal more than their share of what we may force 
Tippoo to concede to the Confederacy. I shall however be wary 
and guarded, and I trust that steadiness and plain dealing will be a 
match for cunning. . . . 

The Committee for investigating the complaints against the 
Messrs. Hollonds have completed their report, and I am told that 
the evidence against those two great offenders is so clear, that they 
cannot escape conviction. I wish the charge of attempting to 
extort money from the Rajah of Travancore could have been in- 
cluded; but I still hope it may be brought forward. They cer- 

1791. THE MYSORE WAR, 113 

tainly, I believe, received 12,000 pagodas in part from the Rajah, 
and, at the arrival of Medows* appointment, were endeavouring to 
screw him to the payment of a lac, as the price of their support/ 

You will easily conceive that I was not a little surprised when 
I hoard the Mysore War, which I have always considered an act 
of the most absolute and cruel necessity, treated as on our part 
unjust, ambitious, and inexpedient, and the treaties with the 
Marattas and the Nizam, which were concluded in exact conformity 
to the letter and spirit of the Act of Parliament, and on the fairest 
principles of self-defence, called infamous. 

I am perfectly sensible of the very handsome and honourable 
conduct of Administration on that occasion, and as far as it is pos- 
sible to judge from a newspaper account, I think that Mr. Pitt's 
speech and yours in the House of Commons, and Lord Grenville's 
in the House of Lords, 1 must have convinced every man who would 
suffer himself to be open to conviction. 

There are however some points which appear to me to be of 
importance, that were not noticed in the newspaper speeches, 
though perhaps they were not overlooked in the originals, such as, 
1st, my letter to Tippoo in 1788, warning him not to attack the 
Rajah of Travancore, whose territories we were, by the treaty of 
Mangalore, specifically bound to protect 2nd, the situation of 
Cranganore and Aycottah which, being perfectly defensive in 
respect of the Rajah's country, without affording the least conve- 
nience or advantage for invading Tippoo's dominions, could not 
possibly give any just grounds of apprehension or jealousy to the 
latter Prince, which, admitting (what nobody can deny) that he 
had not the smallest claim to these places, is the only pretence 
even in the argument of Opposition, that he could have for inter- 
fering. 3id, the letter from Mr. Powney, in June, 1789, to the 
Madras Board, informing them that the agreement between the 
Rajah and the Dutch, for the purchase of the places in question 
was about to be concluded, and which they neither answered to 
him, or ever mentioned to the supreme Government. 

There was another very material circumstance which was not 
only unknown to you, but likewise to myself till very lately, and 
which in poor Sir Archibald's bad state of health must have totally 
escaped 'his memory — I mean his correspondence in 1788 with 

1 Lord Porchester, on April 11, moved was carried against Lord Porchester by 96, 

three resolutions similar to those moved by including 12 proxies, to 19, including 2 

Mr. Francis in the Commons March 28. proxies. Lord Grenville's were carried 64 

Lord (ireiiville moved the same resolutions to 12. Lords Lansdowne and 1 'aw don spoke 

whi< h Mr. Duodas carried March 2. There in support of Lord CornwaJlis. 
were two divisions. The previous question 



Captain Bannerman, 1 who was then on a public mission to the 
Eajah ; for it now appears, and I have seen a copy of an acknow- 
ledgment of the fact from Captain Bannerman, that it was not 
only with the sanction, but with the advice of Sir Archibald, con- 
veyed through Captain Bannerman, that the Rajah entered into 
the negotiation for the purchase of those places from the Dutch. 
I have desired Sir Charles Oakeley to require an account of thig 
business from Captain Bannerman, and to transmit it in a private 
letter to you. Believe me, &c, 


Earl Cornwallis to C. W. Malet, Esq. 

SlR, Camp near Bangalore, Sept. 4, 1791. 

You will inform Nana that from a consideration of the 
Peshwa's true interests, as well as of the late treaty of Confede- 
racy, it is undoubtedly my wish and expectation that the whole 
force of the Maratta State should, if necessary, be employed in 
concert with the other Confederates, in k vigorous prosecution of 
the war against the common enemy ; and it would be particularly 
acceptable to me if the Peshwa would follow my example, and 
take the field in person, to give iclat and weight to the efforts of 
his Government. But you will desire Nana to advert that in con- 
ducting negotiations, a Power cannot at the same time be a party 
and a mediator ; and consequently, that the character of mediator 
would be totally unsuitable to the Peshwa, or to any other of the 
Confederates, who are all equally parties against Tippoo in the 
present war. 

You may also state to Nana, that as neither of the Confede- 
rates has a right to put the others to inconvenience by unnecessa- 
rily protracting any negotiation that may be opened, no mode of 
conducting it can be more reasonable or useful to the whole, than 
that which we now possess in this camp, by my own presence, 
and that of confidential persons invested with full powers by the 
other members of the Confederacy. And you will likewise ex- 
plain to him, that the object of immediate negotiation with Tippoo, 
can only with propriety be to ascertain the extent of the com- 
pensation to be obtained, for the losses and injuries that the 
Confederates have suffered from him ; and that he can by no 

1 Captain, afterwards Colonel, John Alex- vernoT of Prince of Wales Island, where he 
ander Rannerman, b. 1758, d. Aug. 1819. died. M.P. for Bletchingley from Jan. to 
A Director from 1808 to 1817 ; then Go- April, 1807. 




means be allowed to interfere in apportioning the share of each 
Confederate in that compensation. 

I trust that Nana will not only acquiesce in the general 
principle of this reasoning, but that there will never be any dif- 
ference in our public language on the subject, as by the terms of 
the treaty between the three Powers, all acquisitions that can be 
made from the common enemy (excepting certain districts named 
in the treaty, to which the Peshwa will have an exclusive right), 
are to be subject to equal partition amongst the Confederates ; 
and Tippoo therefore, as I have already said, can in no shape be 
permitted to meddle in an affair of some delicacy, which can only 
be arranged by the Confederates themselves. 

It appears highly improbable to me, that the Maratta State 
will find a difficulty in repelling any attack of which Tshmael 
Beg l can be capable, upon the province of Guzerat ; but at the 
same time, if the Peshwa should require our assistance for its 
defence,. I should be unwilling to refiise it 

Should therefore a formal application to that effect, be made 
by the Poonah Government, you may, without further reference 
to me, make a requisition to the Bombay Government for the 
assistance of one or two battalions, if it can be afforded without 
material inconvenience. 

But should you at the time of the application be doubtful of 
the continuance of tranquillity in Europe, you will refer it to me, 
that I may judge whether we can with safety comply with it. 

I am, &c, 


Earl Cornwallis to Viscount Brome. 

MY DEAREST CHARLES, Camp near Bangalore, Sept. 8, 1791. 

Your ready acquiescence in everything that was proposed 
gave me the greatest satisfaction, and I most earnestly hope that 
the intended plan will not only turn out the most usefiil, but 
the most agreeable, to yourself. 

If I had not come to India, I should have advised your going 

1 I*mael Beg, a Mahommedan chief, for 
some time in the service of Sindia, whom he 
deserted in 1787, with a view of establishing 
his own independence. He then joined Gho- 
lam Radir Khan, and was with him at the 
capture of Delhi. At the time mentioned in 
the text, he was waging war with Sindia, by 
whom he was defeated Sept 12. His restless 

and intriguing character led him to renew 
hostilities in 1792, but his army having 
been routed, he took refuge in the fort of 
Canoond, but was obliged to surrender to M. 
Perron, a French officer in Sindia' s service, 
on condition that his life should be spared. 
He died in confinement at Agra in 1799. 

I 2 


into the army, because you would have been pinched in your 
circumstances, and would have wanted the assistance of a pro- 
fession ; but that will not now be the case, and unless you had 
been actuated by as irresistible an impulse as myself, I should 
have been very sorry that you had determined to follow the 
thorny path that I have trodden. 

% If Tippoo does not offer reasonable terms before that time, I 
hope to oblige him to do so by a successful attack on Seringa- 
patam in November next ; but however favourable a turn our 
affairs may take, I cannot now expect, consistent with the duty I 
owe to my Country, to leave India before January, 1793, and I 
trust that my evil stars cannot detain me longer than that period. 
I grow old and more rheumatic, and have lost all spirits, and 
shall only say when I return — a soldier worn with cares and toils 
of war is come to lay his wearied bones among you. You remem- 
ber Wolsey's speech, but I shall have an easier conscience than 
ho probably had. 

God bless you, my dearest Charles. 

I am, your truly affectionate Father, 


Earl Counwallis to the Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry. 

DEAR JAMES, Camp near Bangalore, Sept. 8, 1791. 

. . . It is provoking that any man of common sense in 
England should suppose that we could have avoided this war, yet 
the letters of some members of Opposition to their friends here talk 
that language, and whatever inducement they may have to say in 
Parliament, they can have none to write to this country, what ihey 
do not believe. Everything at present remains much in the same 
state as when I wrote before. Tippoo is still at or near Seringa- 
patam, and the Maratta Court continues to make the strongest 
professions of friendship, and of its determination to adhere to 
engagements. Where the infamy can be, when you are, without 
the least provocation on your part, wantonly attached by an 
ambitious and powerful neighbour, in concluding a treaty with 
two other neighbouring Powers to assist you, is only to bo dis- 
covered by the penetrating genius of that lively statesman and 
successful negotiator, Lord Stormont. 

If Tippoo does not propose admissible terms before that time, 
I hope to bo able to begin my march to Seringapatam by tho 
beginning of November, and if we can then find the means of 


feeding the prodigious number of men and cattle that we shall 
cany with us, I think we cannot fail of success. 

I have however been too much accustomed to disappointments 
to feel very sanguine about anything, and although I have 
decidedly fixed January 1793, for my leaving India, I am often 
disposed to think that so much happiness can never fall to my lot, 
as to be once more restored to my friends and country. 

Yours, &c, 


I cannot believe that Lord Porchester l could seriously think of 
attacking the Board of Control on a business of which ho must 
see by the papers that they were perfectly ignorant, and could 
have no responsibility whatever. 

Earl Cornwallis to the Secret Committee. 

GENTLEMEN, Camp near Bangalore, Sept 8, 1791. 

It is necessary for your full information of our present 
political situation, that 1 should enter more into particulars on 
some points with you, than appeared to me to be proper in my 
public letter to the Court of Directors. 

Tippoo's strength and resources are now so much reduced, 
that he must soon be forced to sue for peace upon any terms, 
provided our Allies will faithfully execute their engagements, and 
employ their forces vigorously in concert with us; but until he 
shall give up all hopes of being able by arts and intrigues to 
disunite the Confederacy, I have the strongest reasons to be con- 
vinced, that he will not negotiate with sincerity for a general 
accommodation with the three Powers. 

Exclusive of his endeavours, in which he so long persevered, to 
open separate negotiations with the different members of the 
Confederacy, he has exerted his utmost industry by secret emis- 
saries, to corrupt and gain several of the Nizam's and Peshwa's 
Chiefs ; but although his success in some instances may have 
tended to encourage him, and to occasion considerable temporary 
inconvenience to me, yet the effects of these subordinate measures 
have not relieved him in any degree from the danger with which 

1 Henry Lord Porchester, so created Oct. dau. of Charles 2nd Earl of Egremont. 

17, 1780, and made Earl of Carnarvon July Master of the Horse Feb. 1806 to March, 

3, 1793, b. Aug. 20, 1741, d. June 3, 1811 ; 1807. M.I\ for Wilton, May, 1703, to June, 

m. July 15, 1771, Elizabeth Alicia Maria, 1780. 


he is threatened by the weight of the whole Confederate force, 
as I have never had any grounds to apprehend that they have had 
the least influence upon the councils of the States, to which the 
Chiefs who have at times listened to Tippoo, respectively belong. 

You will learn from the general tenor of Sir Charles Malet's 
correspondence, that, in his opinion, the Poona Government would 
have no scruple in using any means that could secure for them the 
principal management of the negotiation, in the hopes of obtaining 
by it exclusive advantages to the Maratta State. 

Hurry Punt, who is artful and able, and has been lately in- 
vested with full powers by the Peshwa, has plainly discovered a 
disposition to pursue the same object ; but I shall take care that he 
shall not succeed in it, and indeed I had lately an opportunity, 
without giving him any ostensible grounds for being offended, to 
discourage him from making any further attempt of that nature. 

At the time that I agreed to allow Tippoo to send a Vakeel to 
make propositions to the Confederates, I was perfectly convinced 
that the object of the Vakeel's mission would be to intrigue with 
individuals, and to create jealousies amongst the members of the 
Confederacy, but without the least intention to negotiate seriously 
for the conclusion of a general peace. 

Accordingly it appeared almost immediately after the arrival of 
Deliel Diel Ehan and Apajee Earn, the two persons whom he 
deputed, within our posts, that my suspicions had been well- 
founded ; for they expressed their expectations of being received 
with public marks of distinction, and of being allowed to remain 
with all their followers in* our camp, and Apajee Earn, who had 
resided on the part of Tippoo some time at Poona, declared that 
his Master had addressed him in particular to Hurry Punt, to be 
introduced through him to me; and Hurry Punt earnestly sup- 
ported all these proposals. 

On the other hand I stated the insidiousness of the declarations 
of the Vakeels in so strong and clear points of view to Hurry Punt, 
and the consequent necessity on our part to use the most rigid 
caution in transacting business with them, that he could not deny 
the solidity of my reasoning, and acquiesced, though reluctantly, 
in my proposal that a confidential person should be sent by each 
of us to the Vakeels, who were requested to repair to Oossore to 
meet these confidential persons, and to communicate to them the 
propositions with which they had been entrusted by their Master, 
for our consideration. 

The Vakeels however declared, in answer to the letter which it 
had been concerted to write to them, that their instructions did not 


permit them to desist from requiring to be received in camp, nor 
authorize them to open their business with deputies ; and Hurry 
Punt, admitting that we could not now, without betraying great 
weakness and inconsistency, comply with the expectations of the 
Vakeels, agreed that I should signify to them our joint request 
that they would return to their Master, unless they would com- 
mence the negotiation in the manner that we proposed, and they 
accordingly left us soon after the receipt of that letter. 

Meer Allum, who arrived in camp with full powers from the 
Nizam, two days before the departure of the Vakeels, warmly 
approved in his Master's name, of all the steps that had been 
taken respecting the Vakeels at my recommendation, judiciously 
observing, that if Tippoo's desire to negotiate a general accom- 
modation on terms proportioned to the just expectations of the 
Confederates, were not at that time sincere, nothing but disad- 
vantage could have resulted to us from the residence of the 
Vakeels in our camp ; and that when he becomes anxious to 
obtain a peace, and sincerely willing to make the necessary con- 
cessions for it, he will not scruple to renew his application for 
leave to send the same or other Vakeels to make his propositions. 

Although the Nizam's troops, from some of their Chiefs having 
been corrupted by Tippoo, and from their being totally destitute 
of discipline and subordination, were not only useless, but even an 
intolerable burthen upon us during the last Campaign, I have 
never yet seen the least ground to doubt the sincerity of his High- 
ness's or of the Minister's intentions, to adhere strictly to the engage- 
ments of the treaty ; and I am willing to hope that the authority 
of the Minister and of his Highness's Son, upon the spot with me, 
will render that cavalry much more serviceable in future than it 
has hitherto been. 

The promptness with which the Nizam entered into the treaty, 
and the zeal that he has shown in carrying on the war in concert 
with us, may be partly, and perhaps principally, attributed to his 
hatred and dread of Tippoo ; but I have also long seen reason to 
suppose that he indulges himself in hopes that his ready compliance 
with my requests or recommendations will, when the present con- 
test shall be terminated, constitute a claim for the friendship of the 
Company, and induce them to form a close connexion with him, 
by which means he will hope to obtain a substantial protection 
against the continuance of the overbearing and avaricious inter- 
ference, which the Marattas have for several years exercised in his 
affairs, and under which lie has long been impatient. 

It will, however, be a subject well deserving the most mature 



cuac xni. 

consideration, bow fur it may be prudent in us to gratify these ex- 
pectations, in a Prince who has no just claims of such a nature 
upon ns, and whose Government must ever be weak from its total 
want of system and energy, at the hazard of exciting I 
jealousy of a people, who, although their power from the fbodd 
constitution of their stale can never bear any proportion i-> ih-ir 
numbers, or the extent of their possessions, must always have great 
weight in the polities of India, 

The Marattas are too watchful and clear-sighted, where their 
interests are coueerned, not to have observed the propensity in the 
Nizam that I have mentioned, and I must confess that I cannot 
help apprehending some inconvenience to the common cause from 
the suspicions they may have conceived on that head, in tin- OOQDH 
ill' lii" iir-grifintiuns in which we shall probably be soon engaged. 

You may, however, bo assured, that I shall not only u*> the 
prroiitcst nn ini!s|Kvtion, in avoiding any step which could give 
either of the other two Members of the Confederacy just ground of 
'■"iiM'liiir.f against us, bat that I shall also do the utmost in my 
jtower to conciliate and preserve a good understanding DBtwfjBI 
l,l """" h, - J - I have, &&, 


Earl Cornwallis to the Rev. B. Grisrale. 

DEAR GRISDALE, Comp our Bmgilore, Sqit. 8, 1791. 

Ill the same packet of letters winch contained yours of the 
18th of December, I found one from Sirs. t'oniwallis, informing 
me that she had given you the living of Withington. 1 I trust you 
know me too well to doubt the sincerity of the joy which I ii It oi 
that oooanon : may you long enjoy every comfort and liappineas of 
domestic life. 

God knows where our war will end, I hope and trust it will be 
soon, or it will end me ; I do not mean that I am ook, 1 

in. and eiiM wind u well a- the youngest of them, but 
I am plagued, and tormented, and wearied to death, 

God bless you my dear Grisdale, I have no time to send you 
news, but con only assure yon that I am with great truth, 
Yuiir humI faithful and affectionate friend, 


; between 


Marquis of Lansdowne to Earl Cornwallls. 

[Received Sept. 26, 1791.] 
MY DEAR LORD, London, April 27, 1791. 

Mr. Baring tells me that the Company send their despatches 
to-night, which makes me sit down to write to you very hastily, an 
account of what passed in the House of Lords, 1 seeing everything 
much disfigured in the papers, and not knowing what accounts 
your friends may send you, with none of whom I am in any habits, 
except with Peter Bathurst, who is not, as you well know, a man 
of detail. 

The Opposition insisted on three points, — 1st the War ; 2nd, 
the Partition Treaty, which they stil'd infamous ; 3rd, the Infrac- 
tion of Treatys with the Nabob and the Eajah of Tanjore ; and 
their object was to suppose everything that was done, was in conse- 
quence of orders from home, of which they could bring no proo£ 

Administration defended themselves and what was done, 1st, by 
the importance of the forts in Travancore ; 2nd, by the punctilious 
regard due to the treaty with the Rajah of Travancore ; 3rd, the 
general abhorrence in which Tippoo's character was held by every 
Englishman ; concluding with rather an hyperbolical eulogy of your 
Lordship, but shying, as far as I could judge, all question of treatys, 
except what regarded Travancore. It was impossible they could 
do otherwise, considering the ground they stood upon in common 
with Opposition in all Hastings' prosecution, which still continues 
to be the general touchstone. I had no object in attending except 
to do your Lordship justice, and to do everything I could to this 
effect consistent with my own principles. I felt this very easy, by 
proving from extracts from your correspondence, that you felt the 
whole question of Travancore, as nothing to be put in comparison 
with the evils which must result from war. That your conduct 
therefore must have been governed by a conviction of Tippoo's 
conduct regarding Travancore making part of a general flow of 
hostility against the British power. This I conceived appeared 
from several passages in the papers before the House, and if it did 
not appear distinctly, it only proved that the materials were not 
sufficient to warrant any proceeding. The proceedings in regard 
to treatys was justify'd by the practice in Europe, still more by the 
practice of India, and the impossibility of this country's defraying 
the expence, without entering into the morality of political actions. 
Our present possessions in India were not insisted upon at the 
Peace of 1782, from a conviction of their importance, so much as 

1 See Lord Cornwall's to Mr. Dundas, Sept. 3 (note). 



from point of honour. My own opinion was, that everything but 
Bengal and Bombay was a burthen upon us, and that if your Lord- 
ship had gone only, when I first proposed it to you, had I continued 
in, you would most probably have carry'd instructions to this effect ; 
but that I was morally certain from a variety of circumstances, that, 
when you did go, your instructions went to the general preservation 
of the whole, and that your character as well as duty went to a 
manly and punctual execution of whatever orders you carried. I 
stated besides the unfairness of laying several papers before the 
House, such as your letter to the Nizam, one of the Nabob's letters 
to General Medows, and what you say about France, &c, and 
ended by moving the previous question, considering the acquittal 
about to bo moved by Government as contemptible and unworthy, 
and that it would be doing you much more justice to wait your 
return, when you would be here to explain your conduct* and to 
await reward or censure, as your conduct should appear to deserve, 
from the King and the public. The case of Hastings sufficiently 
proves the futility of all such votes. 

Whether I judged right or no, I do not presume to say in the 
case of another ; but I can truly affirm, that if the case had been 
my own, it is what I should have wished. But, my dear Lord, as 
things grow serious where you are, you should have some confidential 
friend in London fiilly instructed as to all the motives of your con- 
duct, who should be able to apprize your friends of what you desire, 
and not leave yourself in the power of any Administration. As to 
myself, you may depend upon my sincere desire to do you every 
possible justice, without the least wish to know the secrets of your 
Government, or to be further instructed than is necessary to accom- 
modate as far as I can to events, without sacrificing my own cha- 
racter or principles, which I am sure you would never look for. 

I must do Hastings and his friends the justice to say, that they 
are perfectly sensible of your very handsome conduct towards him, 
and are disposed to make every return in their power. 

Mr. Baring is for the present at the head of the Company in 
Leadenhall-street, and I am persuaded will do everything he can 
to show you respect and regard. Nothing shall be wanting on my 
part to keep liim attentive to your interests and honour. 

As for general politicks, you must have correspondents much 
better informed than I am. I am in no confidence whatever, 
and seek none, being desirous to keep clear of all parties. I 
think there will be no war, at the same time that Administration l 

1 Lord Lansdowne seems never to have meat. His belief that the king was un- 
been on cordial terms with Mr. Pitt's govern- friendly to them was certainly not correct. 


have got themselves into most unaccountable difficulties, while 
their hold at Court seems so precarious, that a short time must de- 
termine whether they are to continue for another year, or to break 
to pieces at the end of the Session, As to France, I may be wrong, 
for I differ from many, but I am much mistaken if they do not 
turn out more powerful than ever. 

I am shock'd at the length of my hasty scrawl, but you will 
accept it as an undoubted proof of the attachment, with which I 
must ever remain, Yours, &c, 


P. S. Since writing the above I am favoured with your letter 
of the 23rd of November. 

The state of the Carnatick appears very critical, and we are in 
no want of inflammatory matter at home. But I am in no pain 
about what regards you personally. If things succeed you must 
necessarily have your full share of credit, as so much depends upon 
the execution. 

If they fail, I am sure it will not be your fault, for I am per- 
suaded it will be from the nature of things, which it belonged to 
Government here to foresee, and I consider you, my dear Lord, as 
merely executive. You may depend on my cordial zeal, whenever 
your name comes in question. I only wish you not to take too 
much of the general system upon you. 

Major-General Grenville to Earl Cornwalus. 

[Received Sept. 1791.] 
MY DEAR LORD, New Burlington Street, May 4, 1791. 

. . . I take a most sincere pleasure in acquainting you 
that the attack made upon you in both Houses by the Opposition, 
tending to condemn the measures you had adopted in regard to 
the war with Tippoo, has not only completely failed, but has turned 
out so much to your honour and credit, that votes of approbation 
have passed both Houses, and Lord Grenville assured me that he 
never had a more easy or more pleasant task, than in defending 
your conduct and measures upon this occasion. 

We have again been obliged to arm on account of the refusal 
on the part of the Empress, to listen to our terms of mediation in 
favour of the Turks ; Op}K)sition have fully availed themselves of 
the opportunity of Parliament's sitting, to cry down and to impede 
the measures of "Government ; and as John Bull does not under- 


stand or approve of German politics and alliances, it is but too 
easy a matter to make the war appear unpopular, so that it is 
much doubted whether Mr. Pitt will think proper to go on with it, 
and of course the Empress will be encouraged to persevere, and I 
am much afraid, that instead of procuring us peace (which Opposi- 
tion take credit for) it will in the end turn out the reverse, and bo 
productive of very serious consequences to this country. 

The Duke of York left England the day before yesterday, 
having obtained his Majesty's permission to make a campaign with 
the Prussian army, in case war should take place. His Royal 
Highness has not thought fit to take any one of his family with 
him, which has an extraordinary appearance and not easily to be 
decyphered ; Lieut-Colonel St Leger l of the Prince of Wales's 
family, is the only one that attends him. If I had had any weight 
with him, I should have recommended to him to have taken Cap- 
tain Crauford, 2 of his own family, who understands the language 
perfectly, and is a tolerable good draftsman, and would have been 
of great 'service to him upon many occasions. I know very little 
of Colonel St. Leger, but from his total ignorance of the language, 
and being very much a man of pleasure, I can hardly think that he 
will be of any further use to H. R. H. than that of an agreeable 
companion, to which no one could have had an objection, provided 
H. R. H. had taken Crauford by way of a fag for the purposes above 
mentioned. I am however inclined to think that there will be 
no war, and therefore it will not be of so much consequence: 
H. R. H. proposes to return to England about September, in case 
affairs are made up, and at all events about the latter end of No- 
vember. I wish most sincerely that he could be persuaded to make 
a longer stay, for at least three years, and then there would be 
some chance of his extricating liimself out of his present difficulty's, 
though I am afraid, We are ruined past redemption in every respect. 
I have this moment called upon your brother the Bishop, who tells 
me that I must send my letter to him this evening in order to go 
with his ; I must therefore conclude with repeating to you my most 
sincere wishes for your success. Adieu ! my dear Lord. 

Believe me, &c, 

My best respects to Ross. ... R. G. 

1 Lieut.-Coloncl John Hayes St. Leger, Charles Crauford, G.C.B., Colonel 2nd Dra- 
afterwards Major-General and Colonel tith goon Guards, d. March 26, 1821 ; m. Feb. 
Dragoon Guards, Equerry to the Prince, b. 7, 1800, Anna Maria, dau. of William 2nd 
July 23, 1756, d. 1799, unm. M.l\ for Earl of Harrington, and widow of Thomas 
Okehampton, Nov. 1790 to May, 1796. 3rd Duke of Newcastle. M.P. for East Ret- 

2 Captain, afterwards Licut.-G«neral Sir ford from 1806 to 1812. 


Earl Cornwallis to the Marquis of Lansdowne. 

My DEAR LORD, Camp 12 miles north of Bangalore, Oct. 9, 1791. 

I received a few days since your very kind and friendly 
letter, dated the 27th of April. 

I am it is true engaged, and God knows most unwillingly, in a 
scene of trouble, but it has been my consolation and support, that 
my labours and vexations were inevitable, unless I had after the 
example of Sir Thomas Rumbold, 1 deserted my post in time of 
danger ; for I never entertained the smallest doubt of the absolute 
necessity of the war. We might perhaps have obtained a short 
respite from hostilities by abandoning our ally, and soaping our 
nose, but that would not long have secured us from being kicked. 

Tippoo had not the most distant shadow of right to interfere in 
the transaction between the Dutch and the Rajah of Travancore, 
for the transfer of Cranganore and Jacottah ; nor could it be a 
matter of any consequence to his own situation, unless he meditated 
an attack upon the Rajah of Travancore, whether he or the Dutch 
were in possession of them. 

The forts, if they deserve that name, were after all of very little 
consequence, and if I had been informed of what was going forward, 
I should .have advised the Rajah not to purchase them. - But 
although the Rajah was encouraged to make the proposition to the 
Dutch, by Captain Bdnnerman, the Resident at his Durbar from 
the Governor of Madras, with the knowledge, and consequently 
not against the consent of Sir A. Campbell and Mr. Hollond, the 
first intimation that I received of the business was conveyed in the 
letter from the Government of Fort St. George, dated in August, 
1789, in which Mr. Hollond most grossly misrepresented the matter 
to me, in order to draw from me a disapprobation of the Rajah's 
conduct, with a view probably of being able more easily to extort 
from him a present of a lack of pagodas, for which it is confidently 
asserted he was then negotiating. 

The circumstance of my treaties with the Marattas and the 
Nizam having been called infamous by Lord Stormont, from whose 
success as a negotiator and a minister, Great Britain has not de- 
rived very signal benefit, does not sit heavy on my mind. Being 
forced to have recourse to arms, without any alternative but the 
meanest and most contemptible submission to the insolent and un- 
founded claims of Tippoo, I conceived it to be iny duty to secure 

1 Sir Thomas Kumbold, then Governor of was charged with having bribed Hyder to 
Madras, quitfm] his post May, 1780, and delay the invasion. 
Hyder commenced hostilities in June. He 


every advantage in my power ; nor could I have supposed that since 
the days of knight-errantry, any person would seriously have avowed 
a different sentiment. 

What is it however that we astonished Indians do not read in 
your debates ? We there see that Tippoo is our barrier against 
the Marattas. The Tiger a barrier against the Deer! As well 
might it have been said to the Elector of Saxofay during th&JSeven 
Years' War, How fortunate aro you to have so noble a barrier as 
the great Frederick, against the power of Sweden, which some years 
ago threatened the ruin of your dominions I 

I am well convinced, my dear Lord, of your earnest desire to 
see justice done to my conduct, and I trust that will be the general 
sentiment of Parliament, as far as justice and party can go hand 
in hand 

The whole and real motives of my actions are fully and freely 
explained in my public letters, and I persuade myself that they 
will satisfy every candid and impartial man in the nation ; and as I 
have no ground of complaint against your Administration, who 
have behaved to me since I have been in this country in a most fair 
and honourable manner, and as they have to my knowledge acted, 
on this quarter of the globe, an honest part towards their country, 
I certainly shall never give them any just reason to complain* 

To the judgement of my countrymen at large shall I most 
cheerfully submit the points of my government ; the more minutely 
every measure is investigated the more clearly will it appear that I 
have been a faithful, zealous, and economical servant to them. 
They will see that I have neither taken their money mjself nor 
suffered others to take it, that my cheap contracts Have been as 
usefully executed for the public service as the former extravagant 
ones, and that I most carefully avoided involving them in a war 
until the preservation of their honour and credit, and indeed the 
security of their existence in this country, rendered it absolutely 
necessary. j am> &Cy 


Earl Corswallis to Sir John Kennaway, Bart. 

Q k * 

OlR, Camp 10 miles from Bangalore, Oct 22, 1791. 

. . . In order to overcome as much as possible the im- 
pressions which have been given to the Nizam and tho Minister, 
relative to the probable distress of the army for grain and forage 
when it advances to Seringapatam, I have enclosed a copy of a 


letter that I have written to Sir Charles Malet on that subject, 
which will apply equally to the apprehensions entertained by Azim 
ul Omrah and Nana Furnavese. 

If the Minister should obstinately persevere in his intention of 
bringing Assnd Ali with him to the army, and of suffering Teige 
Wunt to remain with it, I wish you to tell him that I shall not 
think it worth my while to protest formally to the Nizam agfrinst 
that resolution. 

You will however repeat to him from me, that nothing could 
be more disagreeable to me than their presence with this army, 
as I look upon them to be unfaithful and treacherous servants to 
their own Master ; and, after the infamous manner in which they 
behaved to me last season, they are men in whom I never can 
place the smallest confidence, and with whom I should wish in 
future to avoid all sort of intercourse. I am> fo^ 


Eabl Cornwallis to the Right Hon. Henrt Dundas. 

DEAR SiB, Camp between Bangalore and Oossore, Oct 24, 1791. 

I am very glad that you overruled the procrastinating 
disposition of the Court of Directors, as the paragraph which they 
proposed to send would have tended very much to damp the hopes 
that I have taken pains to encourage of the settlement being 
declared permanent 

This important point, in the midst of the cares which attend 
my present station, occupies much of my anxious thought, and I 
am convinced that the interests of Government and the happiness 
of the people, which generally go together, will be most essentially 
secured by the adoption of it. 

I refer you to my letter of this date l to the Court of Directors 
for an account of the situation of the armies and of the late mili- 
tary occurrences, which, except in cases that require particular 
explanation, is the most convenient channel for us both. You 
will see that I have been particularly careful to remove the only 
obstacle that could have materially defeated the effect of our other 
preparations by the means I have taken to secure a constant 
supply of grain in our bazar for the maintenance of our followers, 
who cannot be supported from the public stores, and who are as 
necessary to the success of our operations as the fighting men, for 

1 See Appendix. 


Mithout their assistance we could neither move our artillery, stores, 
or camp equipage. When I joined the army there was not a 
single Binjarry belonging to it, and we have now above 40,000 
Binjarry bullocks (of which number at least 15,000 served the last 
campaign with Tippoo in the Coimbatore country) constantly em- 
ployed in collecting and transporting supplies for us. 

I received Mr* Pitt's letter by the Bridgewater, and I was very 
happy to learn from it that the seals were to be put into such 
able hands. I shall write to him by the next opportunity. 

Believe me, &c, 


Earl Corwalus to the Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry. 

DEAR JAMES, Camp between Bangalore and Oossore, Oct. 26, 1791. 

. . . The business of Culford House being now finally 
settled to your liking (and you may be assured it will be most 
perfectly to mine), if Mr. Henniker 1 would give up Eye you 
woidd be relieved from a great weight of cares ; and I heartily wish 
that it were so. The debates in both Houses about our Indian 
war are provoking to the highest degree : when I see that selfish 
narrow-minded fellow, Lord Porchester, accusing the founder of the 
war of avarice, I cannot help lamenting that I am not within reach 
of his ears. 

I have in a former letter expressed my satisfaction about 
Brome's good-humoured acquiescence in everything that was pro- 
posed, and I am certainly glad for his sake that he had not his 
father's unfortunate propensity to the military. I have not had an 
opportunity of recommending a captain for the purchase of a 
major's commission since I have been in India ; the majors who 
have sold transacted their business at home, where the War Office 
is glad to catch at everything it can. There are however, so many 
very old captains in this army with strong pretensions and claims 
upon the justice of the Commander-in-chief, that I can see no pro- 
bability of my being able to give Captain St. John 8 a step during 
my stay in this country. . . . 

The preparations for our forward move are going on, and I 

1 John Henniker, afterwards, April 18, St. John, younger son of John 11th Lord St. 

1803, 2nd Lord Henniker, b. April 19, 1752, John; b. Oct. 19, 1764 ; in. May 10, 1795, 

d. Dec. 5, 1821; m. April 1, 1791, Emily, Lavinia, dau. of William Breton Wolsten- 

dau. of Robert Jones, Esq., of Duffryn. holme, Esq. He, his wife, and four children, 

M.P. for New Romncy from 1785 to 1790, were lost in their passage home from Bom- 

and for Stamford from 1812 to 1818. w in the Prince of Wales Indiaman in 

1 Captain, afterwards Colonel, Hon. George k 


trust we shall be able to proceed in less than a month. I have 
just taken a very strong fort of Tippoo's, the possession of which 
will be of great use in securing our communications and protecting 
our supplies. We have now as plentiful a grain market in camp 
as you would see in a country town in England, and I hope 
to ensure the continuance of it when the army shall be before 
Seringapatam. This war adds much to my expenses without 
giving any increase to my income, and as I from the first declined 
to take any share of prize-money, it is not likely that my avarice 
will be much gratified by it. Yours &c. 


Earl Cornwallis to Major Cuppagr. 

SlB, Camp near Bangalore, Nov. 11, 1791. 

Your account of the behaviour of the 5th and 16th Madras 
and of the 12th Bombay battalions, entitle them to my warmest 
acknowledgments, and I desire that you will please to communi- 
cate to the Officers and Soldiers of those corps the high sense which 
I entertain of their merit and gallantry. 

Unacquainted as I am with the country, I cannot take upon 
myself to give an opinion in respect to the plan of your march ; 
but it appears to me that the circumstances must have been very 
untoward that obliged you to come into the open country, and to 
encamp in a position so untenable, as to expose you to the distressing 
necessity of making an immediate retreat as soon as the enemy's 
army advanced against you, which must have had the infallible 
effect of elating the enemy and of discouraging the garrison of 

I have no doubt that in the execution of this critical and diffi- 
cult operation, everything was done on your part that became a 
good and capable Officer, but I cannot help expressing the concern 
that I have felt on observing tliroughout the whole tenor of your 
letters to me since the enemy sat down before the place, a coldness 
and almost an unconcern about the fall of Coimbatore, instead of 
that spirit which seemed to have animated not only yourself but 
the southern provinces at the time of the former attack. 

During the period between the 5th of last month, when you 
received certain accounts that the enemy were before Coimbatore, 
and the 22nd, when you marched to its relief, it does not appear 
that you applied either to Dindigul, Madura, Caroor, or Trichinoply 
for any assistance, although a proportion both of Europeans and 



Natives might have been drawn without hazard from those places, 
and there was time, if necessary, to have obtained the sanction of 
the Government of Fort St. George for your being furnished with 
them ; and it does not seem by your letters to have been your inten- 
tion to detain, even for a few days, the 12th Bombay battalion, 
until that measure was in some degree forced upon you by the 
inability of bullocks to proceed upon their march to Tellicherry. 

I have been taught by general report to consider you as an 
intelligent and zealous Officer; appearances may have deceived 
me ; what I have taken for coldness may have proceeded only from 
a peculiarity of stile, and although you omitted to inform me of 
it, you may have endeavoured by every means and every appli- 
cation in your power to have increased the numbers of your regular 
force, and to have obtained, as on the late occasion from Mr. 
M'Leod, a body of Polygars to have opposed those of the enemy, 
whom you describe to liave been the most troublesome to you of all 
their infantry. I have thought it right, however, in fairness to 
yourself, and as a duty I owe to the public, to take an early oppor- 
tunity of stating my sentiments to you on the business, from the 
only information which your letters have afforded me. 

I am, &c, 


Earl Cornwallis to Sir John Kennaway, Bart. 

SlR, Camp at Magri, Dec 24, 1791. 

I have the pleasure to acquaint you that Welsh, by his 
jndicious and spirited conduct, obtained possession yesterday of 
Ramgheri, which, from its situation on the most direct road from 
Bangalore to Seringapatam, is a post of the greatest importance. 
And I have likewise to add that Lieut.- Colonel Stuart has just 
assaulted and carried Outradroog. 

In a conversation that I had with Meer Allum on the 22nd, he 
intimated that the Minister would encamp near Nundidroog and 
join me by the route I recommended, if his infantry could be 
augmented by two battalions from this army. 

It is a vain attempt, as experience must have taught you, as 
well as myself, to reason on Military subjects with persons who are 
utterly ignorant of geography, of what an enemy is capable of 
doing, and, indeed, of everything that relates to war; we must 
therefore request the Minister to place some confidence in the 
opinions of one who has served a long and active apprenticeship to 


that difficult profession, and if he should allow that it is not pro- 
bable that I should be guilty of gross errors, you will then gravely 
ask him whether he thinks it possible that a man of common sense 
in my situation, who has been honoured by so great a Prince as the 
Nizam with the distinction of his sending his own Son and Minister 
to join the army under his direction, would wish to expose persons 
of their rank, with the powerful reinforcement under their com- 
mand, to any insult or misfortune before they could form a junction 
with the forces of the Allies, I am £ c# 


Earl Cornwallis to the Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry. 

Deab James, Dec. 29, i79i. % 

In my last letter by the Queen Indiaman, I acknowledged 
the receipt of all your letters to the 9th of May, which is the latest 
that has reached me, and, as well as I recollect, took notice of 
everything material that they contained. 

I have been fortunate in taking in a very few days and with 
very little loss, the important fortress of Sevendroog, the possession 
of which was absolutely necessary to enable us to maintain a secure 
communication with Bangalore, when we advance to the attack of 

The speedy reduction of this place which has been considered 
all over India as impregnable, has struck great terror into the 
enemy's other garrisons, for in the three days subsequent to the 
assault of Sevendroog, three other strong forts in its neighbourhood, 
each of them capable of making a good resistance, fell into our 
hands. By these successes we have now a frontier line, to which our 
supplies may with ease be brought forward within 50 miles of the 
enemy's capital. God send that we may soon see a happy termina- 
tion of this war, of which I am most heartily tired. The Commo- 
dore has likewise had some share of trouble, for a wrong-headed 
captain of a French frigate fired two broadsides into the Phoenix, on 
Sir R. Strachan's l attempting to search two merchant-ships, which 
were supposed to be laden with military stores for Tippoo. This 
affair will perhaps make a great noise in Europe, but William is of 

1 Captain, afterwards Admiral, Sir Richard 40 wounded, the Phoenix 6 killed and 1 1 

Strachan, b. Oct. 7, 1760, d. Feb. 3, 1828; wounded. A long correspondence followed 

m. April 28, 1812, Louisa, dau. of between M. de St. Felix, the French Comnio- 

Dilloa, Esq. This action took place in dore, and Commodore Cornwallis. The 

Not. 1791, and the Resolute wa» com- former was at last compelled to admit that 

pelled to strike after losiug 25 killed and the French had been to blame. 

K 2 


opinion that the French Commodore will not support the nnjti-ti- 
tiable conduct of the Captain. It escaped my attention to mention 
one circumstance, relative to the planting out of the offices at 
Culford. It would Im>. I think, a pity to delay that business till 1 
come home, as a year's growth is of consequence, and I can easily 
make any alteration in it when I arrive, as young plants an- smm 
removed or cut down. . . . Yours, &c 


Earl Cornwalus to Sir Joiis Kenxaway, Bart. 

SlB, Camp at Mugri, Dm. 30, 1791. 

The march of the Saheb Zada, 1 the capture of Hafi-zjee.' 
and defeat, or rather dissolution, of lu'a army, the reduction of the 
lower fort of Gurrumeonda, effected by a corps composed only of 
cavalry, and the consideration of all the discouraging and dis- 
graceful consequences with winch these events must be 
have given mo, as you will easily conceive, the most serious 

It is, however, now of no use to look back. This is the fii\ I nr- 
able season for the execution of the great object of the Campaign, 
on the issue of which the fate of the war must neceaearflj 
and, whilst our preparations are in such forwardness, and our late 
important acquisitions have so completely paved the way for otir 
success, we must on no account let the opportunity escape us by 
turning our attention to matters of far inferior moment. 

It is undoubtedly essential, as well for the honour of the 
Nizam's Ciovenunent as to his weight and consequence in the Con- 
federacy, that his Son and Ids Minister should accompany the army 
lo the attack of Seringapatam. It would have been damnable that 
they should have been attended by a considerable force, according 
to his Highnesa's first intention. Circumstances, bametttt, htm 
nadend the latter impossible; and I have too much i 
the firmness and friendship of the Xizani, and the good ^"pftTJtfffn 
nnd zeal of tin 1 Minister for the iiiteiv.t- at the ' 'unfuderacy, to 
suppose for a moment that tiny would stuffcr considerations of 
punctilio, to interfere with the plan which has been bo long agreed 
upon and approved by the three Powers in alliance n 
and which alone can lead to a safe and honourable peace. 

I shall not then-fore hesitate to propose that the Prince and 

I WMi T>*>. ■ Wll lllllf lt«1 to Son of ' llui J«, or H.fii F«wd-t»d.|>w», 

tba Prima. In thin itutnio-t' il i> »]i]ilied to niirtJj int-uiiuunl, nu capluml hj tsirpriw 
KulMh Hyd*r. Ti[>pno'ii DM -on. and cru.lly pot todaitii lh> following d*.. 


Minister, with six or eight thousand of the best horse, or even a 
smaller number if more convenient, and the Company's two batta- 
lions, should proceed to join the army by the route of Chintomnipet 
and Bangalore, or any other which they may prefer, and that the 
remainder of the cavalry and infantry, with all the artillery except 
the four field-pieces attached to the two battalions, should be left 
in the neighbourhood of Gurrumconda, under the command of an 
officer, if such an one can be found, more trustworthy than Hafez 
Fereed-u-Deen. I conceive the road between Gurrumconda and 
the army to be perfectly safe, even for a single company of Sepoys ; 
for if the Saheb Zada's force was not now required to attend his 
Father at Seringapatam, there could be no danger of his repeating 
an irruption, the apparent rashness of which nothing but the confi- 
dence that he unfortunately had too much reason to place in the 
Nizam's General, could have justified. 

You will represent to the Minister, that we have guns and 
troops enough to encourage the most flattering hopes of success, 
and that, after having thrown open all the magazines of grain in 
the Carnatic to the Binjarries of the army, the loss of those which 
were following his Highness's troops, cannot be materially felt, 
especially when it is become necessary that so great a part of his 
force should remain behind. j ^n & a 





Campaign of 1702 — Attack on the linos of Seringanatam — Attempt to 

sinate Lord Cornwallis — Progress at the Sit-Rc — Censure of a Conrt Martial 
— Pros|)ect of returning to England — l.iitVirultv of Inning a mirrratrr — 
Terms offered to Tippoo — Treaty of Peace — Lord Cornwallis ret ami to 
Mndnis — Discussions with the Nabob of the Camniic — Unsatisfactory ter- 
mination of nidations with the Mnrathns — Lord Cornwallis raisi-d to Ilic 
Mnrquisoto — State of affairs in England — Disorders in Assam — Mission 
to Nepaul and to Assam. 

The campaign of 1792 opened under very favourable circumgfa 
Besides the cither detachments wliich had been brought up, the 
corps attached to the Nizam had, after putting his troops in pos- 
session of the Pettah of GooniTiicoiida, rejoined the army. The 
commissariat had been put upon a proper footing, and the Bin- 
jarries had collected upwards of 80,000 meu, and provided on 
ample supply of grain. It was important that while food was 
plentifully furnished to the bazaars, the price should not hi loo 
low, or else the merchants would have little inducement to exert 
themselves in providing the necessary quantities of grain. 

General Abercromby had moved in January from Bombay with 
8400 men; Lord Cornwallis had a force of 22,000 men, with 41 
field-guns, and a battering- train of 42 pieces. It was intended that 
l'lirstriuii Ithow should at once advance upon Sera; but he de- 
layed, principally from political motives, in earning out this plan. 
!!.■ luid in fact vague hopes of gaining Chittledroog by treachery, 
tad was .Nvupicd in plundering the country for his own hnBBltat 
His exertions during the last campaign had fallen very far short of 
his promises, and Lord Cornwallis was greatly disappointed. IIow- 
BTOt tin' man presence of his army, and that of the Nizam, pre- 
vented Tippoo from collecting his whole force against the English, 
and was thus productive of considerable advantage. 

On the 25th of January, Lord Cornwallis, accompanied liy 

I d Bf Jali' at the head of a considerable force, and by Hurry 

I'mii with a BaaO rape of Maruthas, commenceil his march from 

the vi.'iniiv ofSerstoaiooK when tin- nrfra armies had nnitad, 

In ten dayi they came within eifjjbl of Saringmpaisua, and on 



about six miles to the northward of that town, without haying fired 
a shot. # 

The defences of Seringapatam, though unfinished, were foi> 
midable ; there were three lines, the most advanced consisting of 
two, and the second of seven, strong redoubts. The third com- 
prised the fort itself, and the lines on the island in the Caveri, a 
river fordable but in few places. These earthen works were further 
covered by a bound hedge, consisting of wide belts of thorny plants, 
almost impenetrable by man or beast, the whole being defended 
by 300 pieces of artillery. Undismayed by these difficulties, Lord 
Cornwallis, after reconnoitring the lines on the morning of Febru- 
ary 6, determined to storm them that night No orders were issued 
till sunset, lest some treachery might disclose them to the enemy ; 
and about eight o'clock, under a brilliant moonlight, the three 
columns moved to the attack. Not the slightest intimation of the 
plan had been given to the Allies, who were in utter astonishment 
when they heard of a night attack without cannon ; and, to use 
the words of Colonel Wilks, " in great consternation at what they 
called Lord Cornwallis's undignified arrangement of going out him- 
self to fight like a common soldier." 

The force employed was about 9000 men, and the details of the 
arrangements are given in Lord Cornwallis's General Orders. The 
right column under General Medows was, after carrying the posi- 
tions in front of them, to join Lord Cornwallis who commanded the 
centre column in person. Misled by his guides, General Medows 
had diverged too far to the right, and thus Lord Cornwallis was 
left for some time unsupported, and exposed to considerable danger ; 
for after the island had been carried by the English, the enemy 
rallied and made a vigorous attack upon the centre column, which 
had been weakened by sending reinforcements both to Colonel 
Stuart and Colonel Maxwell. 1 The firing was heavy, and Lord 
Cornwallis exclaimed, " If General Medows is above ground, this 
will bring him. ,, But owing to the accident just mentioned, he 
was not able to join before daybreak ; and by that time Lord Corn- 
wallis, having repulsed the enemy, had fallen back with the re- 
mainder of his corps to the Carigat Hill, which had been carried 
by the left column, and where he could maintain his ground till he 
knew the extent of his success. This was indeed complete. The 
whole line of forts to the north of the river was taken ; every gun 
had been abandoned ; and the total loss to Tippoo, including those 

1 Lieut. Colonel Hamilton Maxwell, 74th Duchess of Gordon, d. June 8, 1794, at 
Regt^ a younger son of Sir William Maxwell, Cuddalore; unm. He had previously served 
Bart., of Mooreith, and brother to Jaue in America. 


who quitted their colours from a conviction that further resistance 
was useless, exceeded 23,000, In the British army the casualties 
were, — 

Right column .. 95 

Centre 342 

Left 98 


Among whom were 36 European officers. 

From the casualties in the centre column the share which Lord 
Cornwallis had in the action is evident. The whole loss however 
was slight, considering the length of time the engagement lasted. 
The firing began about eleven at night on the 6th, and did not 
finally cease till five in the evening of the 7th, when a last unsuc- 
cessful attempt was made to dislodge the British forces from the 
island. In the course of the night Tippoo evacuated all his posts 
to the north of the Caveri, and the English without a moment's 
delay commenced the siege. 

Just before Lord Cornwallis began his march, Tippoo had made 
a fresh proposal to send an envoy to his camp j but it was indig- 
nantly rejected, on the ground that no overtures could be received 
from a Prince who had so systematically disregarded capitulations, 
until the prisoners taken at Coimbatore should be liberated. To 
this intimation Tippoo at the time paid no attention ; but, when his 
overthrow seemed imminent, ho sent Lieutenant Chalmers and 
Lieutenant Nash, with most of the prisoners then in his possession, 
to the British camp, denying however that there had been any 
breach of capitulations, but expressing a wish to reopen negocia- 
tions. Lord Cornwallis, while accepting the release of the prisoners 
as some proof of a wish to make atonement, stated in distinct terms 
that Tippoo's assertions had no foundation in truth. 

Before the envoys whom Tippoo was allowed to send could reach 
the camp, he had made an attempt to relieve himself from his dif- 
ficulties, by the assassination of Lord Cornwallis. A small number 
of his horsemen contrived to get access to the interior of the camp, 
where they were supposed to belong to the Nizam's army. While 
riding along, apparently in a careless manner, they inquired for 
the tent of the commander, and the native artillerymen, of whom 
the question was asked, pointed out that of their own officer, 
Colonel Duff. The horsemen immediately dashed at the tent, 
cutting down the few soldiers they met; but the pickets turning 
out and firing upon them, they were obliged to fly with some loss.* 

1 It was afterwards ascertained that they terious liquid extracted from the leaf of the 
had been intoxicated with bang, a moat dele- Cannabia satira, a species of hemp. 

1792. , ALARM OF TIPPOO. 137 

Lord Corawallis was prevailed upon after this occurrence, to allow 
a captain's guard of Europeans to do duty at his quarters ; for pre- 
viously, in accordance with his known dislike of form or ceremony, 
he had never permitted above one, or at the most two sentries of 
his body-guard to mount at his door. 

Though the possibility of making peace was under discussion, 
Lord Cornwallis persevered in his hostile operations. General 
Abercromby advanced to Eratora, where he crossed the Caveri on 
February 11 ; on the 16th he was joined by Colonel Floyd, with 
the English and some of the allied cavalry. On the 22nd, General 
Abercromby, who operated to the northward, pushed his advanced 
posts very forward ; and in the mean time Colonel Stuart occupied 
a position on the island, where the beautiful gardens of Lall Baugh 
had been destroyed to furnish materials for the works. It is un- 
necessary to enter into the minor details of the siege, which was 
carried on with great energy and with little serious opposition. By 
the 22nd the breaching batteries were so far advanced, that it be- 
came certain that they could be opened by the 1st of March within 
500 yards of the wall 

The alarm in Seringapatam had now become excessive. On 
February 23 Tippoo assembled all his principal officers in the great 
mosque, and adjured them by the sacred contents of the Koran, 
which he laid before them, to say whether they would advise liim 
to assent to the terms demanded by the Confederates as prelimi- 
naries to a treaty. These terms involved the cession of half his 
dominions, the payment of three crores and sixty lacs (3,600,000Z.), 
the release of all prisoners, and the delivery of two of his sons as 
hostages. The unanimous opinion of the assembly was, that no 
further reliance could be placed on the troops, and that submission 
was inevitable. 

The discussions between the Vakeels of Tippoo, Sir John Ken- 
naway on the part of Lord Cornwallis, and deputies on the part of 
the Allies, when reduced to writing, extended to a most extraordi- 
nary length. They occupy upwards of 800 pages of close writing. 
Practically speaking the whole case of the Allies was left in the 
hands of Sir John Kennaway, as, though ministers were present 
both from the Nizam and the Peshwa, their Masters desired to leave 
the arrangements entirely to Lord Cornwallis, such confidence did 
they repose in the integrity of his character, the honesty of his 
policy, and the justice and moderation of his views. The only sug- 
gestion made by Hurry Punt was, that a sum should be demanded 
for bazar expenses, that is for gifts to the persons concerned in 
making the treaties. He proposed 60 lacs. The amount, but not 


the justice of the claim, was resisted by Gholaum Ali, and it was 
reduced by one-half. 

From papers found in Seringapatam on its capture in 1799, it 
is evident that although the Allies were really willing to leave the 
question of peace or war and the settlement of terms solely to Lord 
Cornwallis, their Ministers, while professing a similar readiness, 
were engaged in traitorous communication with Tippoo. But the 
firmness and decision of Lord Cornwallis baffled all their intrigues, 
and on February 23 the preliminaries were signed, and on the 25th the 
hostages were surrendered. Those who were present on this occasion 
described the scene as highly interesting. 1 The coolness and self- 
possession of the two boys, the eldest only ten years old, were most 
striking; and the more than paternal kindness of Lord Cornwallis, not 
only impressed his own European and native attendants with admira- 
tion, but produced in the minds of Tippoo's Vakeels, and the other 
Mysorean spectators, feelings of regard which were never effaced. 

When the portions of territory which were to be ceded came 
under discussion, most vehement opposition was made by Tippoo. 
The conduct of the Raja of Coorg has already been mentioned, and 
Tippoo flattered himself that when peace with the English was con- 
cluded, he should have full leisure and power to punish a chief 
whom he called a refractory vassal. But Lord Cornwallis was de- 
termined not to abandon a faithful ally, and therefore claimed, as 
part of the Company's share, a belt of territory, the possession of 
which protected the Raja from Tippoo. The latter was so indig- 
nant, that although he had already paid a crore, and that his sons 
were in Lord Cornwallis' camp, he threatened to break off the 
negociations. Without an hour's hesitation Lord Cornwallis ordered 
the siege works to be resumed, and the hostages were actually on 
their march towards Bangalore, when Tippoo yielded and the de- 
finitive treaty was signed. Lord Cornwallis set out on his return 
to Madras as soon as possible, but the excessive number of the 
sick, especially among the Europeans, greatly retarded his march, 
and a considerable time elapsed before he had finally evacuated the 
Mysorean territories. 

The policy of Lord Cornwallis was assailed by two very oppo- 
site parties — the one thinking that Tippoo had been too leniently 
dealt with, the other that he had been ill-treated and oppressed. 
The views of Lord Cornwallis, and the reasons which guided his 
conduct, are so distinctly given in his despatches, that it is unne- 
cessary to mention them here. 

1 The ICditor has often heard the details from hi* father General Ross, aud from Sir John 
henna way, who were both present. 


Lord Cornwallis had scarcely returned to Madras, when he found 
himself engaged in a discussion with the Nabob of the Carnatic. 
During the war, the Government of Fort St. George had assumed 
the management of his territories, but that interference necessarily 
ceased with the close of hostilities. Some definitive arrangement, 
however, was imperative, yet the Nabob was very reluctant to 
accede to the British propositions. This difficult question is the 
subject of several despatches, and was not finally settled at the de- 
parture of Lord Cornwallis from India. Nor was the conclusion of 
a permanent treaty with the Peshwa and the Nizam a less embar- 
rassing matter. By the 13th article of the Offensive and Defensive 
Alliance, contracted with them in 1790, it was provided, that if 
Tippoo should (the existing war being terminated) attack any one 
of the three contracting Powers, that one should be entitled to call 
upon the other two for aid. But Lord Cornwallis insisted that the 
two Powers thus called upon, should have a right to decide whether 
the attack was unprovoked, as he was determined not to be again 
involved in a war which was not strictly justifiable in its commence- 
ment. A protracted negociation with the Marathas followed, which 
ended unsatisfactorily. Nor could any arrangement be made with 
the Nizam. He was most anxious for a close union, but the terms 
'could not be agreed upon; and Lord Cornwallis, when he left 
India, went no further than to assure him that the British Govern- 
ment would respect existing treaties. 

Sindia could lay no claim to any favour from the Company ; 
not only had he not joined in the alliance against Tippoo, but he 
had even assumed a threatening attitude towards the Peshwa, and, 
had the war continued, would probably have undertaken active 
operations against that Prince, as it has since been ascertained that 
he was in close communication with Tippoo at the time he was 
professing the warmest attachment to the English. That attach- 
ment might perhaps have been secured had Lord Cornwallis favoured 
liis designs against the Eajpoot States in the north of Hindustan, 
and given him a contingent with which he could have overawed the 
Court of Poonah. 

Earl Corn\valli3 to thb Right Hon. Henry Dundas. 

DEAR SlR, Camp near Ootradroog, Jan. 13, 1792. 

Nothing very material has occurred in this quarter since I 
wrote to you on the 21st ultimo. 

Our allies plague me not a little : I have however contrived 
to keep the ascendancy over those who have remained with our 


army, but Purseram Bhow, who departed from us in July ajid 
went to Sera and Chittledroog, under the most positive promise of 
returning to this army whenever Hurry Punt and myself should 
require it, has entirely broke his engagements, and, notwith- 
standing our pressing requisition, has moved directly westward as 
far as the Tumbuddra, where he has engaged in desultory or rather 
predatory operations. 

This unjustifiable conduct on the part of the Bhow will render 
it a matter of some difficulty to secure the communications in our 
rear, even with the assistance of all the forts that we have taken ; 
but the greatest embarrassment that I apprehend from it regards 
the movements of General Abercromby, whose corps the Bhow had 
promised to join, and who cannot come forward with his battering- 
train on the south bank of the Caveri, unless he is reinforced by 
some battalions and a considerable corps of cavalry. 

I hope and trust however that all these obstacles will be sur- 
mounted, and that I shall find some means of bringing the greatest 
part of General Abercromby's corps into action. 

Colonel Duff with the battering-train from Bangalore will 
arrive in camp in two or three days, and I believe we shall be 
perfectly prepared to begin our march about the 22nd or 23rd, by 
which time I expect to be joined by the Nizam's Son and his 
Minister, and by many thousand binjarries, who are I hear on this 
side of the Ghauts ; the latter, though not so high sounding, are 
at least as useful a reinforcement as the former. 

I have already said much on the subject ; but as Stuart will 

certainly go home next season, and as stands next to him in 

Council, I am convinced that in justice to yourself and to the 
public I cannot too strongly impress upon your mind, the fatal 
consequences that must ensue from the latter's having the supreme 
power in India even for a few weeks. 

There is no hold whatever on a man so wonderfully eccentric, 
neither a regard for his interest and character, nor the public 
welfare and the honour and faith of Government, would weigh an 
instant against some absurd and pernicious caprice which interested 
men may have had art enough to work on his vanity to adopt. 
He never comes unprejudiced upon any question, but suffers himself 
to be influenced by the partial representations of the party which 
can get possession of his ear, and he would screen, or even promote, 
the greatest delinquent if he happened to be one of his old friends 
in the service ; and, although I believe no man ever thought so 
totally wrong on any subject as he does upon the whole business 
of Bengal government, yet he has acuteness and information 


enough to be 'Capable of embarrassing many colleagues who might 
actually happen to differ widely in opinion from him ; and you must 
also recollect that, in case of Stuart's and my departure, he would 
have an opportunity of calling in a third member, who in all pro- 
bability would be the most improper man in the whole service for 
that situation. 

In short, if was an acknowledged fool or a capable rogue, I 

think he would be a much safer Governor-General. 

After what I have said I am sure you will see the necessity of 
having a new Governor-General on the spot beforfe my departure. 
I must see an end of the war and settle the terms of peace, which, 
considering the character of our allies, will be no easy task, and I 
must return for a few months to Bengal. All this I hope will be 
effected by the beginning of the next year, so as to admit of my 
embarking by the middle of March at farthest. • • . 

I cannot say too much in praise of the conduct of Mr. Stuart, 
who has acted a most honourable part towards me, and has shown 
more steadiness of character than I thought he was capable of. 

Since writing the above, Hurry Punt has sent to inform me that 
he has just received an express from Purseram Bhow, to acquaint 
him that he had defeated a considerable corps of the enemy near 
Samoga, and had taken eight pieces of cannon. 

This lucky event may render it more practicable for the Bhow 
to co-operate with us by the route that he has taken, than it would 
have otherwise been. I an * & c# 

Lieut.-Gexeral Sir William Fawcett to Earl Cornwalus. 

[Private.] Received Jan. 20, 1792. 
MY DEAR LORD, . Great George Street, July 26, 1791. 

. . . Your Lordship's arrangement respecting the Hano- 
verians, in forming one useful battalion out of the two inefficient 
ones, speaks for itself, being an expedient not only advisable but 
even indispensably necessary upon the pressure of the occasion, 
and being considered by His Majesty in that light, met accordingly 
with his entire approbation. . . . 

Your encomium upon Major-General Medows's generous and 
disinterested behaviour to you, on your taking the command of the 
army out of his hands, was particularly agreeable and well received 
here, where so many reports had been circulated to his disad- 
vantage, and Mr. Dundas, on that account, made a point of insert- 


ing it, amongst other matters of intelligence from your Lordship, 
in the public papers. 

Your remonstrance against the manner in which the Field- 
Officers' commissions in the 52nd Regiment and the late Lieut.- 
Colonel Elphinstone's in the 71st; were disposed of, is but too well 
founded ; and which I opposed, as far as I was able, at the time 
when those shameful jobs were in agitation, though to no purpose. 
The first of them was carried by the irresistible influence of the 
Treasury ; and I believe I told your Lordship in a former letter ! to 
whom Barry 8 was indebted for his succession to Colonel Elphin- 
stone. Our Royal Master has been upon his guard against similar 
solicitations ever since, as you may have observed by his subse- 
quent conduct ; . . . and I have every reason to think that 
His Majesty will never be prevailed upon again to yield to any 
importunities whatever, for favours of the like nature to be con- 
ferred upon officers under your Lordship's command in India, 
which do not come recommended to him by your Lordship. . . . 

I am, &c., 

Wm. Fawcett. 

Lord Sydney to Earl Cornwallis. 

[Received Jan. 21, 1792.] 
MY DEAR LORD, Grosvenor Square, June 16, 1791. 

. . . The Rodney arrived just as the Parliament was 
rising, and various reports were circulated by a set of people who 
seem to act here as Tippoo's Vakeels, and are perhaps in his pay. 
The violent animosity between you and General Medows was 
among the most current. But your letters have given a fatal blow 
to that forgery. I have received one from Medows, in which he 
speaks of your Lordship in the strongest terms of affection and 
respect. We are impatient to hear the event of your campaign, 
and promise ourselves a happy one. Among all our differences 
here there is none upon your subject, but I cannot say that all 
the encomiums upon you seem equally sincere. Among the excep- 
tions I shall always reckon those of an old acquaintance of ours 
at the bottom of Berkeley Square, who is at present in a state of 
great and extraordinary political violence. You will learn that 
Dundas has succeeded to the seals of the Home Department The 
world says that he is only a locum tenens, and that his tenure will 

1 That letter has not been found. Lieut.-Colonel 39th Regt. Dec. 8, 1790. He 

3 Lieut-Colonel Henry Barry was made left the service March 31, 1793. 




determine on your arrival. I believe that no appointment can 
please more than that will do ; and I do not think that you will 
find the office an unpleasant one. We are waiting with impa- 
tience for a courier from Russia, what he will bring I cannot 
pretend to foretell, but the stockholders seem to expect peace, as 
that political barometer continues high. 

The affairs of France are still in the same confusion. There 
are appearances as if the proscribed party thought of an attempt 
to disturb the present governing powers, but I own I do not see a 
probability of their succeeding at present, or doing anything more 
than giving occasion to further persecutions. 

I am going to Matson \ to settle my affairs, which I find under 
every embarrassment that folly, inattention, and malevolence 
could have occasioned. My good uncle 2 has disposed of all that 
he had in his power in favour of Mile. Fagnani 8 in the first place, 
then to Lord Carlisle's 4 children, with old Queensberry for his 
residuary Legatee. You may perhaps be more surprised than 
flattered to hear, that the last words which he said to me were to 
desire his compliments to your Lordship. 

My family desire to be remembered to you in the kindest man- 
ner. They are, thank God, all well. My daughter-in-law adds 
much to our happiness, as she is one of the most pleasing and 
amiable creatures that ever was born. I am happy to tell you 
that Lord Brome is grown very stout and athletic. He preserves 
his natural openness and good nature. . . . 

Yours most affectionately, 


Eaul Cornwallis to the Right Hon. W. Pitt. 

DEAR SlR, Camp near Outradroog, Jan. 23, 1792. 

I enclose a duplicate of my letter dated the 3rd December. 
It has, however, since occurred to me that, although my detention 

1 Matson, in Gloucestershire, which he 
had lately inherited from George Selwyn. 

* George Augustus Selwyn, b. Aug. 11, 
1719, d. Jan. 25, 1791, unm.; M.P. for 
Ludgershall, Nov. 1747 to 1754, then for 
Gloucester city to 1780, and then again for 
Lndgershall till his death. He left Mdlle. 
Fagnani 33,000/. 

* Mdlle. Marin Fagnani. Her reputed 
father was the Maichese Fagnani, a Milanese 
nobleman; but the scandal of the day as- 
signed the paternity either to the Duke of 
Queensberry or to George Selwyn; b. Aug. 
25, 1771, m. May 18, 1798, Francis Charles, 

3rd Marquis of Hertford, K.G. The Duke 
of Queensberry also left her the greater pro- 
portion of his personal property, amounting 
to near 150,000/., but the heirs-at-law con- 
tested the legacy, and recovered part of it. 

« Frederick, 5th Earl of Carlisle, K.G., b. 
May 28, 1748, d. Sept. 4, 1825, m. Mar-h 
22, 1770, Margaret Caroline, (Jau. of Gran- 
ville Leveson, 1st Marquis of Stafford. Trea- 
surer of the Household, June, 1777 ; sent to 
America to negotiate peace, 1778 ; First Lord 
of Trade, Nov. 1779; Lord-Lieutenant of 
Ireland, Dec. 1780, to April, 1782, and Privy 
Seal, April to Dec. 1783. 


in India must naturally do away the present question, I ought to 
liave given my sentiments more explicitly on the subject at large, 
in order to prevent that favourable opinion, which is so highly 
flattering to me, from being the cause of trouble and embarrassment 
to you on a future occasion. 

I will freely own to you that if anything could induce me to 
come forward in a station of business and responsibility at home, it 
would be the allurement that would be held out to my vanity by 
being enrolled as a member ] of an administration, the uprightness 
of whose principles, and the wisdom and vigour of whose conduct, I 
so truly respect. 

I have, however, always been of opinion that no man who has 
a regard for the consideration in which he is to stand with his 
country, should produce himself, even in the House of Lords, as 
an efficient member of Administration, without possessing such 
powers and habits of Parliamentary debate as would enable him to 
do justice to a good cause, and defend his measures as well as those 
of his colleagues. 

This maxim of orator fit, which has produced so much bad 
speaking and so much ennui in this world, may be true in some 
instances, but he is not to be made e quovis ligno, and I should 
doubt whether the timber ought to undergo the seasoning of above 
half a century. 

We can talk more fully upon this subject when we meet, and 
in any event you may be assured that I shall at all times be ready 
to communicate any local knowledge I may possess, and to give 
my opinions both of Indian men and measures, in the most unre- 
served manner to yourself and Mr. Dundas, and to those who act 
with you. 

I think, notwithstanding all that has been said to the con- 
trary, that the destruction of Tippoo's power would be very de- 
sirable, but peace upon safe and honourable terms is still the first 
and greatest object, and the most encouraging prospects shall not 
induce me to neglect an opportunity of obtaining it. 

I am, with very great regard, &c, 


1 Mr. Pitt had offered the Seals of Secretary conveyed the proposition cannot be found 
of State to Lord Corn waJ lis. The letter which either -in original or in draft. 

1792. GENERAL ORDERS. 146 

General Orders. From the Original Draft in Lord Cornwalus's 

own Handwriting. 

Camp before Seringapatam, Feb. 6, 1792. 

The Army to march in three divisions : — 


General Medowb. 

36th and 76th Regts. — Lieut.-Colonel Nesbitt. 

3rd Brigade — Lieut.-Colonel Cockebell. 

1st Battalion 6th Brigade, 

Lieutenant Lennan's Pioneers. — Engineers. — Scaling ladders. 

Centre — 

Lord Cobnwallis. 
Lieut.-Colonel Stuart. 

52nd, 71st, and 74th Regts. — Lieut.-Colonel Knox. 

4th Brigade. — Major Russell. 

2 Battalions 6th Brigade — Major Lakglet. 

Lieutenant Dowbe's Pioneers. — Engineers.— Scaling ladders. 


Lieut.-Colonel Maxwell. 

72nd Rcgt. 

5th Brigade — Lieut. -Colonel Baird. 

Ensign Stokoe's Pioneers. — Engineers. — Scaling ladders. 


Lieut-Colonel Nesbitt. 

1 Battalion Company 36th Regt. 

4 European Flank Companies, with scaling ladders. 
36th Regt. 

2 Bengal Battalions. 

General Medows. 
Lieut.-Colonel Cockebell. 


76th Regt. 

2 Bengal Battalions. 

1 Battalion 6th Brigade. 


Lieut.-Colonel Knox. 

1 Battalion Company, 52nd Regt. 


6 European Flank Companies, with scaling ladders. 

52nd Regt. 

1 Bengal Battalion. 



Lord Cornwallis. 
Lieut.-Colonel Stuabt. 


71st Regt. 

2 Bengal Battalions. 

74th Regt. 

2 Battalions 6th Brigade. 


Lieut.-Colonel Baird or Major Fkaser. 

1 Flank Company, 72nd Regt. 

1 Flank Company, with scaling ladders. 


1 Battalion 5th Brigade. 

Lieut.-Colonel Maxwell. 

72nd Regt. 

2 Battalions 5th Brigade. 

If the right attack is made to the westward of Sonarpet, the 
troops of that attack should, after entering the enemy's lines, turn 
to the left ; but if the attack is made to the eastward of Sonarpet, 
the troops should turn to the right, to dislodge the enemy from all 
the posts on the left of their position. 

The troops of the centre attack, after entering the enemy's lines, 
should turn to the left. The front divisions, however, of both the 
right and centre attacks should, after entering, advance nearly to 
the extent of the depth of the enemy's camp before they turn to 
either side, in order to make room for those that follow ; and such 
parts of both divisions, as well as of the left division, as the Com- 
manding Officer shall not think it necessary to keep in a compact 
body, will endeavour to mix with the fugitives, and pass over into 
the island with them. 

Lieutenant Macleod will furnish guides. 

Earl Cornwallis to Sib Charles Oakeley, Bart. 

SlR, Camp near Seringapatam, Feb. 8, 1792. 

On the 5th instant I encamped about seven miles to the 
northward of Seringapatam, from whence I saw that Tippoo had, 
according to my information, taken a position on the north bank of 
the river, with its front and flanks covered by a bound hedge and 
a number of ravines, swamps, and watercourses, and likewise 
fortified by a chain of strong redoubts full of cannon, as well as by 
the artillery of the fort and of the works on the island. 

It would have cost us a great many men to have attacked this 


camp in the day, and perhaps the success might not have been 
quite certain. I determined therefore to make the attempt in the 
night, and for this purpose I marched on the 6th, as soon after 
sunset as the troops could be formed, in three divisions. The right 
division, commanded by General Medows, and the centre division, 
under ray immediate direction, were destined for the attack of the 
enemy's camp, and the division, on the left, consisting of four 
battalions under Lieut-Colonel Maxwell, was ordered to attack 
the works that the enemy were constructing on the heights above 
the Karegat Pagoda. 

The officers commanding the leading corps; in the right and 
centre divisions were directed, after driving the enemy from their 
camp, to endeavour to pursue them through the river, and establish 
themselves on the island, and it was recommended to Lieut- 
Colonel Maxwell to attempt to pass the river/ if, after having pos- 
sessed himself of the heights, he saw that our attack on the camp 
was successful. 

The left and centre divisions were so fortunate as to accomplish 
completely the objects proposed. Lieut-Colonel Maxwell gained 
the heights, and afterwards passed the river, and the first five 
corps of the centre division crossed over to the island, leaving me 
in possession of the camp which was standing, and of all the artil- 
lery of the enemy's right wing. 

The division of the right, by some of those accidents to which 
all operations in the night must be liable, approached much too 
near to a very strong detached work which it was not my intention 
to assault that night, and which must have fallen into our hands 
without giving us any trouble, if we succeeded in forcing the 
enemy's camp. 

The advanced guard engaged in the attack of this work before 
they could be prevented by the officers in the front of the column, 
and the latter, who had been used to carry forts with much facility, 
did not think it necessary or perhaps creditable to oblige them to 
desist ; but the garrison of this redoubt conducted themselves very 
differently from those which we had lately met with, and their 
resistance was so obstinate that it was not carried without costing 
us several lives and a very considerable delay. 

By tliis time the firing at the centre attack had entirely ceased, 

and General Medows, concluding from that circumstance that I 

was in complete possession of the whole of the enemy's camp, and 

apprehending that a part of his corps might be wanted to support 

the troops on the island, wished to communicate with rae as speedily 

as possible. 

l 2 


Some guides who undertook to lead his division to join mine 
by a direct rood, conducted him to the Karegat Pagoda without 
hi* masting with ma, and daylight was too near to admit of his 
undertaking any further operations. 

These untoward circumstances did not deprive us of any of the 
solid advantages of our victory, for we are in possesion of the 
whole of the enemy's redoubts, of all the ground on the mirth ridfl 
of the river, and of great part of the island, Imt as the &HOG with 
which 1 remained in the enemy's ramp, did not much exceed three 
battalions, and as I found from parties that I sent out, that the left 
wing of Tippoo's army kept their ground all night, I could not 
bring off any trophies from the field except those that were very 
near to the spot where our impression was made. 

I liave not yet been able to ascertain with precision the number 
of guns that have fallen into our hands, but I understand that of 
brass and iron it amounts to upwards of sixty of different calibres. 

1 shall take up my ground to-morrow as near to the chain* of 
redoubts as possible, without being exposed to the fire of the fort, 
and, as our posts upon the island are now nearly secured against 
any attempt of the enemy, I shall soon be ready to proceed with 
vigour upon the operations of the Biege, 

It has been hitherto impossible to collect the returns of the 
killed and wounded, hut 1 have every reason to hope tluit our loss 
iu Europeans will \ye under two hundred. I will send a bet of the 
qAdbH Out MM killed, in order to prevent the anxious alarm of 
the friends of the survivors. j ftT11 ^ 


Onurtil Total . 

E*rl Cokxwallis to Trproo BsffUSV. 

V.k H.1TM. 
1 have n-ri'iv.'i! your tettat by Ulfl haodfl of Mahomed Ally. 
|o MBM ITOt*M] MHOinUlioatloil you refer lor other particulars, a 

' UnL-OlllWt .(UiBiu^i Colom-I. flntry Bllata. il. Uvth SI, 1B34. 


Lieutenant Chalmers, and four other persons who formed part of 
late garrison of Coimbatore, are arrived with me. 

I have perfectly understood the contents of the papers bearing 
the seal of Cummur-ud-Deen, 1 which was brought by Lieutenant 
Chalmers, and which contains a reference for your approbation of 
its purport But I was sorry to learn from that officer, who does 
not understand the Persian language, that another paper,' written 
in Hindoo and English, signed by himself, and likewise under the 
seal of Cummur-ud-Deen, by which it was agreed that the garrison 
of Coimbatore should be permitted to march unmolested, with 
their private property, to Palgaucherry (without waiting for any 
reference to you), was taken from him by force a few days before 
he was released ; and it gives me concern to add, that I have heard 
through various channels that the remainder of that garrison, which 
ought to have been set at liberty when they surrendered the fort, 
are not only at this time in confinement, but that many of them 
are actually in irons. 

Notwithstanding these circumstances however, the release of 
Lieutenant Chalmers, &c, is considered by myself and other mem- 
bers of the Confederacy as an indication on your part of a dispo- 
sition to make atonement for the breach of the capitulation of 
Coimbatore : it has, on account of the present critical situation of 
affairs, been resolved by the Allied Powers, not to insist upon a 
compleat execution of that capitulation previous to any negotiation, 
and we shall therefore be ready to receive a confidential person or 
persons deputed by you to communicate to Deputies that will be 
appointed on our part, the concessions and compensations that you 
are willing to make to the Confederates. 

I request that whoever you may choose to send may come by 
the Derca-dowlut Baug Ford, and when you name the day and hour 
at which they are to come, I shall order the officer commanding in 
the redoubt opposite to it, to send a party of soldiers to receive 
them, and to conduct them in security to the neighbourhood of the 
Eed Gah Redoubt, where the deputies from the Allies will meet 
them to hear your propositions. Cornwallis. 

Earl Cornwallis to Sir Charles Oakeley, Bart. 

SlR, Camp near Seringapatam, Feb. 20, 1792. 

. . . I was too much fatigued when I got into my tent, 
which was very late in the day of the 7th, and had too many anxious 

1 Cummerr-ud-Dien was an ollicer of some distinction in Tippoo's army. 


cares upon my mind, to be capable of giving an account of the 
action'; and indeed I did not then perfectly know the extent of our 
advantage, the consequences of which have even proved more 
favourable to us, and more important, than I considered when I 
wrote my letter on the 8th. 

A negotiation is now in some forwardness, and unless Tippoo's 
Vakeels have exceeded their Master's instructions, promises to be 
brought to a speedy conclusion, — the basis of which is the surrender 
of one-half of Tippoo's dominions, to be divided amongst the Allies 
according to the terms of the treaty, and to be chosen by them 
from the countries most contiguous or convenient for them. A large 
sum of money is likewise to be paid, and the Sultaun's two eldest 
sons to be given as hostages till the articles are fulfilled. 

I confess that an arrangement of this kind, which effectually 
destroys the dangerous power of Tippoo, will be more beneficial to 
the public than the capture of Seringapatam, and it will render the 
final settlement with our Allies, who seem very partial to it, much 
more easy. 

Those whose passions are heated, and who are not responsible 
for consequences, will probably exclaim against leaving the tyrant 
an inch of territory, but it is my duty to consult the real interest 
of the Company and the nation. 

I return you many thanks for your kind congratulations, and 

am > Yours, &c, 


Copy of the Preliminary Articles agreed upon and exchanged. 

Dated Feb. 22, 1792. 

1. One-half of the dominions which were in possession of Tippoo 
Sultaun at the commencement of the present war shall be ceded to 
the Allies, adjacent to their respective boundaries, and agreeably to 
their selection. 

2. Three crores and thirty lacs of Sicca rupees shall be paid to 
the Allies, agreeably to the following particulars, viz. : — 

1. Onecrore and sixty-five lacs shall be paid immediately 

in pagodas, or gold mohurs, or rupees, of full weight and 
standard, or in gold or silver bidlion. 

2. The remainder, one crore and sixty-five hies, at three in- 

stalments, not exceeding four months each, in the three 
coins before mentioned. 

3. All subjects of the four several Powers, who may have been 

1792. TIPPOO'S SONS. 151 

prisoners from the time of the late Hyder Ally Khan to the present 
period, shall be fairly and unequivocally released. 

4. Until the due performance of the three articles above men- 
tioned, two of the three eldest sons of Tippoo Sultaun shall be 
given as hostages, on the arrival of whom a cessation of hostilities 
shall take place. 

5. When an agreement containing the articles above written 
shall arrive, bearing the seal and signature of Tippoo Sultaun, 
counter agreements shall be sent from the three Powers, and 
after the cessation of hostilities such a definitive treaty of per- 
petual friendship, as shall be settled by the several parties, shall 
be adjusted and entered into. 

Earl Cornwalus to Sir Charles Oakeley, Bart. 

SlB, Camp near Seringapatam, Feb. 26, 1792. 

Tippoo's second 1 and third 2 sons did not arrive in our camp 
till this day. The former is about ten years old, and the latter, 
who is the son of Burramund Dien's 3 sister, and considered as the 
heir to the Sultanah, about eight The delay in" their arrival was 
not occasioned by any interruption of the Treaty, but by the diffi- 
culty and distress of their leaving the Zenana, and by Tippoo's 
anxiety that they should be properly received by me. 

You will easily imagine that to children under their circum- 
stances, I could not be deficient in showing every mark of kindness 
and respect, and I was happy to observe that the boys seemed to 
entertain no apprehensions of their new father. 

Our deputies and Tippoo's Vakeels will now enter earnestly 
upon their business, and as soon as we can receive our first pay- 
ment of money, I think we may retire a little from this dreary 
waste. I am, &c, 


1 Prince Abdal Khalic, b. 1772, d. Sept. fether, May 29, 1794, but after the cap- 

180*>, at the Sand Heads on his passage to ture of Seringapatam, they, with the rest of 

Calcutta. Tippoo's family, including four sons, were 

* Prince Moax AdJeen, b. 1774, d. March again made prisoners. One son only, Prince 

30, 1818. He was implicated in the mas- Gholam Mahommed, now survives (Dec. 

sacre of Vellore, Oct. 9, 18u7, and was 1857). He visited England some years ago. 
kept in strict confinement from that time to * Uurramund Din, of a noble family in 

his death. They were both restored to their Mysore. 


Earl Cobnwallis to Sir Charles Oakeley, Bart. 

SlR, Camp near Seringapatam, March 2, 1792. 

. . . In the course of yesterday and the day before, 
Tippoo has sent out a crore and ten lacs of rupees, and the Vakeels 
promise that in three or four days the first kists, amounting to one 
crore and sixty-five lacs, shall be discharged. 

In consequence of his intention to execute the treaty faithfully, 
I have directed General Abercromby to fall back a few miles to- 
morrow, and encamp near the Kinnamhaddy Ford; and I have 
assured the Vakeels that if they deal fairly with lis about the 
accounts of the revenues, I will in two or three days withdraw our 
troops from the Island. 

I cannot yet tell what extent of country will fall to our share, 
but my first option will be the Barramaul and Salem districts, 
which will afford a secure frontier to the Garnatic. . •. . 

I am, &c, 


Earl Cornwallis to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas. 

Sill, Camp before Seringapatam, March 4, 1792. 

I have very great satisfaction in transmitting to you the 
enclosed copy of the Preliminaries of Peace, that were settled on the 
night of the 23rd February between the three confederate Powers 
and Tippoo Sultaun, to be laid before His Majesty. 

Although some circumstances delayed the delivery of the 
hostages until the 26th, I was induced, by the earnest desire of 
Tippoo, to consent to a cessation of hostilities on the 24th ultimo ; 
and I trust that not only the Preliminary Articles will soon be com- 
pletely executed, but also that those of the Definitive Treaty will 
without much delay be adjusted and concluded. 

Having given a detail of the military operations that preceded 
the cessation of arms, and of several particulars of the negotiation, 
in a letter of this date addressed to the Honourable Court of 
Directors, which will be officially communicated to you for His 
Majesty's information, it becomes unnecessary to trouble you with 
a repetition of the contents of that letter. But I request that you 
will be pleased to assure His Majesty, that although the formidable 
power of Tippoo has been so much reduced by the event of a war 
into which we were forced by the ungovernable ambition and vio- 
lence of his character, as to render it improbable that he can be 


able, for many years to come, to give any material disturbance to 
the British possessions in India ; yet that in the selection of the 
countries that are to be ceded to us, my primary object shall be to 
fix upon those districts, to the extent of our rights by the present 
treaty, that may be from local situation best calculated for giving 
us a strong defensive frontier against the future attacks of any 
Power whatever from above the Ghauts. 

I must beg that you will also inform the King, that, gallantly 
as His Majesty's troops on this service have behaved on all other 
occasions, their courage and discipline were never more eminent, 
or their services more valuable to their country, than in the attack 
of the enemy's fortified camp on the night of the 6th ultimo. 

My warmest acknowledgments were therefore due to the officers 
and soldiers in general for their behaviour in that action ; and I am 
persuaded, when proper opportunities offer, it will likewise prove 
the most effectual recommendation for them to His Majesty'a 
favour. General Medows, who had some time ago resolved to 
return to Europe as soon as the war should be concluded, intends, 
with my entire approbation, to embark on the last ship of this 
season that sails from Madras ; and I think it my duty on this 
occasion to declare that the zeal and ability which the General has 
constantly employed during this war, in promoting the interests of 
this country, have in my opinion done great honour to himself, and 
that the friendly support and assistance which he has uniformly 
afforded me, have laid me under the most lasting obligations. 

It has at the same time been my singular good fortune to expe- 
rience a co-operation and assistance no less zealous and friendly 
from General Abercromby, in his able conduct of the army that 
was formed on the Coast of Malabar, and I request that you will 
be pleased to communicate my sentiments on the behaviour and 
merits of both these officers to His Majesty. 

This despatch will be delivered to you by Captain Madan, my 
A.D.C., whom I beg leave to recommend to His Majesty as a 
deserving officer; and as he has served in the field from the 
commencement of the war, he will, I trust, be able to give you 
satisfactory explanations of all the operations and transactions that 
he has witnessed. 

I have the honour to enclose a list of the killed, wounded, and 
missing of the troops under my command, from the 6th ultimo 
to the day of the cessation of arms inclusive ; with a return of 
the artillery that fell into our hands upon the defeat of the enemy's 
army. I ] lave the honour, &c, 



Earl Cornwallis to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas. 

DEAR SlR, Camp near Seringapatam, March 4, 1792. 

We have at length concluded our Indian war handsomely, 
and I think as advantageously as any reasonable person could 
expect. We have effectually crippled our enemy without making 
our friends too formidable. Indeed I am well convinced that the 
impression they have received of the power and superiority of our 
arms, will greatly overbalance any confidence with which their terri- 
torial acquisitions can possibly inspire them. 

I have entered so fully into the details of the operations of the 
war and the negociations for peace in my public letter, that it is 
unnecessary to say anything further on those subjects. I shall 
therefore only express my hopes that the gentlemen who talked so 
much nonsense about the balance of power, and the barrier of 
Tippoo, will have the grace to be ashamed of themselves, and I 
assure you how sincerely I wished that those who so strenuously 
opposed the measure of sending out the King's regiments, had been 
with me on the night of the 6th of February. 

I received your letter dated the 1st of August by the Canada 
packet, in which there are but few points that require notice. I 
have been too much occupied tliis last twelvemonth to spare time 
to think of the Andaman Island, but I shall probably meet my 
brother in May at Madras, when we will enter earnestly into that 
business. There can be no doubt of the propriety of our establish- 
ing ourselves in one of the harbours on that island, but my brother 
has seen one that he thinks far preferable to Port Cornwallis. . . . 

I have a serious grievance in the Counsellor line. You will 
readily guess that I mean the appointment of Mr. .* This un- 
expected stroke has filled up the measure of our misfortunes in 
Bengal ; and composed as that Council already is, will, I appre- 
hend, render it difficult, if not impossible, for the best Governor to 
save that devoted country. 

Of all the Company's servants, out of the degree of total in- 
ability, I really tliink , even independent of his bankruptcy, 

the most unfit for a seat in Council. He has no fixed or steady 
opinions on any points of the public business, and he is now a bank- 
rupt by continuing his engagements in a commercial house, after 
he had, to save his seat at of , made a public declara- 
tion that he had quitted it ; but what is worst of all, with a strong 
propensity to jobbing and intrigue, he has formed connexions with 

1 The appointment ultimately did not take place. 


the worst black people in Bengal* You will easily conceive that 

what I have said does not proceed from any personal ill-will to , 

when I tell you that he is an exceedingly good-humoured fellow, 
and has always been remarkably so with me, and I am sure that 
he would readily, either in a public or private capacity, comply 
with any of my wishes. But I cannot help feeling for the future 
bad consequences that may arise from his becoming a member of 

I have other grievances which I must state to the Court of 
Directors, but I will not mix, ill-humour with the present despatch. 
Their restoration of that rascal * *, who has no revenue abilities 
or merit whatever, and who behaved in the most insolent manner 
to the Board in return for our having been much too lenient to 
him — their approbation of * * *'s plan about the Sunderbunds, after 
the Board of Kevenue had so clearly stated the folly and impracti- 
cability of it — and, lastly, their retracting the paragraph which left 
to me the nomination of the Advocate-General, are sufficient to 
shake the credit of the best-established Government in India ; to 
which I may add the breach of their own regulations by the in- 
famous job done for that very unworthy subject Colonel . 

* * luckily ran away from the settlement before the order for 
reinstating liim arrived, and * * * is removed from the collectorship 
of for malpractices. 

If the Court of Directors cannot be controlled, I retract my 
opinion in favour of their continuance after the expiration of the 
Charter. But I must confess that I cannot help believing that those 
orders, so degrading to our Government, and some of them so 
slighting to myself, could not have found their way to India, if the 
Board of Control had not been too much occupied with other 
matters to have paid proper attention to them. . . . 

It was the intention of Medows to embark for England as soon 
as possible after the conclusion of the war, and he has determined 
to proceed to Madras as soon as liis health will permit, and take his 
passage in the Dalton, which is the last ship of the season. His 
conduct in all the business has been so generous and noble, that I 
need hardly request that you will show him all |X)8sible attention, 
and procure for him a cordial reception at St. James's. 

Anxious as I shall be to get to Bengal, I can hardly hope to be 
there before June, especially as I must devote some time, although 
I am afraid to very little purpose, for my conversations with the 
Nabob of Arcot, who appears to me to be violently hostile to the 
present Government of Fort St. George, and very little inclined to 
accede to any reasonable proposal. 


I shall trust entirely to you to find a good successor for me at 
Bengal, and to contrive that he shall arrive there early in the year 
1793. I an^ & c#j 


Earl Cornwallis to Sir Charles Oakeley, Bart. 

SlB, Camp near Seringapatam, March 11, 1792. 

I always expected that we should have a good deal of 
trouble in making Tippoo swallow so bitter a pill as the present 
treaty, and in that respect I have not been disappointed, for he 
has practised every species of chicane and every pretext for delay. 

It is, however, necessary for us on all accounts that the busi- 
ness should be brought to a speedy issue, and if he should not in 
two or three days comply with our positive requisitions, I shall 
think it necessary to have recourse to coercive measures. 

After giving up his two sons as hostages, and paying even by 
our account above eleven hundred thousand pounds, it is not easy to 
suppose that he can have an idea of renewing hostilities, yet he is a 
man that must not be trusted too far, especially as, besides all the 
difficulties he has started about the country and the money, he 
has, notwithstanding my daily remonstrances and his repeated 
promises to desist, constantly employed great numbers of men in 
strengthening the wall opposite to our approaches. 

General Medows, who was at my tent this morning, intended 
setting out to-morrow for Madras, but he has postponed his journey 
for a few days on account of the rubs in the negotiation. 

I am, &c, 


Earl Cornwallis to Sir Charles Oakeley, Bart. 

SlB, Camp near Seringapatam, March 13, 1792. 

. . . I am sorry to say that things at present bear a 
much less pacific appearance than they did when I wrote to you on 
the 11th. 

The enclosed copies of our requisition of what appeared to 
us to be our right according to the treaty, in a fair division. of 
Tippoo's country, and of Sir John Kennaway's letter to the Vakeels 
on their communicating to him the Sultaun's answer to it, will 
explain fully the present state of affairs. 


If Tippoo did from the first determine not to give us the 
Burramaul and Salem districts, nor the forts of Gooty and Belhary 
to our Allies, he certainly did not seriously intend to execute the 
conditions of the preliminary articles, nor could he expect to con- 
clude a peace. 

He began to work in the fort on the very night on which he 
sent in his sons, and he has very much strengthened the wall 
opposite to our attack; but I should doubt whether all he has 
done or can do, will be worth eleven hundred thousand pounds and 
two such hostages. 

Purseram Bhow will march to-morrow to Caniambaddy Ford in 
order to join General Abercromby, and I intend that Tippoo's sons 
shall set out in the morning for Bangalore. 

I have this night sent my despatches for Madan to take on 
board the Northumberland; but as they talk too confidently of 
peace, I would not have them sent to England unless appearances 
should alter very much, at all events it will be desirable to detain 
the ship a few days. I ^ 4^ 


Earl Cornwallis to Sir Charles Oakeley, Bart. 

SlR, Camp near Seringapatam, March 15, 1792. 

. . . The appearance of things is rather altered for the 
better since I wrote to you on the 13th, but I shall consider the 
business in a very uncertain state until the definitive treaty is 
signed, and the whole of the first kist is paid. 

The Vakeels last night acquiesced in the surrender of Gooty 
and Belhary and the Burramaul and Salem Country, if the whole 
of the latter should not make our proportion too large, in which 
case we must be satisfied with a part of it ; and after much alter- 
cation and difficulty, they said that their master would give the 
Coorga Country rather than quarrel with us. The dispute about 
the batta has likewise been settled this morning by Mr. Cherry and 
the Vakeels — the latter reserving an ultimate reference to Tippoo. 

Thus far matters may be said to wear a promising aspect, but 
Tippoo's unremitting industry in working night and day would 
occasion doubt of the sincerity of a person of better character. 

. . . As this important business must now be brought to a 
crisis in a few hours, I think no ship should sail for England till it 
is finally settled. I am> & a> 



The Secret Committee to Earl Cornwallis. 

[Received March 16, 1792.] 
MY LORD, East India House, Sept. 21, 1791. 

. . . The brilliant successes which by our last accounts 
have attended your Lordship's operations, give' us great room to 
hope that an honourable and advantageous peace may have been 
concluded before tliis despatch can reach India. At all events, 
from the variety of circumstances of which it is impossible for us 
to be sufficiently informed beforehand, we do not feel it in our 
power to give any precise instructions for your Lordship's guidance 
with respect to the terms on which it may be proper to insist : we 
have the fullest confidence in your Lordship's discretion in the 
completion of this important work, and we know that you are 
impressed as deeply as ourselves with a sense how essential it is 
to the finances and interests of the Company, that the war should 
bo brought to a speedy termination. We have, therefore, only to 
state in conformity to this idea, that although in the event of as 
successful an issue of the war as we have ground to expect, we 
certainly feel ourselves entitled to look to such advantageous 
conditions as may in some measure indemnify us for our expense, 
and give additional security in future, — we are nevertheless par- 
ticularly desirous that we should rather forego even some portion 
of the advantages which we might justly expect, than risk the 
continuance of the war. The great object, therefore, to which we 
wish your Lordship's attention to be directed, and wliioh we are 
persuaded you will have uniformly had in view, is that of embracing 
the first possible opportunity of concluding the war on reasonable 
and honourable terms for ourselves and our Allies. 

We are, &c. 
Earl Cornwallis to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas. 

DEAR SIR, Camp before Seringapatara, March 17, 1792. 

I yesterday received your letter dated 21st September, 
and the letter from the Secret Committee by the . Swan sloop 
of war, and am happy to find that my sentiments in regard to 
peace have corresponded so much with those of the Government at 

Our acquisitions on the Malabar coast are inaccessible to any 
enemy that does not come by sea, except on the north frontier, 
and I am assured that from the rivers and creeks with which that 


part of the country is intersected, it would be very difficult to 
attack us in that quarter. 

The possession of the Coorga country and of Falacatcherry 
effectually secure the two passes by which only, Tippoo could pos- 
sibly disturb us. 

The Rajahs on that coast are not independent, but now become 
our subjects, and if we can put them in some degree on the footing 
of the Bengal Zemindars and prevent their oppressing the people 
under them, the commerce of that country in pepper, spices, &c, 
may become extremely advantageous to the Company. The nett 
revenue amounts to about 25 lacs of rupees, which will be a great 
help at present»to Bombay ; and Cananore will be a much better 
and safer place of arms than Tellichery. 

The revenues of the Coimbatore country would have made our 
proportion too great, but if that had not been the case, as it is an 
open defenceless country, I should have preferred the districts I 
have chosen, viz. Barramaul, Salem, and Dindigul, which form a 
strong barrier to the Carnatic and to the southern provinces on the 
Coromandel coast, and contain several forts that no person in India 
can take from us. I am> &Cf 


March 18, 1792. 

P.S. The definitive treaty is this instant signed: you will 
receive a copy of it by the next opportunity. 

Earl Cornwallis to H. R. H. the Duke of York. 

Camp at Kunegul, on the march from Seringapatam to the 
SlR, Carnatic, April 6, 1792. 

I received a few days ago by the Swan sloop of war your 
Royal Highness's most obliging letter, dated the 30th of April. As 
it remained in England near five months after it was written, 
although several opportunities offered in the intermediate time for 
its being forwarded to India, I trust I shall stand acquitted before 
your Royal Highness, for not having sooner assured you of my 
earnest desire to pay every possible attention to your commands. 

. . . I am at length happily relieved from the heaviest 
burthen that can oppress the mind of a man who has any feeling 
for his own character and the good of his country — the command 
of an army in a difficult and important war. My merits as a 
soldier and a negotiator must be decided by the judgment of my 
country : I shall . only say that I have done my best, that I have 



spared no pains, and that I would not live the last year over again 
for any reward that could be held out to me. 

My responsibility was certainly increased by the circumstance 
of my being obliged to engage in the war, and to determine on the 
measure of forming alliances with the country powers, without 
being able to communicate with the Government at home. But I 
was so convinced of the absolute necessity of the war, and of the 
expediency of taking every means in my power to insure its suc- 
cess, that I felt myself prepared to answer for my conduct in these 
respects before the most rigid or even prejudiced tribunal. 

Your Royal Highness's German expedition has ended very 
differently from what I should have been led to expect from your 
letter, and however desirous I might have been that you should 
have acquired military experience, I most sincerely rejoice in the 
different termination ; being most firmly persuaded from the 
opinion which I formed of the Princess l of Prussia when I had the 
honour of attending you at Berlin, that the step you have taken 
is most likely to insure your future happiness. 

I am, &c, 


Earl Cornwallis to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas. 

DEAR SlR, Camp at Knnegul, April 9, 1792. 

We have halted some days at this place to take leave of our 
Allies, which has been effected with the strongest appearances of 
perfect cordiality on all sides. 

Hurry Punt and Azeem ul Omrah* applied separately to me to 
request a friendly interference on our part, whenever any disputes 
might arise between the Governments of Poonah and Hydrabad. 
I gave a very guarded answer, promising my good offices in 
general to strengthen and promote the friendship that has so long 
subsisted between the Nizam and the Peshwa, declaring at the 
same time that if each party would write to me on the subject, 
I would be more explicit in regard to the stile and species of 
mediation that I thought our Government could with propriety 

I have postponed the arrangement of a proper guarantee for 
our mutual acquisitions (which is a business of much delicacy and 
caution) till we shall have returned to our respective capitals, when 

1 Frederica Charlotte, dau. of Frederick Duke of York. 
William II., king of Prussia, b. May 7, 1767, 2 Azeem ul Omrah, a Minister of the 

d. Aug. 6, 1820, m. Sept. 29, 1791, the Nizam. 

1792. STATE OF THE ARMY. 161 

we shall have leisure to reflect coolly on the subject, and when it 
may be put in a train to be finally adjusted by Sir C. Malet and 
Sir J. Eennaway. 

Tippoo, by his Vakeels at least, appears to be disposed to cul- 
tivate us, and expresses much inveteracy against our Allies, espe- 
cially the Marattas ; but I here only speak from the mouth of the 
Vakeels, for on every occasion where they have been obliged to 
bring forward the letters or instructions that they received directly 
from him, he does not seem to be in any degree softened towards 
us, nor to be one jot less insolent than in the times of his greatest 

The rapid increase of the number of our European sick has so 
fax exceeded all calculation, that we shall have the greatest diffi- 
culty in removing them from Bangalore and Ooscottah ; and the 
army, notwithstanding the inconvenience and expense attending the 
delay, must, I apprehend, be detained above the Ghauts till the 
20th of next month. It is likewise very vexatious to myself per- 
sonally who have so much to do at Madras and Calcutta, but I 
do not think it prudent to leave the army whilst it continues in 
Tippoo's territories. j am> &Cy 


Marquis Cornwallis to the Rev. B. Grisdale. 

Camp on the inarch from Seringapatam towards the 
DEAR GrISDALE, Camatic, April 12, 1792. 

No man will I am sure rejoice more sincerely than yourself 
at my having brought the Mysore war to an advantageous and 
creditable conclusion. You will see the best account I could give 
of the whole business in the Gazette ; I shall therefore only tell 
you what you will be full as anxious to know, that I am perfectly 
well, and that I do not find that climate, fatigue, or sun, have as 
yet in any degree affected my constitution. 

I am, with the most sincere good wishes for your health and 
domestic happiness, jj ear Qrisdale, 

. Yours, &c, 





H. R. II. the Prince of Waum to Earl Cornwallis. 

[Received April, 1792.] 

My dear Lord, Ctriton Houm, m»j it, mi. 

Allow me to return you my thanks for the Letter I last 
week received from you, we had about a fortnight before received 
the accounts of Colonel Floyd's affair and regretted much that 
bo much bravery had not been crown'd with tnoTC BOOcemal but 
with a more signal victory. My Brother is gone upon the report 
of War to attend the Prussian Army in case there sh d be any 
service to be seen and sh d there not, then to return to Kti^kind 
when the grand Itcviews are over. As to Tonics there are so few 
cxr'i'|it the French Revolution and the prospect of a War with 
Itussia with both of w L you must be so much better inform 'd alwnt 
by other persons than I can pretend to do with mine y* I will not 
even tiiko Tip your time with mentioning the subject. I have liad 
the pleasure of seeing lately a great deal of my old (Hand 
Singleton whom I had not seen hardly since lie has had the 
honour of being related to your Lordship, and bavin 
house in Hampshire about fifteen miles from mine, he now and 
then rides over in order to meet my Hounds when they throw oft' 
within a distance of ten or dozen miles from him, and all I can say 
is y 1 I flatter myself when he has the honour to be as well known 
by your Lordship as he is by me, he will gain the same platt IB 
y' esteem y 1 1 confess he long has done in mine. Baton 1 MO 
elude allow me to mention y' the Young Man who will liave the 
hononr of delivering thin Letter to Y' L*** is a young mi 
whose Brother thro' the intend of my Mend Luhjagtoa I ban 
got the permission of the Company to bo a Free Merchant. I 
formerly recommended him to You and his nine i* I loleman, uml 
I Batter myself he will always merit y r support and a|>]i 
his industry and diligence, the young man himself in Qanung mit 
as a Cadet, and I can only add y' any attentions and assistance 
you are so good as to shew him OB ray aoeosnt, 1 shall attribute to 
the source of that friendship w h I hope I always shall 
fn,m >"" I am, My Dear Lorf, 

Most Sincerely Yours 


1792. EUROPEAN POLTTieS. 163 

Marquis of Lansdowne to Earl Cornwalus. 

[Received April, 1792.] 
MY DEAB LORD, London, Dec. 14, 1791. 

I just hear that a packet is making up for India, which does 
not leave me time to recollect whether, uninformed as I am, any- 
thing has by accident reached me which can be useful to you to 

I wrote to you a long letter after the India debate in the House 
of Lords, which I hope you have received. I wrote to you again in 
the summer, but my letter was returned to toe from the India 
House being too late for the post, and I cannot now lay my hand 
upon it But I must not miss this opportunity of assuring you no 
one can be more devoted to you, or more anxious for your honor 
and credit You are too wise and honourable to wish me to sacrifice 
principles on which I stand committed to all descriptions, but as 
far as I can consistently, you may depend npon it there is no length 
to which I am not ready to go in your service. Let me beseech 
you not to take too much upon yourself, but to remember that it 
belongs to Ministers to plan, to Governors and Generals only to 
execute. Ministers are responsible not only for what they plan, 
but what they omit, especially where a change of system was 
expedient, as I conceive was the case in India, where the interests 
of the Court and Bengal are so irreconcilable. You know how 
loose this country is, and it is becoming every day looser and more 
difficult to be governed. I am most apprehensive about your peace, 
for I do not see in your situation, all things considered, that it is 
in the wit of man to satisfy your allies, and meet the expectations 
at home. You know I had nolaUies to deal with. 

As to France it is difficult to tell what may happen there, but 
I imagine things will settle. The Republican party are quiet for 
the present and determined to remain so, and the Emigrants are 
divided among themselves all manner of ways, interests, passions, 
habits, and connections of those that are at Coblentz, from those at 
Brussels, which last have the confidence of the Court. 

What passed at Pilnitz remains as yet an impenetrable secret, 
but I am assured from what I conceive good authority that the 
alliance between Austria and Prussia is sincere, and calculated to 
produce an entire change of system upon the Continent. 1 

You will hear from others that a renewal of the India Charter 

1 There was no treaty, but a declaration and call on other nations to do the same, to 
was signed, Aug. 1791, by the Emperor and support the King of France, and to enable 
the King of Prussia that they would arm, him to establish a constitutional monarchy. 

M 2 


is meditated, but I cannot think it will take place this year, for 
whenever it does it will produce a great source of faction which it 
is the obvious interest of Ministers to defer. 

I am, &c, 


Earl Cornwallis to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas. 

DEAR SlR, Camp near Kistnapore, April 28, 1792. 

. . . My letter by the Swallow will have satisfied you 
that there is no danger of my deserting my post before the begin- 
ning of 1793 ; and however forcibly the situation of my private 
affairs, my own time of life, the critical age of my son, and the 
attack upon my Borough, 1 press my return to England, you may 
be assured that all these considerations could not at any time pre- 
vent my remaining a few months, when I should think such a sacri- 
fice essential for the real interests of my country. 

There is one passage in your letter which I must confess alarms 
me, where you say — " We of course cannot wish to make a new 
appointment of a Governor-General till the arrangement of India 
affairs and the settlement with the India Company takes place." 
This must naturally defer the appointment of a new Governor-General 
till after the next Session of Parliament, and I do not see any good 
reason why the appointment might not just as well take place as 
soon as you know the war to be concluded, as the new arrangement 
can make very little difference in the Governor-General's situation. 
But this letter will be too late to alter any resolution you may have 
taken, and I can only hope that my letter by the Swallow will 
have induced you to make the appointment immediately upon 
Madan's arrival. 

I have no opinion to give about a successor, except to say that 
no such thing is to be found in Milar's list, nor indeed a tolerable 
Commander-in-Chief, amongst those who would probably consent 
to come out You must select for the former, some man of ability 
and earnest application, who positively will not job, and who can 
say no, without an appearance of want of feeling. . . . 

It is impossible for me to speak with precision of the costs of 
the war, and you will be able from the papers that will be trans- 
mitted to you from the different Governments, to form nearly as 
good an estimate as I can at present, when I have it in my power 

1 The attempt to interfere with Lord Corn- renewed at a subsequent period, but with ts 
wallis* s interest at Eye totally failed. It was little success. 


to give you one very substantial datum, viz., that except some extra 
allowances that part of the Bombay troops must receive for a few 
months, and those that must be continued to Lieut.-Colonel Cock- 
erelTs detachment till they reach Bengal, the whole expense will 
be actually issued in the course of next month, and that after the 
arrival of all the corps at their peace cantonments, not one single 
rupee, either in the shape of arrears for troops, or of demands for 
public purposes, will ever come against you. 

I am, &c, 


Earl Cornwallis to the Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry. 

DEAR JAMES, Camp 16 miles west of Colar, May 4, 1792. 

I sent a letter for you about three weeks ago to Madras, to 
be forwarded in the Manship, but as that ship has been detained on 
account of her cargo beyond all expectation, I cannot help adding 
a few words of a later date, the satisfaction of which to the receiver 
I well know by- my own feelings on the like occasions. 

I have made my march from Seringapatam very quickly, with- 
out any material cross or vexation, except the horrible sickness 
amongst the European troops, wliich began at Seringapatam, and 
which has attended us ever since without any abatement. We 
have lost many, although the deaths have not been in proportion 
to the number of sick ; but the removal of so many men as I have 
been obliged to find conveyance for, is attended with infinite diffi- 
culty in this country, and has greatly retarded my movements. 
Our peace will no doubt be very popular in England, I see every 
day more reason to be satisfied with it. No termination of the 
war could in my opinion have been attended with more solid advan- 
tages to our interest, and the deference which was paid to us on 
the occasion both by friends and enemies, has placed the British 
name and consequence in a light never before known in India. 

The next point for the gratification of my wishes is my return 
to England, but that cannot happen till my successor arrives ; an 
overland express which I received the other day from Government, 
pressed the stay of Medows x but this is absolutely impossible, and 
indeed I would not purchase even a voyage to England at the price 
of sacrificing the future welfare and prosperity of this country, in 
which my reputation as well as my earnest wishes are so deeply 

I wrote by the Swallow in September last to say that Medowa 


would go home as soon as the war was over, and that I would stay 
till the beginning of the year 1793, this letter will probably arrive 
in England and prepare Ministers to look out for a new Governor- 
General ; the continued accounts by the subsequent ships of our 
preparations and our successes, will make them expect the termi- 
nation of the war at an early period in the present year, and wfll I 
trust enable them to procure the appointment of a successor within 
a few weeks after Madan reaches London, which we have calcu- 
lated for the middle of August. If that successor should sail in 
October, either in a frigate or the Swallow packet, he will get to 
Bengal in February, and I may embark in March next. On these 
reasonings and calculations my hopes are founded, if they should 
prove erroneous, I shall be under the mortifying necessity of de- 
voting the year 1794 to misery and exile. 

My war, notwithstanding Lord Porchester's assertion " that it 
was founded in avarice," has been a very losing concern to me, 1 and 
I believe I have added very little to my store since I have com- 
manded the army. I have however the satisfaction to know that 
I have rendered substantial services to my country. 

The Commodore is at Trincomale, but I expect to see him at 
Madras by the end of the month. \ ^^ ^ 


General Orders. 

May 9, 1792. 

The Commander-in-Chief has perused the proceedings of 
the General Court Martial, of which Lieut-Colonel Cockerell was 
President, as well as the sentences passed on the prisoners. 

Lord Cornwallis is much concerned to be under the necessity of 
expressing his extreme dissatisfaction at the sentence passed on 

Mr. , who is convicted of neglecting to dress the wounds and 

to take proper care of the Europeans, who were sent from Seringa- 
patam to the hospital under his charge at Outradroog; and for 
which heinous breach of his duty, and offence against the strongest 
and most affecting ties of humanity, which forcibly plead in every 
generous breast in favour of men who have shed their blood in the 
cause of their country, he is condemned only to be suspended from 
his rank and pay in the service for eight months, and to be repri- 
manded in public Orders. 

It is incumbent upon Lord Cornwallis to show, that he sets a 

1 Both Lord Cornwallis and General first was 47,244/., of the second 14,997/. ; 
Medows rave up their prize-money for the and see letter from Lord Cornwallis, Sept. 
capture of Seringapatam. The share of the 8, 1792. 


higher value upon the lives and limbs of the soldiers, than to 
expose them again to the hazard of falling under the charge of a 
man who has been guilty of such gross neglect. And he therefore 
declares to the army, that he shall recommend it to the Governor 

in Council at Fort St, George, to ^continue Mr. 's suspension 

until the pleasure of the Court of Directors shall be known, to 
whom he shall transmit the proceedings of the Court Martial with 
his own sentiments upon them ; and that he shall order the pay- 
master to give no share to Mr. of that gratuity, which was 

obtained by the blood of those brave men, whom he afterwards 
suffered either to perish, or to languish miserably for several weeks, 
by an inhumanity which, by any person unacquainted with the evi- 
dence that was produced against him, would be scarcely credible. 

The Commander-in-Chief must likewise express his strongest 

disapprobation of the sentence that acquits Lieutenant of His 

Majesty's 52nd regiment, of violently beating Perseram, a black 
man, and which appears to have been given, not only in direct 
opposition to the whole body of evidence that was produced, but 
even to Lieutenant 's own confession. The Commander-in- 
Chief is of opinion, that Lieutenant in beating Perseram the 

first time, when he came to ask him for the payment of a just debt 
which had been due seven months, acted in a manner highly unbe- 
coming a gentleman and an officer ; and that in beating him the 
second time, when he was sent back to him by the Commanding 
Officer of the regiment, accompanied by the Adjutant, Lieutenant 

was guilty of manifesting the greatest disrespect towards his 

Commanding Officer, and contempt of all military order and sub- 

Lieutenant admits in his defence, that the man, on his 

return to him from the Commanding Officer of the regiment, ex- 
pressed the utmost apprehension at entering his tent, when he saw 
the money that was due to him and the stick that was prepared to 
beat him lying on the same table, and therefore the apology that 
he offers for having given him the second gentle beating (as he 
calls it) which divided the poor man's ear, by declaring that he did 
not otherwise intend to have made use of the stick, but that it only 
proceeded from his having been irritated to a violent degree by 
Perseram's abusing him in Malabar, a language in which probably 

Lieutenant is no great proficient, ought to have appeared too 

ridiculous to have had any weight with the Court Martial. 

The Commander-in-Chief trusts that there are very few officers 
either in the King's or Company's service, who are capable of com- 
mitting acts of the above nature, which he considers as partaking 


both of ferocity and injustice, and no less unworthy of the manners 
of gentlemen than disgraceful to the characters of officers ; and he 

warns Lieutenant , that if he should persevere in the shameful 

practice of beating his creditors instead of paying them, he shall 
not on a future occasion escape the punishment that such conduct 

Lord Cornwallis directs that the Commanding Officer of the 
regiment shall see that the original debt is paid, and that ten 

pagodas shall be deducted from Lieutenant 's gratuity, to be 

given to Perseram, as a small compensation for the barbarous treat- 
ment that he has received. 

It has given the Commander-in-Chief great pain to be obliged 
to pass so severe a censure on the conduct of the above General 
Court Martial, many of the membera being, to his own personal 
knowledge, men of most respectable characters. 

He is persuaded that the sentences could only have proceeded 
from mistaken ideas of lenity ; and he therefore desires that not 
only those Members, but also that ajl other Officers who may here- 
after compose General Courts Martial, will recollect when they take 
their seats as Judges, that true humanity consists, not in screening 
the guilty, but in protecting the innocent and redressing the 

Major-General Grenville to Earl Cornwallis. 

[Received May 12, 1792.] 
MY DEAR LORD, New Burlington Street, Nor. 25, 1791. 

. . . Our impatience and anxiety are at the utmost 
stretch, and though your Lordship's last letters to the Ministry do 
not allow us to be so sanguine in our expectations of good news as 
we might otherwise have been, we do not however by any means 
give up the hopes of receiving the joyful news of the capture of 
Seringapatam, and of your having reduced Tippoo to come into 
your own terms ; there are however unpleasant reports circulating 
per via France, that your Lordship had been obliged to give up all 
thoughts of attacking Seringapatam, as the rains had set in earlier 
than were expected, and that you had retired to Bangalore. I do 
not find that much credit is given to this account, as no one can 
tell with certainty from what quarter it comes. 

The whole town at present is taken up with the arrival of the 
Duke and Duchess of York ; His Royal Highness went over in the 
spring to offer his services to the King of Prussia to act as. volun- 


teer with the army in case the war had taken place against Austria 
and Bussia, who seemed determined at one time to refuse all me- 
diation in regard of their making peace with the Turks. But as 
both powers have thought better of it, His Boyal Highness laid 
aside all thoughts of war, and with equal ardour offered his services 
to the Princess Frederique, only daughter of the present King by 
his first wife. I believe your Lordship must recollect having seen 
her when you was at Berlin, she is little, but prettily made and 
very accomplished ; the match has been concluded in a very great 
hurry, insomuch that they have been obliged to have a second 
marriage ceremony performed in private at the Queen's house, as 
I believe the nuptials were celebrated at Berlin before the King's 
consent in form signed by ' our Chancellor could arrive at Berlin. 
You will be surprised to hear that the King of Prussia has only 
given 13,000?. with this favourite daughter, which, considering the 
wretched state of our finances, is absolutely a nothing. I under- 
stand that Parliament mean to do handsomely ;* it is proposed to 
give H. K. H. in addition to his present allowance of 12,000£, 
25,000?., which with the emoluments of his regiment, which they 
reckon at 3000?., will make his income a clear 40,000?. exclusive 
of Osnaburgh. This sum would and should be sufficient to enable 
us with economy to live as a Prince, but unfortunately our debts, 
if they are not cleared, will prove such an incumbrance, that I do 
not see how we shall be able to hold our heads above water. In 
short, my dear Lord, c'est une mer k boire, and we must make what 
sail we can. As to any political news, I have scarce any to com- 
municate. The French affairs are still in great confusion, notwith- 
standing that they have got the King not only to accept the new 
constitution, but to make it His voluntary act and deed ; in the 
mean time the Princes remain absent, and do not seem inclined to 
pay any obedience to His Majesty's late peremptory injunction to 
return to their native country. How it is to end God only knows ; 
there is hardly any money in circulation, and the taxes not forth- 
coming, all or great part of their West India islands in a state of 
rebellion and warfare, and many plantations totally destroyed. 
The rest of Europe seems inclined to remain in peace and quiet, 
and I hope before this reaches you (if it ever does on the other side 
of the water), that you will have concluded a firm and lasting 
peace throughout all our Asiatic possessions ; I need not say how 
happy such a piece of news would make the whole nation, and it 
would be an additional pleasure to your friends by giving them 

1 Parliament voted, March 7, 1792, 18,000/. additional income to the Duke of York, and 
8000/. jointure to the Duchess. 



hopes of seeing you soon ■lililUjill us, and for which event no c 
waits with greater anxiety and impatience than 

Yours ever, most affectionately. 

Earl Coknwallis to the Right Hon. Henrst Duntas. 

Deak Sir, hum. June is, i7M. 

I have now been about three weeks at this Presidency, and 
happy should I be to tell you that the situation of this great and 
important Government was much to my satisfaction ; but I must 
confess that I do not observe any material improvement that has 
been made, and that I see no flattering prospect, 

Sir Charles Oakeley, though not a very capable nan, h I 
believe the best of all the Civil servants of tins eslablisliim ;it that 
could have been selected to fill the station of Governor, and yet 
you may be assured that he never will possess suflicient authority, 
or make any radical reform. 

It is very difficult for a man to divest himself of the prejudices 
which the habits of twenty years have confirmed, and to govern 
people who have lived with him so long on a footing of equality. 
But the Company's servants have still greater obstacles to on- 
counter when they become Governors, for the matched policy of 
the Company has, till the late alterations took place in Bengal, in- 
variably driven all their servants to the alternative of 
of taking what was not their own ; and although SOBM have been 
infinitely less guilty in this respect than others, the world will nol 
tamely submit to be reformed by those who have practised it in 
the smallest degree. 

It is not the intention of this letter to enter into th' 
the system that prevails from Gunjnrn l< Cape OoDMrh), but I 
shall only repeat what I have so often said, as being the DJHMt im- 
|H>rtant point of all, that mil. « \<-\i can find good Ow 
system whatever can succeed. A man of upri^'lil intentioni, »itlt 
ability and application, that would undertake this Government tlM 
«ix or seven years, night do great things for the pvhtie I 
BQurideraMe fortune for himself. If you cannot tempt Booh i nn 
with these utoepeet B i 1 have no effectual remedy to p 

What I have laid about Governori ia eqnatt] applicabll t.' 
B o m ba y , and ^till more to the Saprame Qorernmen^ which I hope 
n.'ver again to see in the bauds of n ( kmpany'a ■etrant 

I enclose an extract of a letter which Hues ruoeived 

1792, AFFAIRS OF INDIA. 171 

one of the most able and most honourable men in Bengal, who 
never was spoken to upon the subject, but who was led to turn his 
thoughts to it from the observations he had made on the conduct 
of the Council during my absence. As his opinion coincides per- 
fectly with my own, and as he cannot have a private interest in 
circumscribing the limits of promotion for the Company's servants, 
it must give additional weight to what I have said. 

I have purposely confined myself in this letter to the subject 
of Governors, and have given you opinions that you will perceive 
are pretty free, and consequently intended to be perfectly confi- 
dential between us ; I mean always including Mr. Pitt . . . 

I am, &c, 


Extract op a Letter to Lieut.-Colonel Ross, from Bengal. 

Dated May 27, 1792. 

I am very sensible how great a private sacrifice his Lordship 
has* made by determining to continue in this country until the 
arrival of a successor from England, but as far as the public good 
is concerned it has afforded me the sincerest joy. It will insure to 
this country a long continuance of external tranquillity and in- 
ternal prosperity. By remaining some time longer he will not 
only be able to give strength and durability to the happy political 
security in which we now seem to be placed, but also to insure the 
internal prosperity of the British possessions by completing his 
various arrangements both in Bengal and at the other Presidencies. 
These grand objects certainly could not have been so fiilly accom- 
plished had his Lordship resolved to depart for Europe shortly 
after his return to Bengal, even supposing a successor to have 
arrived. As for leaving the Government in interim hands, it 
appears to me that it would have been attended with the nfcst 
ruinous consequences. Matters have gone on quietly and con- 
formably to the established regulations during the time he has been 
upon the coast, because, as it was known he would return, his in- 
fluence has operated as powerfully as if he had been present upon 
the spot ; but there are numerous animosities and jealousies sub- 
sisting, which would burst forth immediately were that restraining 
influence to be entirely withdrawn, and no other sufficiently power- 
ful to be substituted in its place. Such is human nature that it 
does not readily brook the authority of persons suddenly raised 
from the level of their equals and invested with the reins of 


power, especially if in the management of them they are influenced 
by passion and caprice. In such cases, individuals are too often 
apt to sacrifice the public interest without remorse to gratify 
private resentment, and by that means give rise to the most serious 
disorders. The Company's servants are certainly the most fit 
persons for Members of Council, but from what I have seen since 
his Lordship's departure, I am convinced that it could never answer 
to appoint any of them to the Government. Such is the present 
temper of the British part of the community in India, that it 
appears to me that nobody but a person who has never been in the 
service, and who is entirely unconnected with the individuals who 
compose it, who is of a rank far surpassing his associates in the 
Government, and has the full support of the Ministry at home, can 
be competent to govern our iwssessions with that energy and vigour 
which is essential to our political safety and internal prosperity. 

Earl Cornwallis to Vjsoount Brome. 

My DEAREST CHARLES, Madras, July 10, 1792. 

I have received your letters as late as the 31st of January, 
giving an account of your leaving Eton, your expedition into Suf- 
folk, &c. &c, and I am glad you speak so stoutly about Eye. If 
you and I were there together, we should soon set all matters quite 
right. I shall not now, I am afraid, receive letters from you so fre- 
quently as before, which gives me great concern, for you are one 
of the pleasantest of my correspondents. If however you are well 
and happy where you are, I shall be perfectly satisfied. 

I am going in a few days to Bengal, where I sincerely hope I 
shall only stay six months. It depends, as I believe I have already 
told you, upon the arrival of my successor, and you will hear of his 
leaving England from the Bishop. 

+ Adieu, my dearest Charles. That every blessing may attend 
you is the sincere and earnest prayer of 

Your most affectionate father, 


Earl Cornwallis to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas. 



Dear Sir, Mad™*, July n, 1792. 

I have at length settled everything with the Nabob, and I 
believe in the best manner that it could have been done, unless we 




had kept possession of the country ; but that point could only have 
been carried by force, without the least shadow of reason or justice, 
and consequently was not to be attempted. 

You will see all the circumstances respecting the new treaty 
amply detailed in my public letter, and I have only to add that 
the Nabob expressed an earnest desire that the whole of the accounts 
between himself and the Company should be adjusted under my 
direction, and promised, if I consent to this, to withdraw immedi- 
ately the suit that he instituted at the recommendation of Mr. 
Macpherson in England. In order to terminate this disagreeable 
business, and to prevent future quarrels, I have undertaken the 
troublesome task. . . . 

William Burke has determined to go home, and has requested 
that I would mention him favourably to you. I do not however, 
when I desire you to be civil to him, advise you to follow General 
Conway's l example, and appoint him Under-Secretary of State. 

Maitland and Fox, could not have read my letter to the Nizam, 
when they represented it as the cause of the war, or an evasion of 
the Act of Parliament. It was certainly the duty of the Supreme 
Government to explain to his Highness, when he required it, what 
they conceived to be the purport of the conditions of the treaty 
concluded with him in 1768. 

I shall embark to-morrow for Bengal, from whence I hope to 
send you a good account of the state of our affairs by the Ganges 
Indiaman, which will be despatched next month. I hear the eight 
per cent, certificates bear a discount only of two per cent. 

I am, &c, 


Right Hon. Henry Dundas to the Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, 

My LOBD, Wimbledon, July 30, 1792. 

It is the wish of His Majesty in the most public manner to 
mark his approbation of the conduct of Lord Cornwallis, and with 
that view is desirous to promote him immediately to the honour of 
a Marquisate. I take it for granted there can be no objection to 

1 Field-Marshal Rt. Hon. Henry Conway, 
Colonel of the Blues, son of Francis, 1st 
Lord Conway, b. 1720, d. July 9, 1796, 
m. Dec. 19, 1747, Caroline, dau. of John, 
4th Duke of Argyle, and widow of Charles, 
3rd Earl of Ailesbury. Groom of the Bed- 
chamber from 1760 to April, 1764, when he 
waa dismissed for his rote about General 
Warrant*; Secretary of State from July, 

1765 to Jan. 1768; and Commander-in- 
Chief from March, 1782, to Dec. 1783 ; M.P. 
for Higham Ferrers, Penryn, St. Mawes, 
Thetford, and Bury St. Edmunds, from Dec. 
1741 to March, 1784 ; and in Ireland, for the 
county of Antrim, from 1741 to 1768. He 
had seen some service, and had been second 
in command to Lord Gran by in Germany. 



Our. XIV. 

its being done without the delay of a direct communication with 
Lord Cornwallis himself, but I thought it right to state the matter 
to your Lordslu'p, in order to have the benefit of your information, 
that I may lay it before His Majesty. 

I have the honour to be, with great respect, your Lordship's 
most obedient and grateful servant, 

Henby Dunua 

Majob-Gexeeai. Grenvii.le to Earl Cornwallis. 

l:..-.:n, I \i:: IV, 17'i- ] 


My dear Lord, 

Xrw Burlington Stmt, Feb. 28, 1TM. 

, . . I have however the satisfaction to be able to assure 
you that these labours are not overlooked or forgotten by the true 
friends to this country; and your Lordshi) i's character, both civil 
and military, is too well established to Buffer the smallest deprecia- 
tion from the misrepresentations and extravagant reports of Messrs. 
H[ippesle]y and Co. I have not words sufficiently strong to do 
justice to the sentiments of friendship and real esteem, which 1 fam 
frequently heard both from Mr. Pitt and Lord Gren villi? in regard 
to your Lordship. Your cause, and defence if necessary, cannot Iw 
placed in bettor hands. I must likewise do the Duke of Yvk tin- 
justice to say, that, though upon almost all other points H. It, If, 
sides with the Opposition party, he differs very strongly with thorn 
in their Asiatic politics, and has assured me that he is determined 
to attend and to vote in favour of your Lordship, in case any mutton 
should be made in the House of Lords, any ways tending to censure 
or to criminate your conduct regarding the measures which yen 
have thought proper to pursue upon the subject of the war with 

The Turks and Russians have concluded a pcaco, not quite 
according to the terms at first proposed through our mediation. 
thanks to a certain set of men ' who put every obstacle in the way 
to embarrass the measures of Administration, and who have 10 fiir 
■BBBOfldad, Peace however is at present established, and likely to 
remain all over the Continent. France still continues in the MM 
state nf uuiuvhy mid cunl'iision, God knows how it li to Bad . 
Batten me ever yours most affectionately, 


> Mr. Fm und (h« *li<.1f Whig prtj « 


Marquis Cornwallis to Sir C. W. Malot, .Bart. 

SlR, Fort William, Aug. 20, 1792. 

Although there seems at present no reason to apprehend 
that Tippoo will for a considerable period be disposed to come to a 
rupture with any of the members of the late Confederacy, yet, as 
it is of great importance for preserving our reputation for good 
faith, as well as for the general interests of the British nation, that 
the grounds should be clearly explained on which the Allies can, 
in consequence of the 13th and 15th articles of the treaties of 
alliance that were formed at the commencement of the war, 
demand assistance and support from each other against any hostile 
attempt of their late common enemy, I look upon it as proper and 
desirable that the treaty of guarantee, which they are bound to 
enter into, should with all convenient despatch be put into a dis- 
tinct form, and I therefore wish that you should take an early 
opportunity to confer fully with the Minister upon this subject 

Every consideration will induce me to examine and discuss any 
propositions that may be made by him in the most amicable manner, 
but the greatest care must be taken that no vague or ambiguous 
expression shall be admitted into this new instrument, and that the 
stipulations shall in no shape go beyond the spirit of the article 
upon which they will be founded. 

I shall defer entering much into detail until you can inform me 
of Nana's sentiments and expectations, but it is proper that you 
should be acquainted with my ideas of the general principles which 
should form the basis of the agreement 

The Allies are bound to guarantee against Tippoo the territories 
that each of them might possess at the conclusion of the war, but 
it must always be adverted to that the stipulation is merely defen- 
sive, and cannot operate unless Tippoo should attack either of them 
without just provocation. 

It must therefore be clearly expressed in the treaty of guarantee, 
that in case any difference should arise between one of the latter 
and Tippoo, the other Allies are to have a right to expect that the 
nature and circumstances of such difference shall be fully com- 
municated to them, in order that they may give their opinion and 
advice, and endeavour to settle it by a temperate negotiation, and 
that they shall not be considered as bound to take up arms in his 
favour, until they are convinced that he has justice on his side, and 
all means of conciliation shall have proved fruitless. 

Should a rupture become unavoidable, the interest and safety of 
the contracting Powers will be so evidently and deeply involved in 


the event, that it would be highly injudicious in them to limit 
their exertions In endeavouring to bring it to a speedy and honour- 
able conclusion, and it must consequently be stipulated that the 
whole force of each State is to be employed for that purpose. 

The distress and danger of the party that may be attacked being 
entitled to the greatest attention froin the other members of the 
Alliance, it ought to be understood and settled that, whilst no time 
should be lost in preparing their whole force to take the field, every 
immediate assistance that may be practicable should be afforded 
with such troops as may be in actual readiness for service. 

The above are the fair principles for the treaty of guarantee, 
and to render any further treaty unnecessary, in the event that 
Tippoo's conduct should again force us into hostilities during the 
existence of the guarantee, it may be proper to insert in it, that a 
general plan of operations for the confederate forces is to be con- 
certed as soon as possible after a rupture becomes certain, and that 
conformable to the terms of the alliance that was made at the 
commencement of last war, were if any of the parties shall enter 
into separate negotiations, but that (under the exclusion of unrea- 
sonable objections) all measures for concluding a peace shall be 
conducted with the knowledge and approbation of the whole. 1 

You will communicate to Sir J. Kennaway the particulars and 
result of your conferences upon this point, that you may act in 
entire conformity with each other. j am £ a 


Marquis Cornwallir to the Court of Directors. 

Honourable Sirs, Fort wiiium, Aug. 26, 1792. 

. . . The miserable situation of the northern Circars con- 
stituted one of those cases to which some relief could not be refused, 
and the Members of the Board had accordingly, in the course'of the 
last nine or ten months, sent them considerable supplies. But as 
the Company's servants in those districts have continued to repre- 
sent that, unless a much more extensive aid can be furnished, the 
greatest part of the wretched inliabitants must unavoidably perish, 
I have, I confess, more from the feelings of humanity than the 
rigid dictates of prudence, been encouraged by the prospect which 
the present season holds out to us of an uncommonly abundant 

1 This letter is copied from a transcript language, and sometimes, as in the present 
made by a native scribe. Many errors arose instance, it is impossible to correct them, 
from these scribes being ignorant of the English 


crop in Bengal, not only to propose that several of the Company's 
ships shall be immediately despatched with cargoes of rice, but 
$lso that the embargo shall be so far taken off, as to allow all the 
other vessels in the river that can give sufficient security for their 
going to the Circars only, to load likewise with grain, in order that 
no means in our power may be left untried to save as many of these 
unfortunate people as may be practicable. . . . 

The accounts of the death of Hyder Beg Khan had reached me 
at Madras, and, although it has been a general maxim with me to 
avoid as much as possible all interference in the details of the 
Vizier's Government, I was glad to find upon my arrival here, that 
his Excellency had been persuaded to show his respect for this 
Government by making only a temporary appointment of ministers 
to conduct' his affairs, until he could consult with me on a proper 
permanent successor to his late Minister. 

Having long clearly seen that Hyder Beg^ talents for business 
were much superior to those of most men of his religion in this 
country (who are, in general, indolent and dissipated), and having 
had reason to believe that he was sincerely desirous to cement the 
connexion between his Excellency and the Company, his death 
gave me much concern, and I regretted him the more as I do not 
know any person that I could have, with propriety, recommended 
to the Vizier to succeed him, who is nearly equal to him in 
abilities. . . . 

His Excellency had made a temporary nomination of Hussein 
Reza Khan to act as the efficient Minister, and of Rajah Ticket 
Roy to continue in the management of the revenue department ; 
and although Hussein Reza does not possess all the qualifications 
that I could wish for a Minister, yet, as I have an exceedingly 
good opinion both of his principles and of his disposition to promote 
cordiality between his Master and the Company, and I have great 
confidence in the experience and ability of the Rajah in the line in 
which he was employed, I did not see that a better choice could be 
made, and accordingly I signified to the Vizier my entire approba- 
tion of their being permanently appointed 

I lay my account with having occasion to combat much chicane 
and evasion on the part of Tippoo, but I trust that I shall be able 
in the end to bring these points to a satisfactory adjustment. 

I have likewise been called upon, both by Tippoo and the 
Nizam, to interfere in exacting a full execution of some of the 
articles of the late treaty : by the former, to procure the release 
of Budder-ul-Zamaun Khan and the possession of the district of 
Soondoor, which, he says, the Mahrattas have not yet restored to 



him, and by the Nizam, to require of Tippoo the surrender of the 
fortress of Balhari, which he had still retained ; and I have little 
doubt that the representations which I have mode to the Peshwa 
and to Tippoo will have the effect of removing all these different 
grounds of complaint. 

A number of Mahrattas of different descriptions having pre- 
sumed on several occasions during the last twain 
behave with great disrespect both to the Resident and the ' knti 
of Adnwlut at Benares, I have thought it ncos-iuy to dirc.-t Sir 
« 'tifirii H Mulct and Major I'almer to signify my dissatisfaction im 
that head to the Court of Poona and to Scindia. and to declare my 
determination to punish in an exemplary manner, all persons (let 
their rank be what it may) who, during their visits in the I "■;'- 
pany's dominions, shall dare to disregard our laws and courts of 
justice, or to behave with impropriety towards any of the officers 
of fiiis ( .mcrnment. 

I have also been obliged to write in strong terms to Botndit 
concerning some late insulting conduct of his Aumil at Broach 
towards oar Resident and factory, and a shocking murder that wa* 
committed by some Patan sepoys belonging to him, upon one of the 
Company's sepoys at that place, and I am inclined to baHm 
that both the Peshwa and Scindia will be sufficiently disposed to 
make every reparation in their power for the injuries that I have 
mentioned . . . 

I have repeatedly expressed my high opinion of the gallant 
behaviour of the officers and soldiers who composed the army under 
my command in the late war, and whilst the officers who were |mt- 
tieularly attached to my family have, in common with the others, 
a strong claim upon their country for the most distiiigoi 
I feel myself under personal obligations to them for the ahle- and 
zealous assistance that they afforded mo during the whole course 
of that service. ■ . . 

Tho Nabob of Arcot has sent me a copy of the instructions that 
he has transmitted to his agent in England, to trithdm the mtj in 
Chancery which he had instituted agaiust the Company, and I at 

the same time received two letters from him. in i of «hi. Ii hi 

desires that some agreement may be entered into for granting him 
remissions in seasons of drought, and in the other he brings forward 
.1 claim, which lie never mentioned to me when 1 was at Madras, 
for a share of the countries that have been acquired from Tippoo 
by the late treaty of jnn.-c, 

Copies of fbaM letters mid of my answers to them, will b-f 
enclosed to ymi in the despatch from the Board, and 1 Im-l (hat 


his Highness will not again be persuaded to make such unreason- 
able propositions. . . . I have, &c, 


P.S. Since I wrote the above letter I have received information 
from Sir John Kennaway, that Tippoo has delivered up the fort of 
Belhari to his Highness the Nizam. 

Marquis Cornwallis to the Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry. 

Dear James, Calcutta, Sept. 8, 1792. 

I omitted to mention to you in the letter which I wrote a 

few days ago, that poor Captain , who was formerly in my 

regiment, and was my aide-de-camp in the beginning of the 
American war, had inarmed me that he was totally ruined and 
obliged to go with his wife to France, and entreated me in the 
strongest terms to endeavour to do something for him. Nothing 
could be more inconvenient to myself, and less likely to be useful 
to him, than my soliciting favours for him from hence, which I 
tried to explain to him in as good-natured and feeling a manner 
as I could, and as a kind* of plaister, on the pretext that his first 
settling in France must have been expensive to him, I sent him a 
draft on Hoare for 100?. I did not think it fair to draw on 
my agent, as, from my regiment being gone to Ireland, I may have 

no money in his hands, besides, it is very probable that is 

indebted to him. 

You will judge from the savings of other years, that I must 
have been considerably out of pocket by the war, when I tell you 
that I spent 27,360?. (reckoning the current rupee at two shillings) 
between the 1st of December, 1790, and the 31st of July, 1792, 
besides the wine from England and two Arabian horses, for which 
I am to give English hunters. The immaculate * * * understood 
making war in India better, or he would not have paid off the 
mortgage on one estate in Scotland and bought another. 

Matters here are going on well, Tippoo has made his first pay- 
ment of the second moiety of the crore and ten lacs, and everything 
promises quiet and prosperity. 

My love and best wishes to Mrs. Cornwallis and all your 
family. j anij ^ eax j ame8 ^ 

Your truly affectionate brother, 


n 2 



Chap. XIV. 

Marquis Cornwallis to Robert Morris, 1 Esq., Benares. 

SlR 9 Calcutta, Oct 8, 1792. 

I have received your letter dated September 16th. 
This Government has no right to interfere respecting the 
admission or rejection of barristers who wish to practise in the 
Supreme Court of Judicature, the discretion upon that point being 
solely vested with the Judges. But I shall think it my duty to 
take measures for investigating the complaints which you mention 
against Mr. Grand, 8 the Judge of Adawlet at Patna. 

I am, &c, 


Marquis Cornwallis to Viscount Brome. 

My dearest Charles, Calcutta, Oct. u, 1792. 

I have received your letter dated the 29th of March, but 
the Bishop sent me one that you had written to him of the 17th of 
April, all giving the best accounts of your health, and saying that 
you were pretty well reconciled to Yverdun. You do not however 
mention the trout, which I remember I thought excellent. I am 
surprised that anybody there should recollect me, as it is above 
thirty-four years since I passed a few days at that place, but I 
think it still more extraordinary that de Boguin Colonel 1 should be 
alive, as he was then an old man. 

I am very glad to learn that you like fencing ; it is a very 
wholesome exercise, strengthens the arms and forms the person. 
If you should have an opportunity, it would be desirable that you 
should learn to ride, although I am not very fond of the great 

1 Robert Morris d. in India early in 1794. 
In 1782 he contracted, under very disreput- 
able circumstances, a marriage with Frances 
Harford, a natural daughter of Frederick, 
last Lord Baltimore. This marriage was 
dissolved, on her petition, May 21, 1784, 
and she m. July 21 following, William, son 
of Charles, 2nd Earl of Egremont. This 
letter alludes to the Judges of the Supreme 
Court at Calcutta having refused to allow 
Mr. Morris to practise before them, although 
he had been called to the bar in England. 

* George Francis Grand, a Swiss, b. 1748, 
d. 1820. First in the Military, afterwards 
in the Civil service of the Company ; m. 
July 10, 1777, Catherine, dau. of M.Werlee, 
Capitaine du Port at Chandernagore, and a 
Chev. de St. Louis. In little more than a 

year she was detected in an intrigue with Mr. 
afterwards Sir P. Francis, who was sentenced 
by Sir E. Impey to pay 50,000 rupees as 
damages — hence the hostile feelings enter- 
tained by the former towards the latter. She 
then lived with various persons, and ended 
by marrying the Prince de Talleyrand. Mr. 
Grand, after filling several offices, was ap- 
pointed, Sept. 1788, Judge of Adawlut at 
Patna, by Lord Cornwallis, who however 
removed him April 4, 1 793. He afterwards 
accepted from the Batavian Government an 
office at the Cape of Good Hope, which, it is 
said, he obtained by the intercession of his 
divorced wife with Bonaparte. He there, in 
1814, published an account of his life, fall of 
vituperation of Lord Cornwallis. 
8 See page 4, vol. i. 


saddle. You have never told me what sort of a proficient you are 
in dancing. If the picture that Mr. Deane brought out is like 
you, I am convinced I should not know you, I am inclined to 
believe there must be some resemblance as I think it a little like 
your sister. Bow comical it would be if we were to meet unex- 
pectedly and not to know each other I 

I conclude you allot some time for reading, and do not quite 
throw Latin and Greek books aside. You are likely, I am sorry 
to say, to live in troublesome times, and it is some comfort to a 
man to be able to speak his mind and defend his principles if he 
pleases. Adieu, my dearest boy; God send us a happy and a 
speedy meeting. 

Believe me ever your most truly affectionate Father, 


Marquis Corwallis to the Bight Hon. Henrt Dijndas. 


DEAR SlR, Calcutta, Oct. 15, 1792. 

. . . I shall be very impatient for the arrival of the 
packet which I conclude you will have despatched in the course of 
last mouth, when I shall hope to hear that you have provided a 
good successor for my office, that you have got the better of 
the Associators and Reformers, and that the Indian peace meets 
with thorough approbation. 

You will see by our letter to the Court of Directors, that I have 
had favourable opportunities of sending persons into Nepaul and 
Assam ; and as I understand that the Rajah of Nepaul has just 
made peace with the Chinese, I am in good hopes that Kirkpatrick 
will open a communication with their chiefs, for whom he is pro- 
vided with letters and presents. 

I enclose, in the form of a minute, a rough outline of a plan for 
separating the judicial authority from the collection of the revenue, 
and for the improvement of the administration of justice, which, 
God knows, is much wanted. My reasons are so fully detailed in 
the Minute, 1 and the Minute is so long, that it would be equally 
useless and unreasonable to repeat them in this letter. I know 
that it would have been more regular to have referred this business 
in the first instance to the Court of Directors, but a considerable 
time must have elapsed before my successor could have formed a 
clear comprehension of the nature of it, and you might have felt 

1 S«a Apputdii. 




an unwillingness to have imposed so delicate a task upon him early 
in his administration. Mr. Pitt and yourself will thercfi >r< ■. I ;mi 
sure, (In me tli« justice to believe that if I had not oatuddered fllfa 
measure to be of the utmost importance for the honour of the 
British Government and for the future prosperity of this DOQOtry, 
I Mould not have undertaken the labour and responsibility of 
currying it into execution. ... j 3™ &^ 



[RMiredNov. 6,1793.] 

Mv Lord, Loud™, si. r a*. i7«. 

I have been waiting tlirough the whole of the shipping 
season, now brought to a close, for the period in which Mr. Dundee 
should be able to sit down to the final consideration of the revenue 
system of Bengal. It has not come; I am persuaded from no 
want of inclination on his part, for he regards the subject with 
ardour, hut from the multiplicity and importance of the other 
pressing affairs in which he is engaged at this crisis. These have 
been such, that I have abstained from troubling him for some lime 
past untd yesterday, when I found my call upon him bad just 
prevented a message he was sending me, and the imriort of this 
was to give me some instructions relative to the rerenne peseta, 
preparatory to my attending him for a week at Wimbledon, where 
he means to settle this great business, so as to transmit the public 
orders upon it I >y the packet intended to be despatched in July. 

I sincerely hope therefore, that your Lordship will still have 
the satisfaction of sceiug the landed property of Bengal put on a 
permanent footing before you leave that country ; for, from the 
wnok tenor of Sir. Dundas's discourse with me, I cannot doubt 
that hi' mentis t" adopt your Lordship's ideas. 

The news by the Deptford have heeu very satisfactory, and I 
think with great reason, though their proper effect was in some 
sort alleviated by a most audacious imposition that had just hrdhm 
been played off upon the Court, of Directors ami the Mliiistil 
NrpOrtmg the arrival of the Vestal frigate with adneefl of I 
aecHrre defeat of Tippoo and the fall of Sermgapatam ; 
was the eager joy to embrace this intelligence, that it was given 
without suspicion to the public, and answered for I 
in I'armus purpose either of gain or malice which the author may 
liavc intended. From the view which the last genuine KblM 


presented, people now in general seem to be more apprehensive 
of peace, than of the issue of prosecuting the war; but men 
of sober minds will entertain such a sentiment with very great 
admissions for circumstances not within their knowledge or 

It may seem singular that with such hope of success as the 
temper I have now been mentioning indicates, the price of India 
Stock should be lower than at the beginning of the season, when 
many more difficulties lay in the way of that success, at any rate 
then more remote. But this is to be ascribed to other more 
general causes. The 3 per cents, which two months ago were at 
about par, are now at 88, and the same proportionate reduction 
has taken place in all the other funds. The Indian war has not 
contributed to, but I think rather retarded the falL It is attri- 
buted chiefly to the wars and commotions on the Continent ; to 
the spirit of commotion which begins to show itself in several ways 
at home, by seditious writings, associations, and the lately-an- 
nounced project of Parliamentary reform ; to the dissensions in the 
Cabinet issuing within these few days in the removal (actual or 
declared) of the Chancellor, 1 with a report which I understand to 
be, or at least to have been founded, of a summer camp at 
Hounslow ; and to all these has just been added a proclamation 
by His Majesty against seditious writings and associations. But 
to these public causes there has been a private one the effect of 
which has been considerable. From the very flourishing state 
of the nation, as described by Mr. Pitt at the beginning of the 
session, and his declared intention of paying off the 4 per cents, 
the funds immediately rose ; and many speculators, thinking this 
flood-tide long progressive, bought in upon time or with money 
borrowed on the security of stock, thus increasing the tide, but 
the war between France and Hungary breaking out in the mean 
time, with those unfavourable symptoms at home, the ebb began, 
and those speculators, afraid of waiting to the lowest of it, hastened 
to save themselves, so that there has been a rout in the Stock 
Exchange ; and this fact ought, I imagine, to be regarded as 
operating considerably to the present depressed state of the funds, 
which after all can only be deemed temporary. With respect to 
our internal discontents, I humbly conceive that they spring chiefly 
from licentiousness, and that even where the matter of complaint 
may be founded, the spirit that brings it forward is not good. The 

1 The Chancellor, Lord Thurlow, was dis- Lords opposed Mr. Pitt's measures, who at 
missed Jane, 1792, at the close of the ses- length early in May submitted to the King 
sion. He had repeatedly in the House of the necessity of his removal. 




Dissenters of Dr. Priestly' s ■ persuasion (now abetted by many of 
that denomination who do not hold his tenets) and the favourers of 
the French Revolution principles, liave for some time been avowed 
malcontents ; there are others, men of moody tempers and deep 
aims, who, saying less at present, would probably prove dangerous 
instruments in case of any open disturbance ; but by far the 
greater part of the nation are firmly attached to our present 
establishment, which there is good reason to hope will reouin 
unossailed during this reign, — but in looking beyond that, the 
prospect seems to be thought by many uncomfortable. It is pretty 
certain that the conduct of some branches of the Royal Family has 
given an unhappy edge to the writings i..f I'liinc ami ■ 
lications of that sort; and had it not been fur the Lib 
parties have long taken with each other, and for the language 
of Op]iosition in particular, we should nut mm si'e tinvi.Tiiin-.-iil 
itself comparatively so little reverenced. 

The arrangements for the succession to the Bengil QanHttOTt 
are not, I believe, at all known bere, though they probably will !*■ 
to your Lordship. It baa seemed to mo sometimes that a tem- 
porary local choice would be adopted until your Lordship's return 
tu Kngland. 

The debute * on " the seizure of the Camatic," as it ia termed, 
was to have come on last night, but was postponed till next week, 
when also Mr. I hmdas opens his India budget, 

I have the honour to remain, &c. t 

fiiAui i:s i.; 


■i '■ '■■ M.I I- I" I HI- Hl'iHl il<j\. IIkskv Punoas. 

DEAR Si It, Calcutta, Dm. i>. int. 

I received vmir Lettex dated the 'J4th of May, in which you 
promise to think seriously of finding a successor to this flimiw 
meat I am well aware that it will be a most difficult task, and 
shall therefore make every reasonable iUowaoce fin -I'.hiv. ami 
"nil patiently fin his arrival. 

Our domestic affairs gu on as quietly and as prosperously at) we 
could wish; the ceded country on t'h- Madras side (thanks I 

1 I'. tmjk rnallrv, 11m wdl. 
I ■n.tarian .livine, b. 17'W, d. Feb, 0,1 
Auarioa, lu whlub country ho bail 
l»0i; m. . dair. of — WilMoa™, 
17S3. ■■, n .r.A 

' X<> ItWi ablSl ll"* dniatic took plan imyt alt 

between the ,liU of liiU Iriir. and ih- rl<a* 
of the Mtion. Tbt Kaat la* !. 

brought forward Jun 

vl, .|,i,| ipc*cb on Inrtian artai 

''I- | jJIIMIII Hi A l-l.i. : ■ 


M,. :,..' 

1792. STATE OF POONA. < 185 % 

believe, to my military collectors) turns out much more productive 
than we expected, and the Madras Government have been suc- 
cessful in recovering the valuable manufactures ' of Salem, of 
which the Company have been so many years deprived, and which, 
under the discouragement shown by Tippoo towards all goods 
that were calculated for the European market, was almost entirely 
lost. ... 

The situation of politics at Poona (although it cannot I think 
ultimately much affect us) is not altogether so pleasing. Scindia 
seems to have had ability and art enough to get the better even of 
the Brahmin cunning, and to obtain the favour and confidence of 
the young Peshwa, 1 so that there appears to be at least a proba- 
bility that Nana, Hurry Punt, and their adherents must soon be 
obliged to retire. It is reported that the partisans of the different 
factions are assembling their forces in the neighbourhood of Poona, 
but the respectable army that Scindia has with him, and the 
success of his General against Holkar in Hindostan, joined to the 
natural timidity of Nana's character, give the former great advan- 
tage if they should have recourse to the decision of the sword. 

However I may personally lament the fall of Nana Furnavese, 
with whom I have so long and so successfully transacted the busi- 
ness of our respective states, I shall not on that account forget the 
advantage which we derive from being connected with the Poona 
Government, or neglect to cultivate the friendship of the new 
Administration, who will, I dare say, be sufficiently $nxious to 
secure our countenance and support. 

Tippoo is no doubt in hopes to derive some benefit from the 
distracted state of the Marattas, and he has not yet sent the first 
khist either to them or to the Nizam. But as he cannot hope 
to recover the young hostages without making good all his 
payments, unless some serious difference should arise between 
the confederate Powers, I trust that wh§n matters are settled at 
Poona, and he sees no prospect of creating disunion amongst us, 
his delusive hopes will vanish, and he will lose no time in fulfilling 
the terms of the treaty. In the mean time, that we may afford no 
cause of jealousy, I have directed Sir Charles Oakeley, in the 
event of Tippoo's offering us a second khist, to decline the accept- 
ance of it until he hears that the first khist has been paid to our 

a^ 8 - I am, &c, 


1 Nana Furnavese endeavoured, but in though much pleased with Sindia's manners 
vain, to check personal communication be- and conduct, did not give up the. confidence 
tween Sindia and Mahdoo Rao. The Utter, he felt in his Minister. 


P.S. As Mr. Francis, or some audi candid person, may repre- 
sent our interference in the affaire of Assam as a contiuuatimj of 
our spirit of ambition and conquest, and as a cruel interrupt inn of 
the tranquillity which that happy nation has ititherto enjoyed, I 
send you a copy of a letter which I have received (com Captain 
Welsh, 1 containing a plain narrative of what has passed, and of 
the state of the country as far as it has come to his knowledge. 

< »iir information rwpffliiTMT, Assam is as yet too imperfect to 
enable us to send a satisfactory account in a public letter to the 
Curt of I hrectors, but I hope to be able to write fully ou the sub- 
ject in the course of next month. 

Welsh is an honourable and worthy fellow, and will do 00 

The letter from Captain Welsh is long and not worth inserting. 

The substance of it is to describe the wretched state of the country, 
torn to pieces by contending factious, which gave Ml nope to tbt 
horrors which barbarians always inflict upon the inhabitant- at (In- 
state which is the scene of their struggles for power. 



Fort Wllliun, Vk. 28. 

Having seriously reflected on the situation of the Assam 
Government, of which we have till now been totally ignorant. I 
do not see how we can reconcile it to any principle nf JDBtfa or 
humanity, to establish by force the authority of the wretched Ktijah 
ami hi* worthless and cruel ministers in that country 

It was no doubt incumbent upon us to endeavour to prevent on 
Own siitji'cts from continuing to commit the" horrid outrages and 
esooMH which tlirv ban lately practised in Assam, ana it mt$ 
j nii I. ■ij.:illy with that view that tlie measure of sending you to the 
Rajah was adopted. 


■ Galoot! Thorns* Wclob, .1. April 11, driven from liii thron*. Ithnr.l Soafn\ 
8*. nrplirw ..(' i'iUmtur. lhu innlrr of ibr trUb, 

ww mule Kinp, but LinuuiMtli ilirrw him- 
self on thr pioMcUon of Lord Cunmilll^ 
wid Cuptain ftVUh, vM 
"i>' In bli uoUUiHf, md iflniUtnl bin. 
; in WcUli quitted Jl 

Hon, and luul fur ■ Iragth nf time n 
full* luuitfd ill foreign inndrm. 
' ■ bod l.llrd. They ■**, 
it thou whrn governed bj ff 
true In tin MA 
About 1T7S. f - 

that *n InwirnctJnn brckr oui, > lm h Ik 

KprHiod with gr»t difficulty, nj h\- na, 
(iuirintth, who ■uooMihad ibout ITSO, wa 

o In, pnpji try, though Italy ««ntnnll» Prlnw Illnlitn. 

-■ pal »h.n.i Sauba to «Wb In ITW. ud 
'*- " L « had bermna « mm cypher, 


At the same time however, whilst it was hoped by this Govern- 
ment that the character with which yon was invested, and the force 
that attended you, would awe the Bengal Burkandasses, and induce 
them to desist from their depredations and return to their own 
country, it was likewise expected that you might be able by friendly 
mediation to reconcile the contending parties and relieve the mise- 
ries of that distracted state. 

I mentioned in a former letter my readiness, on certain condi- 
tions, to acknowledge Eistnarain in the Baje of Deringh ;* but the 
whole country of Assam seems to be so completely convulsed, that 
I doubt much whether an accommodation with Kistravera alone, 
would restore order and tranquillity. I wish, therefore, that you 
would invite him aijd the Berge Rajah, 1 and all the Chiefs who have 
any power or followers, to meet you, in order to concert the best 
means to prevent the country from being totally ruined, assuring 
them that it is not the wish of our Government to subdue any part 
of Assam, and that the objects of your deputation were only to free 
the country from the Bengal plunderers, and to endeavour to com- 
pose the civil feuds in Assam by the amicable interposition of our 
good offices. 

I cannot at present tell, nor perhaps may you have yet been 
able to judge, what stipulations it would be proper to make in 
favour of Surga Deo, 8 but at all events, he must previously be 
required to dismiss the ministers, whose misconduct and treachery 
have brought upon him the misfortunes which he at present suffers. 

I am, &c, 


1 Deringh, or Doring, is one of the most Guarinath was then the Raja, 
considerable Rajes in Assam. 3 Swerga Deva, or " King of Paradise." The 

' Sic in orig. Probably Bara Raja, a title ; hereditary designation of the Raja of Assam. 



British mission to Nepaul — Declaration of war with France — Final Regulations 
respecting the Land Settlement — State of the Revenue under previous 
Governors — Comparative advantages of a decennial and a permanent settle- 
ment — Judicial Regulations — European principles applied to the Criminal 
law — Obstacles to the due administration of justice — Police Regulations — 
Lord Cornwallis proceeds to Madras — Sails thence for England. 

Various attempts had been made to open commercial intercourse 
with Nepaul, but they had all failed. At length a dispute having 
arisen between the Nepaulese and the Lama of Thibet, the latter, 
whose troops had been repulsed, called in the Chinese, who before 
long advanced to within a short distance of Catmandoo. The 
Nepaulese then invoked British military assistance, which Lord 
Cornwallis declined affording, but tendered his good offices to 
reconcile the two hostile powers. Before, however, any reply could 
be given, the Nepaulese made peace, not on favourable terms, with 
China. But the British envoy, Captain Kirkpatrick, was still 
requested to visit Nayakote, where the Raja was residing, from 
whence he proceeded to Catmandoo, the capital of the country. 
The mission left Calcutta in September, 1792 ; but did not enter 
the Nepaul country till January, 1793. They returned in the 
beginning of March, having been received with great cordiality by 
the Raja, his uncle the Regent, and all the authorities of the 
state, but no immediate benefit arose from this visit. 

The idea of the British Government assisting the Nepaulese 
had excited considerable alarm in Thibet. In July, 1792, a letter 
was addressed by the Lama to Lord Cornwallis, which no one in 
Calcutta could translate, or even read the character. It was accom- 
panied by a paper in Persian, supposed to be, as it afterwards 
proved, a translation of the inclosure. A reply was returned by 
Lord Cornwallis in October, stating his readiness to interfere in 
an amicable manner between the" contending parties, adding that 
Captain Kirkpatrick would soon proceed to Nepaul. Copies of this 
letter, mutatis mutandis, were sent to the Delai Lama, Teshoo Lama, 
the Chinese Vizier, and the Raja of Teshoo Lumboo, but no further 
communications were received. 

The early history of Nepaul is very obscure. Tradition gives a 
long nominal list of rulers : the accuracy of the statement may be 


judged of by one fact ; seven are said to have reigned upwards of 
eighty years each, and forty-five more upwards of fifty each. When 
the transactions above mentioned took place, the reigning dynasty 
was called Goorkha. Ban Behauder Shah, 1 born in 1774, was on 
the throne, but his uncle Behauder Shah was Begent, and seemed 
to exercise the principal authority. The limits of their territories, 
which late acquisitions had largely increased, appear to have been 
nearly conterminous with those now existing. At one time the 
Nepaulese possessed complete independence, but after the close of 
the war with Thibet they acknowledged the Emperor of China as 
their lord paramount 

The events which occurred in 1793, previous to the departure' 
of Lord Cornwallis from India, were few, and generally of no 
importance. Indeed, the declaration of war with France was almost 
the only incident which interfered with the routine business of the 
country. Lord Cornwallis hastened to Madras as soon as he heard 
that hostilities had commenced, but they had already been ter- 
minated by the capture of Pondicherry, almost without resistance. 
He did not return to Bengal, but sailed from Madras to England 
in October, 1793. 

In the early part of the year, besides opening a communication 
with Nepaul, he had revised his opinion about the Tanjore success 
sion, and had endeavoured to press upon Tippoo the necessity of an 
honourable and peaceful conduct. But the great subject which 
engaged his attention, was the promulgation of the regulations 
respecting the land settlement, the judicial establishments, and the 
police of the country ; all of which, having been several years under 
discussion, were now finally completed. 

Of these the first, by far the most important, was the one 
to which he had devoted most time and labour. His attention 
had been called to it before he left England, and so anxious was he 
to arrive at a proper conclusion, that he had delayed till now to 
issue the final regulations. In the mean time he had continued to 
make annual settlements, which were avowedly only provisional. 

Almost universally in the East, and nowhere more generally 
than in Hindustan, from the Himalaya to Cape Comorin, (except 
in a few districts, such as Canara,) the soil is held to be vested in 
the Sovereign, who allots to the inhabitants such portions as he 
may think advisable, clogged with any conditions he may choose to 
impose. Such at least is the opinion of a large majority of the 
most competent judges, though Colonel Wilks and some others 

1 He was deposed by the nobles of the country in 1800. 


take a different view. 1 Under what tenure the occupiers held is n 
problem even more difficult to solve. In fact, it in evident that. 
the laws and usages in force in oue province were often totally 
unknown in another. 

In 1765, the Nabob of Bengal made the Company his Dewan. 
The collection of the revenue in the provinces of Bengal, 
Bnhar, and Orissa, to which districts alone the following olraer- 
vations are intended to apply, was entrusted solely to their hands. 
Of course they at first adopted the system they found i 
under which the produce of the land was divided in about equal 
proportions between the Government and the occupier, whether 
head or subordinate. Out of the Government slmre. about mn- 
tenth came to the Zemindar. The village authorities, the mokud- 
diins, and the patwari, were paid by the cultivator. The canongoe 
also received a salary, or an allotment of land. To this latter 
officer, or to one of his gomeshtas, was entrusted the charge of 
inspecting the accounts of the patwari, and he was to report 
upon the quantity of land in cultivation, the nature of tin j,i , 
iluce, the amounts of rent paid, and auy other circumstances which 
could enable the Government to make a proper assessment A 
■■i Tliiin number of villages formed a Pergunnah. Several per- 
gunnahs, amounting in size to one or two large English e.iimti.--, 
mm called a Dinar, Two or three circars formed the last grand 
division, a Soubah, Bengal was one of these Soubabs ; Bahar 
and part of Orissa formed another. 

The Zeniiiirlaries were sometimes of great extent. Bordwan, 
Khnrukpoor, and Beerbhoom, each contained nearly 4000 square 
miles — upwards of "2,500,000 acres. Under such Zemindars, who 
somewhat resembled great feudatories, were mnuy U 
almost independent holders of land : but the very large majority 
of Zemindaries were far inferior in size to those above mentioned. 
Si|l"ii'rlin:ite |o the Zemindars were Talookdars. and ltyots, the 
actual tillers of the soil. Amid these various clashing intercuts, when 
eu i \ one was desirous of obtaining as much as possible for himself, 
without regard to the means, it cannot be matter of surprise that 
oppression existed in every form, and that when lbs Ot 
did obtain the sum due to them, it was almost universally onlv | 
portion of the amount exacted from the landholders. At tirst it 
was net thought advisable to entrust the collection of tin 
to Europeans, and though in 1760 Lord Clive, Uien President of 

I It k Fnilnroiind to muireile uWt rfif- the Innd, but th*t lh« Mogul mUWi.UJ 1(w 
limit rim by slitting tint Iht original Mn»l»m U*. wlild] Unit brown* ptml, 
Hiudiia xiKRigni dbknd nn property in th»l Uw mil Mniyrrt In ih* iUt». 


the Council, took his seat as Dewan in concert with the Nawab who 
sat as Nazim, he left all the details in the hands of native col- 
lectors, who under various names remained in authority. 

The energy of Lord Clive enforced an appearance at least of 
justice and moderation, and he returned to Calcutta for the third 
time, solely with the view of remedying the evils caused by the 
corrupt and weak conduct of preceding Governors. " I do declare," 
he said in a private letter, "by that great Being who is the 
searcher of all hearts, and to whom we must be accountable, if there 
be an hereafter, that I am come out with a mind superior to all 
corruption, and that I am determined to destroy those great and 
growing evils, or perish in the attempt." Before such a man, the 
spirit of every native quailed, and when they saw him boldly 
encounter and defeat the conspiracy which had been formed 
against him by a large majority of the Company's European 
Officers, they felt quite certain he would never pardon any violation 
of the rules he had laid down for the honest collection of the 
revenue. But to him succeeded men, as bad if not worse than 
his predecessors. The abuses he had suppressed began to revive, 
and the Court of Directors, compelled to take some steps, nomi- 
nated in 1769 supervisors to overlook the immediate collectors. 
In 1770, local Councils, to whom considerable powers were entrusted, 
were established at Moorshadabad and Patna. Their inquiries 
brought to light a mass of iniquity. They stated that the Nazims 
exacted what they could from the Zemindars and great farmers of 
the revenue, to whom they left full liberty to plunder to any 
extent, subject however to be in their turn plundered, when they 
had enriched themselves sufficiently to make their spoil valuable. 
Thus the whole system resolved itself into habitual extortion and 
injustice on the part of the officers of Government, with the neces- 
sary concomitants— habitual evasion and concealment on the part 
of the cultivators, involving a serious loss of revenue. 

In 1772, Mr. Hastings was appointed Governor-General of 
Bengal The Company, by his advice, determined to collect the 
revenue through the agency of their own servants. The President 
and his Council were to become, for revenue matters, a new 
department, under the title of the Board of Revenue, with proper 
officers attached. The Khalsa, or Exchequer, was removed from 
Moorshadabad to Calcutta, the supervisors were made collectors, 
and four Members of Council were sent into the provinces, to 
institute the necessary inquiries, before an assessment, to last for 
five years, was fixed. 

The regulations framed for the guidance of the various officers 


were published in the languages of the country, many Of Htt 
injurious practices formerly existing wew pnfe^bfted, and the first 
step was thus taken towards the introduction of an sqUl 
Government. But the results did not corresj^nd with the inten- 

The various districts, generally one Pergunnah in each, had 
been put up to auction, and the lu'ghcst bidder, often a mere 
adventurer, was entrusted with the QoUeotion. Perhaps the en-ite- 
ment of competition had produced offers unreasonably high — 
perhaps the capabilities of the country had been overrated ; but, 
practically, the farmers could seldom fulfil their contracts, and 
great loss of revenue ensued. To any oue who has read with 
attention the history of Mr. Hastings' administration, the fjn-i h 
patent, that the Court of Directors thought only of income, and 
were not very sedulous in their inquiries as to how it was raised. 
Hastings, whose talents as a financier rank very high, might 
possibly have found means to increase the revenue equitably. I tut 
he was hampered by circumstances, and the only remedy he could 
devise in 1774 was to recall the European collectors, substitute 
native aumils, and establish Councils in each of the six districts 
into which the country was divided. 

Towards the close of the five years during which the settlement 
was to last, fresh attempts were made to obtain accurate infor- 
mation, aud Hastings was then able to carry his own plans into 
execution. In the new settlement of 1777, the Zemindar hud the 
preference in tendering for the collection, and the power retained 
over the lands in his own possession was held to be sun 
security for the performance of his contract. Annual settlements 
on this principle were made in 1778. 177!', aud 1780. 

Y,'t OiB rffranw still Ml short of its previous amount, and in 
17-1 another scheme was adopted. A Committee of dWtcM*, 
totally distinct from the Council, was formed ; tin- six provincial 
i lodttoIU W9M nbotMood, and, in addition to the established salaries, 
a |»riL-ntage was given to the collectors. What was the result of 
this arrangement, may be conjectured from the instance mentioned 
by Lord Oontwallis in his despatch of August 1 1. I 7-7, where he 
states, that one collector with a salary of only 1000 rapMI I 
(abMl 1200*. a year) had an income of at least 40,000/.! This 
new Board but little altered the plan of their pToflao—J Of ; some 
of the previous errors were detected, and a few abuses corrected. 
All persons in the service, of every rauk, were slrii-tK forbidden to 
receive nuzzers — a regulation little attended to by the large majority 
ofttu Company*! nrrants, whose unavowed emoluments still -con- 



tinned enormous. Several Committees of the House of Commons 
meantime sat on Indian affairs, and various bills were founded on 
their reports. 

In 1784 an Act was passed, by which the Company were 
specially directed " to inquire into the alleged grievances of the 
landholders, and, if founded in truth, to afford them redress, and to 
establish permanent rules for the settlement and collection of' the 
revenue, and for the administration of justice founded on the 
ancient laws and local usages of the country." The party disputes 
on the affairs of India having been brought to a conclusion by 
the decisive triumph of Mr. Pitt at the general election of 1784, 
he was able, without fear of serious opposition, to turn liis mind to 
the affairs of that country. Extensive powers were conferred on 
the Governor-General, and Lord Cornwallis was the first to whom 
they were entrusted. He went to India determined to use them 
to the fullest extent in order to put down peculation and extortion, 
and to restore, if possible, to Europeans that good fame which for 
many years they had ceased to enjoy. He did both, and in the 
words of one well competent to judge, " his measures, and above 
all the spirit with which he inoculated administration, eventually 
purified it — he was the first honest and incorruptible Governor 
India ever saw, and after his example, hardly any Governor has 
dared to contemplate corruption. Other men were conquerors, so 
was he ; but his victories in the field, and they were brilliant, are 
dim beside his victory over corruption." . . . 

Lord Cornwallis well knew that nowhere did greater abuses exist 
than in the Revenue Department, but he felt that the introduction of 
premature reforms might be productive of more injury than benefit, 
and therefore on his first arrival he determined to continue the 
existing system of an annual assessment, very slightly modified, 
until he could make himself thoroughly acquainted with the 
subject; and it was not until 1793, a few months before his 
departure for England, that he put the last stroke to his work, by 
embodying into codes of regulations, the administrative reforms 
which he had introduced, after mature and careful revision of the 
whole system. His inquiries were directed to the past history of 
each district, and of its landholders ; to the rights of the different 
orders among the latter— the Zemindars, Talookdars, Chowdrys, 
Munduls, and Mokuddims, as recognised by the native Governments ; 
to the existing rules for collecting the revenue ; to the ancient 
usages ; to the amount which could properly be demanded ; and to 
the regulations to be enforced for the protection of the under- 
tenants and cultivators. 

VOL. II. o 


On a full consideration of the answers made to these inquiries, 
it was evident, that although when the Company succeeded to the 
Dewaauy, gross abuses prevailed, yet in the beat times of the Hogfll 
Government, the rights and privileges of the people were secured 
by institutions mainly derived from the original Hindoo possessors 
of tho country ; and it was thought advisable by some of the most 
intelligent servants of the Company to continue that system under 
certain nioditi rations. Lord Cornwall]-; however, ami tllofle in ffBDBl 
he principally confided — Mr. Shore (Lord TVignmouth). Mr, I mnean. 
Mr. (Sir George) Barlow,' and others, were convinced that it was 
best to consider the Zemindar u the owner of the soil — whether or 
not such had before been his admitted position. 

The next question was, the amount, of the assessment. As 
both the Court of Directors and Lord Cornwallis liad from the 
first been of opinion, "that a moderate Jumma punctually apt 
Ieeted was more likely to unite the happiness of the natives, the 
security of the landholders, and the interests of the Company, than 
any collection of on unreasonable assessment, which could only 
be levied by severity and exaction," it was thought that the 
average of former years might be a fair guide in making this 
new assessment. But as a preliminary, it was necessary to ascer- 
tain what had been the rights and privileges of the Zemindars, 
under either Mogul or Hindoo rule, and what services they were 
bound to perform. 

An accurate and laborious investigation elicited much informa- 
tion. It appeared that the system adopted by the Moguls, if fairly 
carried out, was calculated to afford substantial justice to both 
parties. In Bahar, there was sufficient evidence to show wh 
old system had been, but in Bengal various causes had occasioned 
great alterations, and those alterations had opened a door to much 
falsification of revenue accounts, and had placed Hie Zemindar in a 
poaftfon more nearly resembling an English proprietor of the soil 
than in the other provinces. 

Notwithstanding tho uncertainty wlu'eh still remained as to 
rights and usages in regard to the various classes from vb 
revenue was to be collected, and although it was evident that in 
dUenUl dMlieta dim-rent rights existed, the industry and exertions 
: Shore collected such a mass of information, that towards 
the end .if 17 VI temporary directions were given to the collectors in 
Bengal and Orissa, ami in 1790 to those in Bahar; but it was not 
ill KfiiohJiS, 17!>3. that the regulations wire completely framed, 
ally issued to every province. By the- it was di-chrod.that 
lb* settlements were to be [lerpctual and irrevocable; and 


all Zemindars, independent Talookdars, and other actual proprie- 
tors of land, and their heirs and lawful successors, were to hold 
their estates subject only to the fixed amount of tax then settled. 
To this there were but two exceptions. Uncultivated land, when 
brought into cultivation, was to become subject to a charge then to 
be fixed, and if any Zemindary was sold or forfeited for non- 
payment of rent, the Government were not to be bound by the 
previously existing arrangement. If it was escheated by the 
failure of issue of a Zemindar, the Government held the land only 
on the same terms as the last possessor. 

In making these arrangements, there was little or no difference 
of opinion among all the persons consulted, except on one point. 
By all it was admitted, that, unless in cases of gross incapacity, or 
occasionally of nonage, the Zemindar was the only person with 
whom the settlement, under certain well-defined terms, could be 
made. It was as universally agreed, that a moderate tax only 
should be imposed. But the application of this latter principle 
was open to debate. What was a moderate tax? Mr. James 
Grant, a civil servant of great experience and talent, who was in 
charge of the Khalsa, endeavoured from ancient records in that 
department, to show that great frauds had been committed against 
the Government, and that the lands were fairly capable of render- 
ing a much increased revenue. 

Froifl this view Mr. Shore entirely dissented, and after a very 
minute examination into the resources of each district, the final 
assessment was settled, mainly on the average income received by 
Government in several preceding years. The whole land revenue 
obtained in the year 1790-1 (corresponding with the year 1197 
Fussily) from Bengal, Bahar, and Orissa, was Sicca Rupees 
2,68,00,000 or 3,109,000/. and from Benares, S. R. 34,53,000 
or 400,000*. 

One point gave rise to serious discussion : whether the settlement 
should be decennial or perpetual. Mr. Shore strongly advocated 
the first proposition. He thought that ev6n after all the investi- 
gation that had been entered into, many questions had been 
decided on imperfect grounds ; that, in some cases, injustice might 
have been done, by ignoring rights which had not been fully 
explained ; and that in others the Government might have suffered 
through concealment or fraud. For these, and many other reasons, 
he urged the advantage of leaving everything open to revision, 
after ten years' experience should have thrown fresh light on many 
obscure questions. On the other hand, Lord Cornwallis was deeply 
impressed with the iniquitous conduct of a vast number of the 

o 2 


European collectors, and with the oppression which had bHB 
exercised. He anticipated that great evils would arise, if an 
arrangement should be fixed for ten years only, as at the expiration 
of that time, fresh discussions must have arisen. Even during if* 
continuance one party would have endeavoured to show he bad 
heen over-assessed, while the other would be equally anxious to 
prove the reverse. He therefore resolved, with the full and 
deliberate concurrence of Mr. Pitt and Mr. Dundas, to establish a 
permanent assessment. This was the only material point of 
difference between Lord Comwallis and Mr. Shore, who stood 
almost alone, among all the civil servants who were consulted, in 
his opinion on this branch of the question. 

The arguments on both sides are most ably stated by Lord 
Comwallis and Mr. Shore, in their Minutes. 1 

Whether this system was the one beat adapted to obtain 
the greatest income with the least pressure — whether in some 
respects it has not proved injurious to the Zemindars, whose 
interests it was intended to protect — and whether a temporary 
instead of a permanent settlement would not have been niorv 
advantageous to all parties, — are questions which have giv. 
to much discussion. That it received the unqualified approbation 
of Lord Wellealey is notorious, and as long as the system was 
administered by the same persons who had framed the regaj 
on which it was based, it appears to have worked with regularity 
and advantage. 

It must be recollected that when this settlement was mads, the 
evils which existed in the collection of the revenue were eiim i 
and anything was preferable to a continuance of such al 
Even if some injustice had been committed, some irregularities 
created, the happiness and prosperity of the mass, and therefore 
the real advantage of the country, were daily perilled by hesitation 
and delay. 

At that time Lord Comwallis possessed no instruments to 
enable him to make a scientific and accurate survey of ■ 
village, and of all the holdings in each village, as has subse- 
qoi nily been dons in tJbsj Nurtli-ivest Provinces, at an enormous 
t \|m nditure of time and mouey, and by an efficient stafl > 
unlimited in numbers, of Civil and Military officers, Tl' 
MTViints in his time had not nil 

OOOBtrj, DOI were they numerous enough, to do it; and tru^i 
not be placed in the oatrvea, It thus became necessary to adopt n 
scheme upon an extensive plan, and therefore on the Zemindars 

1 S«« A|i|-n li i. 




was thrown the onus of paying the revenue. It was considered 
that they were persons of property, and if an occasional bad season 
prevented them from collecting for a time the under-payments 
from the ryots, they could afford to grant that delay. 

The punctuality of payment from the Zemindars was enforced 
by the penalty of confiscation of their estates in case of delay. Of 
course powers were given to the Zemindar to collect from the ryot, 
but Lord Cornwallis directed the Courts in each province to settle 
details, which he necessarily left open, according to the law and 
usages of the country, meaning that in no case should the ryot 
pay more than the pergunnah rate. He could not anticipate 
that the business of these Courts would increase so rapidly, nor 
that they would, as they certainly did, neglect to discharge their 
duties. He meant to protect all parties from the oppression exer- 
cised by former collectors; to encourage the Zemindar to pro- 
mote cultivation, by claiming only a fixed tax ; and to enable the 
Courts to see justice done to the ryots. But in too many cases the 
rigid exactions of the tax-gatherer, unmodified by any of the pro- 
positions introduced by Lord Cornwallis, were carried out ; and it 
undoubtedly happened, that the sales of estates for non-payment of 
revenue were much more frequent than had been anticipated 
Some portion of this evil must in justice be attributed to the 
Zemindars themselves, who often indulged in reckless extravagance, 
and largely exceeded their incomes. In other instances, certainly, 
large properties were sacrificed and families ruined, from not allow- 
ing sufficient time for the Zemindar to make arrangements with 
the ryot. 

These evils were of course not felt for some time after the 
departure of Lord Cornwallis from India There can be no doubt 
that, had he remained there, he would have taken care that his 
plans should have been executed according to the spirit, and not 
the letter of the regulations. But his successors were rigid in their 
application of the rules, and the distress which this occasioned 
brought undeserved blame on the system. 1 

1 The following account of the effects of 
the permanent settlement is extracted from a 
pamphlet published by a very able Civil ser- 
vant, now deceased, who was a member of 
the Board of Revenue. 

" The effect of the permanent settlement 
has been a wonderful extension of cultivation. 
Though the original settlement was not at 
the time a light settlement, yet the saving 
principle of the permanent certainty of the 
assessment, brought the settlement through, 
bo that, from the protection from foreign 

invasion, the increase of population, and the 
consequent increase of the demand for land, 
a great increase of cultivation, and a great 
rise in the rent of land, have taken place, and 
the estates have become most valuable pro- 
perty. The greater part of the land had, 
at the period of settlement, become waste 
from misgovernment ; not only has the lost 
cultivation been recovered, but vast tracts 
where the plough had never passed have been 
reclaimed. ... 

" The result of the Parliamentary inquiry 


The objections to a permanent system are very plausible, but 
the reasons which induced Lord Cornwallis to adopt this course will 
best be understood by a perusal of his Minutes. 

Some modern writers, who have taken a very superficial view 
both of England and of India, have asserted that any European 
statesman would be thought mad, who imposed a permanent land- 
tax. They forget that the Zemindar settlement closely resembles 
the land-tax in England, which was originally fixed at 4«. in the 
pound on the then value of land, and is invariable in its gross 
amount. The result is, that no impediment has been thrown in 
the way of improvement, and in those districts where buildings, or 
great agricultural improvements have augmented the annual value 
of the land, the tax is hardly felt For instance, in the parish of 
% St Marylebone, a fraction of id. in the pound is the limit, while in 
some other places, it reaches 2#. 6d. or 3*. in the pound 

Other systems have been adopted in other parts of India. Up 
to 1802, when the Carnatic was annexed, the land revenues of the 
Madras Presidency were farmed. Then an attempt was made to 
put it on a different footing ; but all the schemes, and several were 
tried, failed. When Sir Thomas Munro became Governor, he in- 
troduced the Ryotwar system, which as yet has not been replaced 
by any other. Under it, an annual valuation is made of eveiy 
parcel of land held by an occupier, and he is assessed for an assumed 
portion of the revenue to be raised in his district But the as- 
sessors who discharge this duty are natives, and it has long been 
known that hardly in a single instance have they shown themselves 
inaccessible to temptations to assess the tax unduly, and thus great 
expense is incurred and no proportional income obtained. The 
revenue also is gradually diminishing. 

In the North-western Provinces the Village system is pursued, 
which in one respect at least closely resembles the Zemindar 
system, since in each instance a fixed sum is raised, but that sum is 
assessed in one case upon the village, in the other on the Zemindar ; 
in both the property may be sold to make up any deficiency. 
Under the Village system, the share of the Government is between 
one-half and two-thirds of the produce. Latterly, this system has 
been made almost perpetual, as it has been fixed for 30 years. In 

seems to demonstrate that the permanency of minister effectually that part of the settlement 

the Bengal settlement has not been a bad which declared, in terms unfortunately not 

bargain. That, in addition to giving Govern- sufficiently clear and defined, that the culti- 

ment a fair revenue, it has increased very vator should be maintained in his ancient right 

much the wealth of the country. That the not to pay more than a limited and moderate 

blot on tye system is not so much the per- rent, and that he should be kept in possession 

maneney of the system as the neglect to ad- of his fields so long as he did so." 


all these arrangements there are many details ; modes of increasing 
or diminishing assessments, &c., &c, into which it would be super- 
fluous here to enter. 

The Judicial regulations, promulgated about the same time, 
come next in importance. 

The first real authority acquired by the Company in Bengal 
was, as has been already stated, in 1765, when Shah Alem con- 
ferred on them in perpetuity the Dewanny authority, and arrange- 
ments were made with the Nabob, Nazim ud Dowlah, the son of 
Meer Jaffier, for intrusting the administration of the Subahdari to 
a Naib, or Deputy, appointed by the advice of the Governor in 
Council. Under this power all the persons concerned in adminis- 
tering justice, except in Calcutta, were natives. 

In 1772, some alterations were made. Two Courts were esta- 
blished in each collectorate : the Dewanny for the cognizance of 
Civil cases, presided over by the collector as acting for the Dewan ; 
and the Foujdarry, or criminal courts, where natives presided, 
while the collector attended, to see that justice was done to all 
parties. Appeals lay from these to two Superior Courts at Cal- 
cutta — the Dewanny Sudder Adawlut, and the Nizamut Sudder 

Mr. Hastings, finding the duties press too heavily upon him, 
removed the latter Court to Moorshadabad, where Mahomed Beza 
Ehan, already mentioned, presided as Naib Nazim. For police 
purposes, native officers called Foujedars, with a proper establish- 
ment of armed men, were appointed to each of the fourteen districts 
into which Bengal was divided. 

No material alterations were made until 1780, when a judge 
(Sir E. Impey) was permanently put at the head of the Sudder 
Dewanny. In 1781, the Foujedars were abolished, and police 
authority conferred on the judges of the Dewanny Adawlut, and in 
some cases on the Zemindar and the collector, as well as upon the 
darogah of the Nizamut Adawlut. 

Such was the state of the judicial department when Lord Corn- 
wallis arrived in India in 1786. The evils which arose from this 
system are easy to conceive. In those days few Europeans had 
sufficient knowledge' of the language or the habits of the natives 
to be competent judges ; and when natives were the sole judges 
corruption generally prevailed to an unlimited extent. It was 
easier to perceive the objections to this system than to obviate 
them, and it was not till Lord Cornwallis had been some time in 
India, that he attempted to remodel the whole. The establish- 
ment of a new system of police for Calcutta itself was his first 

200 LOBD cohnwaixis. Crap. XV. 

step. His next was the abolition, in 1790, of the office of N»il> 
Nazim, and the Company then assumed the criminal, as they had 
previously done the civil, jurisdiction over the whole country. 

Lord Cornwallis's plans were matured before the commence- 
ment of 171MJ, and promulgated early in that year. 

First, in regard to the Civil Courts, he began by depriving all 
persons engaged in collecting the revenue of any judicial autho- 
rity ; considering that, in questions where the Government was con- 
cerned, they could never bo looked upon as impartial, and that 
the discharge of judicial functions must occupy much of the time 
which ought to be devoted to revenue afiairs. The Courts of the 
lowest class were those of native commissioners ; these were ex- 
ceedingly numerous, but though they might hear cases under 50 
rupees, they could enforce no decree without the authority of a 
Superior Court' Next above these were the Zillah Courts, in 
which a European presided, assisted by a European registrar and 
by a Hindoo and a Mahommedan assessor, who advised on questions 
(if Wif nnwinn, marriages, caste, and other institutions affecting the 
law uf their respective religions. 

This Court heard all civil suits of n local nature, as well as 
those in which the defendant resided within the limits of the ztllah 
or city. From these lay an appeal to the Provincial Courts, which 
were also Courts of primary jurisdiction. Three covenanted ner- 
vniit- mi in each ; their business was to hear appeals, t» try ill 
causes remitted to them by Government, or by the Sadder Hewunny 
Adawlut ; to receive such complaints of corruption, &&, as might 
he brought against the inferior judges, and to report upon them to 
the Sudder Dewanny Adawlut This was the Supreme Court, and 
consisted of the Governor-General and Members of Council, and to 
them lay the final appeal, but only when the amount exceeded 
1000 rupees. An ultimate appeal lay to the King in Conm -il. In! 
the limit of the amount was not settled. In 1797 it was fixed at 
50,000 rupees. 

The Criminal Courts were composed practically of the same 
persons: the Governor-General and Council, for the Soddst \i- 
zamut Adawlut; the provincial courts made two BBXM1 
ntfen tin ir jurisdictions; and the zilliili and city judges acted OS 
both in inflicting punishment for fritting offences, and 
in taking preliminary proceedings in criminal cases. 

Hut flic gretittst alteration in (he ndniinisti 
jOftfofl ma aflectod by discarding and abrogating several Mahoro- 
inedaii laws hitherto acted upon. 

• The K*£isln> might *vid» ana n»i*r 200 capm. 


The Koran is understood to be the basis of the Mahommedan 
law, but any deficiencies are supplied by commentators, and the 
traditional accounts of the precepts, actions, and decisions of the 
Prophet Even these rules are differently interpreted by the Shias 
and the Soonies — the latter sect being predominant in India. 
When the office of Naib Nazim was abolished, it was necessary 
that the criminal law, administered by Europeans, should be more 
in accordance with European principles, and Lord Cornwallis there- 
fore determined — 

1st That in cases of homicide, the intention of the offender, as 
far as it could be ascertained, and not the weapon used, should be 
the test of criminality. 

2nd. That the heirs of a murdered party should not be allowed 
to prevent the punishment of the murderer. 

3rd. That the punishment of mutilation should be abolished 

4th. That the crimes of forgery, perjury, or subornation of per- 
jury, should be punished by branding on the forehead, added to 
other penalties. 

Whatever might be the religion of the accused, the Mahommedan 
law was to be applied in all criminal cases ; but if the penalty awarded 
by the Mahommedan assessor was at variance with the rules thus laid 
down, the judge directed some other punishment more consonant to 
European principles. If the assessor announced, for instance, that, 
as the heir would not prosecute, no further steps could be taken, 
he was compelled to state what penalty would have been decreed 
had the heir taken a different course, and the punishment thus 
named was inflicted accordingly. Nor were these the only changes. 
The law of evidence, in native hands, was much at variance with 
English habits. Religious disabilities, and circumstances connected 
with caste and other causes, were held to render witnesses inca- 
pable of giving evidence. Such difficulties were now disregarded ; 
the witnesses were obliged to attend, and the assessor was called 
upon to say what the decision would have been, if no objection to 
receiving their evidence had existed. 

Many minor regulations were made, to avoid offending, as far as 
possible, the feelings and prejudices of the natives, especially in cases 
concerning females ; and the whole plan showed an anxious desire 
to remove all the evils of the former systems, and to substitute for 
them only such portions of the European law as might be abso- 
lutely necessary. 

At this time no Europeans, except military officers and cove- 
nanted servants, were allowed to reside out of Calcutta, without 
a special license. All natives and foreigners were amenable to the 
Zillah and other Courts, and British subjects themselves were 


bound, under heavy penalties, to submit to these courts of jnili- 
cature, hi cases under 500 rupees. Iu criminal cases, Europeans 
were always sent for trial to Calcutta. Calcutta, and a small sur- 
rounding district, had a jurisdiction of its own, both civil and 
criminal ; aud all cases, whether Europeans or natives wen 1 con- 
cerned, were tried in the Supreme Court, before judges nominated 
by the Crown. 

The strong objections which Lord Coruwallis entertained to the 
administratiou of India by natives of influence and rank made him 
anxious to extend to the Zemindary of Benares the system intro- 
duced in Bengal, Bahar, and Orissa. But it was first necessary tliat 
the Rajah of Benares should relinquish certain functions (almost 
regal) which the Company had allowed him to exercise, although 
they denied that lie had auy right to claim them. The task of 
obtaining tliis renunciation was confided to Mr. Duncan, who, after 
a long and difficult negotiation, succeeded in his object, but the 
arrangement was not finally concluded till October 27, 171)4. 

Such is a brief outline of the judicial system organised by Lord 
Comwollis, aud which, with slight modifications, still exists. No 
people are more litigious than the inhabitants of India, and the 
facility afforded to all persons to apjdy at very trifling expense 
to the Courts, in support of claims real or imaginary, occasioned 
such an enormous number of suite, that the judges were over- 
whelmed with labour. Li a single district, 3l),00U cases were in 
1795 brought before one judge, aud the delay in giving jml 
was in fact almost a denial of justice. An increase of the 
number, especially of native judges, tliis evil ; but it 

is to be feared, that, considering the character and disport 
the Hindoos, the system may have encouraged chicane and false 
claims, and thus have in fact rather impelled the course of rual 
justice ; but no better plan has ever been proposal. 

Similar remarks, but in u minor degree, may be applied to the 
criminal Owilta, Then tlm delay occurs mainly in the prelimi- 
nary stage of investigation, and arises from the difficulty of g&riog 
any credence to witnesses, in a country where events stated as 
t'iM'T-H will be supported by the most direct ami postm t. -;< 
though no such events have ever occurred, and the wlu.le m 
is therefore utterly false. Under such circumstances, no regulations 
can 1" i. <ns for securing the due administration of 

jilst tee. 

.. i>f tlu paliee ' is closely connected with tho adiiuni*- 
tralion of justice. 



Under the native rule, and for many years after the Company 
had become the Dewan of the Nabob, the police of the country 
was entrusted mostly to the Zemindars, who, by means of a large 
number of inferior officers maintained in the different Tillages, 
more or less protected the inhabitants. They were bound to ap- 
prehend all offenders, and if they could neither recover the property 
stolen, nor seize the robber, they were liable to make pecuniary 
satisfaction to the sufferer. This system was very plausible, and 
at first perhaps efficacious ; but like most Oriental institutions, it 
had fallen into decay and disorder. 

With a view to restore efficacy to the police, Lord Cornwallis 
divided the whole country into districts of about twenty miles 
square. In each was a Darogah, with an establishment of armed 
men, appointed by the magistrate of the Zillah. The Darogah 
had power to accept bail in certain cases, and in some classes of 
petty offences he was empowered to decide at once ; but, as a 
general rule, he sent all prisoners to the magistrates. 

The pasbans, pykes, and other village guards, were placed 
under his authority, but vacancies in their numbers were to be 
filled up by the Zemindars. In large towns such as Patna, Dacca, 
and Moorshadabad, a similar plan was adopted, with modifications 
suited to the difference between rural and town populations. In 
Benares, Mr. Duncan believed that he could maintain a more 
efficient police through the assistance of the Zemindar, and accord- 
ingly that province was exempted from the general arrangement, 
which extended only to Bengal, Bahar, and Orissa. 

This system lasted till 1807, when it was found advisable to 
call for more assistance from the Zemindars. The village guards had 
been all dismissed, and it does appear that the officers of police, 
appointed in their room, were 'not only very inferior in number to 
those they had superseded, but were quite unequal to the task 
imposed upon them. Other changes have from time to time been 
introduced, but the police of Bengal even now is far from being in 
a satisfactory state. 

Minute of the Governor-General. 

Fort William, Jan. 11, 1793. 

I have the satisfaction to inform the Board, that I have 
received information that deputies from the Eajah of Nepaul have 
arrived at Patna with an invitation from their Master to Captain 
Kirkpatrick to proceed on his intended deputation to Catmandu, 
and that a letter may be expected from those deputies in the 


course of a day or two, requesting my permission to Captain Kirk- 
patrick to accept of the invitation. 

Although there has been a considerable change in affairs in 
Nepaul since Captain Kirkpatrick's deputation was tirst | imposed, 
I think it is still advisable to allow him to proceed, and as the 
differences between the Rajah of Nepaul and the Chinese appear to 
be compromised, his instructions upon that head may now be limited 
to his endeavouring to ascertain what were the causes of the war, 
in order that we may be able to judge of the best mode of acting as 
mediators in case of a revival of the quarrel on any future occasion. 

The other objects of the deputation I think should be : — 1st, to 
assure the Rajah of the friendly disposition of this Government 
towards him, and of our desire to encourage a free comin 
intercourse between the two countries; 2ndly, to induce th<- < :<►- 
vernmeut of Nepaul to pay the strictest atteution to the late com- 
mercial treaty ; 3rdly, to effect, if possible, a tinal settlement of all 
boundary disputes ; 4thly, to make general observations on the 
form of Government, and on the religion, mauners, and customs of 
the inhabitants ; Stilly, to inquire into the nature of the trade 
which the people of Nepaul carry on with Thibet and Tartary, and 
whether any articles of British exjwrt could rind a vent in those 
channels ; u'tldy, to endeavour to ascertain what articles of British 
or Bengal manufacture are most suitable to the consumption of 
Nepaul, and to obtain a knowledge of the manufactures and the 
internal productions of that country; 7thly, to acquire as much 
information as may be practicable of the roads and g 
Xepiiul and the ncighl muring countries. 

Maiujcis Corn-wallis to the Rumr Hot. Ssm 

geography of 


Dm Silt. Oloatta, Jin. 2S, 1T93. 

. . . Affairs at Poonah still continue in an m 
state ; but the report of Nairn's intending to relinquish his station 
and retire to Benares loses ground, and it seems probable tliat 
Scindia will content hfmwlf with empty promises of support, and 
the nunv -nUcmhal [M-iniission to MJQMM MBU money from the 
Nizam and Giiieimnr. 

Ejnpoo'l vakeels have notified t" the Nizam that his share of 
the first khist was on the borders of tho Cuddapa i-ouutry. and 
desired him to send an order for the receipt of it ; and an hir- 
enrrah who arrived lately at Madras from Scringapatam rt'ports 
tliat the Maratta khist left the latter place throe days lie fore 1"' 


began his journey ; so that I hope Tippoo will at length complete 
his payments and liberate the hostages. But before they leave 
Madras, we must receive a much more. satisfactory account of our 
prisoners than we have hitherto been able to obtain ; and this is 
the more necessary since, strange and unaccountable as it appears, 
we are assured by persons who have lately escaped, that Tippoo 
still detains some of our unfortunate countrymen. 

We have begun to sell our paper, and have found a consider- 
able demand for it at a premium of 1 per cent, by which means, 
if we can exchange the amount of our debt into new paper within 
the year, we shall only in reality pay an interest of 7 per cent., 
without hazarding the inconvenient consequences that attended the 
hasty reduction of the interest previous to the war ; and by taking 
advantage of the high state of our credit at this period, to put the 
bonds upon the register, we shall in the course of a twelvemonth 
have only one species of debt. . ♦ . 

Captain Welsh has succeeded in driving the Bengal Berken- 
dosses 1 out of Assam, and I have now directed him to desist from 
all further military operations, and to invite the Bajah of Deringh 
and all the principal malcontents to meet him, and to offer our 
friendly mediation to terminate the civil feuds that have desolated 
that fine country. 

The Bajah of Nepaul, notwithstanding the peace that he has 
concluded with the Lama and the Chinese, has sent his Dewan to 
invite Captain Kirkpatrick to proceed to Catmandu, his capital, 
and I have great hopes that we shall establish an intercourse with 
that country that will prove highly beneficial to us. 

This letter will be delivered to you by my friend Mr. Stuart, 
whose steady and honourable behaviour during my absence will, I 
have no doubt, ensure to him a kind reception from yourself as 
well as from Mr. Pitt, to whom I request that you will have the 
goodness to introduce him, you will, however, easily discover that 
no very deep or useful information is to be obtained from that 
quarter. ... j ^ & C-y 


Rev. C. F. Swartz to Sir Charles Oakeley, Bart., President and 

Governor, &c. 

Honourable Sir and Sirs, Madras, Jan. 27, 1793. 

When I heard that the Honourable Board was resolved to 
proclaim Serfojee, the adopted son of the late Rajah of Tanjore, 

1 Bcrkendosses were little else than bonds of plunderers, with some military organization. 


presumptive heir of the present Rajah, find that he was to succeed 
him in case the present Rnjah should die without having a son 
born of his lawfully married wife (for that seems to be the llll tiling 
of the word presumptive heir), the following thoughts occurred to 
my mind, which I beg leave to disclose to your Honour. 

I thought if Serfojee is proclaimed presumptive successor or 
heir to the throne of Tanjore, then he stands a poor, or perhaps no 
chance ut all, of inheriting the country, for — 

His Excellency the present Rajah is but 43 years old, and is 
now marrying one, or as some say two wives — he may therefore 
have a son. 

Hut if he does not have a son, he may take an infant, declaring 
him to l>e his own son, born of Ids wife : lus hatred and jealousy 
of Serfojee mates this conjecturo very probable. The same hits 
been done at Tanjoro by Aperoop, the lawful but barren wife of 
Serfojee Rajah. * 

Or thr present Itajah may adopt another man's son. This is 
more than a eonjecture ; he has already declared it to In fab in- 
tention, l>eiug resolved to adopt Nanah Salieb's eon. This Nanuh 
Sahcb is the son of a concubine. 

Moreover I thought that the present Rajah, having, as many 
people well versed in the Sliaster of tlie Hindoos think, and as 
some of those very pnndits who formerly gave their opinion tn 
favour of the present Rajah allow, no legal right U> t h ■_- throne 
of Tanjore, ho could not lawfully make it over to his son (if lie 
had a son), as long as the lawful heir was alive. Can ho give 
away that which is not Ids own? and shall an error ODQS 
milted In tli" prejudice of the lawful heir be continued, so as 
to supersede the true and lawful heir for ever, or annihilate his 
right ? 

It may be said that it would reflect on the decision formerly 
made in favour of the present Rajah; but in my humble opinion 
that decision ma conditional, supposing the justice "f the «*f*J— 
'/ivm by tin- pundits; but as their opinion is found lo bo ill- 
grounded, the decision built npon it, one might think, would cease 
to he valid. 

These few thoughts I beg leave to submit to yon nil 
sideration. y ^^ ^ e honour to b*, A-.. 

a p. - 


The Governor-General in Council to the Court of Directors. 

Honourable Sirs, Fort waiiam, Jan. 29, 1793. 

. . . You were acquainted in our letter by the Pitt that 
we should inform you in our next despatches of our answer to 
those from Madras, in which they gave us notice of their intention 
to delay the execution of the treaty with the Bajah of Tanjore, 
and the delivery of the Rajah's country to him, until they should 
receive our further authority for that purpose. It appeared to us 
that his conduct towards Serfojee and the widows of the late 
Bajah, as well as the orders he gave for putting to death the 
Parcarry 1 on the strange suspicions that he stated, might be in 
some measure attributed to profligacy and barbarity of disposition, 
but principally to derangement of mind; and, under these im- 
pressions, we thought that it would at present be highly unad- 
visable to entrust him with the management of so valuable a 
country, even if the season had not been so far advanced, and he 
had acceded to the terms of the new agreement proposed to him 
by the Government of Madras. 

We therefore approved of their retaining the management of 
the country of Tanjore in the hands of their officers to the end of 
the current revenue-year; and we observed that, before its ex- 
piration, the Bajah and his advisers would not only have time to 
reconsider the grounds upon which he refused to agree to the 
terms of the treaty, but the Government would be able to judge 
whether he had so far recovered a proper temper of mind as to 
render it safe, in the event of his acquiescing in the conditions that 
were offered to him, to put the affairs of his country under his own 
control and authority. 

The humane attention and assistance that Mr. Swartz had 
given to the distresses of Serfojee and the widows, afforded us the 
greatest satisfaction, and we requested that our sentiments of his 
conduct might be communicated to him. 

We have the pleasure to acquaint you that Serfojee and the 
widows, accompanied by Mr. Swartz, are arrived at Madras. 

We are, &c. 
Marquis Cornwalus to Tippoo Sultaun. 

Calcutta, Feb. 10, 1793. 

I have received your letter explaining the subject of the 
French claims in the vicinity of Mahc, on which I wrote to you ; 

1 Parcarry, properly Pansari, a dmggiat. 


I have accordingly notified to the Chief of that nation at Mah£ the 
reply which you have made to my application, and have desired 
the Government of Bombay not to molest the three villages which 
you have named in your letter. 

On the subject of the Talooks, which you represent to be still 
detained by the Peshwa and by the Nizam, I am compelled to 
observe that the accounts which I receive from those Powers on 
the situation of the Talooks, many of which they state still to be 
in the possession of your officers, notwithstanding that they are 
particularly expressed in the schedule to the Treaty of Seringapa- 
tam as ceded to them, differ so widely from the representations 
which I receive from you, that I cannot pretend to form any 
decision on the subject. It is my earnest wish, as I am confident 
it is the desire of the Peshwa, the Nizam, and yourself, that these 
boundary arrangements should be settled in an amicable manner ; 
and as it can answer no useful purpose to continue a correspondence 
replete with unpleasant altercations, on subjects which in many 
instances owe their rise to the litigious disposition of aumils and 
subordinate officers on both sides, and which until the boundaries 
are finally settled must occur, I recommend, as the most likely 
mode by which these uncertain Talooks can be decided on, that in 
your correspondence with either of those powers on such subjects, 
you adopt the measure which I have suggested in my former letters 
to you relative to the boundaries at Cauveripoor, of deputing intel- 
ligent and experienced aumeens to the spot, who will make the 
necessary investigations, and will conform to the article of the 
Treaty of Seringapatam expressly inserted to answer the end of 
deciding the claims of the respective powers to the Talooks on the 

I am surprised at the request contained in your letter relative 
to the garrison stationed in the fort of Sudaseoghur, on the part of 
the people of Goa; you are doubtless well informed that the 
English Governments have no authority over the Government of 
Goa, which is a settlement belonging to the Portuguese (and the 
fort of Sudaseoghur was not taken by either of the powers in 
alliance). It is therefore a subject in which I cannot interfere, 
and I can only observe that your application for the particulars 
of this transaction should be made to the Government of Goa, on 
whose part you state that the garrison is placed in that fort 

With respect to the subject contained in your letter relative to 
the peshcush from Kurnool, I have already communicated my sen- 
timents to Sir John Kennaway for the Nizam's information ; and I 
have no doubt that this matter will be adjusted in a manner that 


shall be consistent with the justice due to all parties, and conform- 
ably to the friendly system existing between each other, 

I trust that Golaum Ally Khan 1 and Ally Beza* have trans- 
mitted to you the copy of a letter which I directed should be 
written to them, stating the intelligence which I have received of 
prisoners still detained within your dominions, contrary to the 
treaty which stipulates that they shall be released. I have not 
yet received any reply to it, but should consider myself deficient 
on my part if I did not inform you of such accounts as I have 
received of prisoners still detained, and of some that are even at 
Seringapatam. A person named Beecher was taken prisoner on 
the sea-coast, and was sent to Bednore near three years ago, and 
from thence to Seringapatam, from whence he made his escape in 
November last, and arrived at Tellicherry, where he informed 
General Abercromby that there are still several Englishmen and 
some women, as well as native tradesmen, who were taken pri- 
soners with General Mathews. I will not trouble you with the 
examination of the names of the people who have made their 
escape, after the repeated assurances which were made to me on 
your part that there were no persons detained within your do- 
minions, but their escape tends to confirm the apprehension in 
my mind that this article of the Treaty of Seringapatam has not 
been executed. I request that you will give immediate orders on 
tins subject, that the doubts which from these circumstances must 
arise in the mind of the Peshwa, the Nizam, and in my own, of 
your intentions to execute the treaty iu this respect, may be 

The conduct of the Anmildar of Ave-acomchy, who has, as he 
represents, by your orders, taken possession of villages belonging 
for fifty years and upwards to the Poligar of Verepatchee, a subject 
of the Company, lias been communicated to me, and has been 
made known to your Vakeels at Madras. It is not possible that 
his conduct in this respect can have been in consequence of your 
orders; for wliile friendship subsists between us, how can such 
hostile measures he adopted in pursuance of the orders of either 
Government, I have that confidence in your friendly disposition 
as to hope that you will apply the necessary remedy to this evil, 

' t iholiiiu Ali Khun had been a confidential entrusted to Mm, and mi not released from 

friend of Hyder, and had been scat by Tipuoo confinement till he mi employed iu 1792 to 

on a mission to Conatantiuople in 1785. negotiate with Lord Comwallis, 
After a long abeence he relumed with only * Ali Ken Khan commanded at noonim- 

68 out of more than 1100 attendanti and coonda when Ha Hi Jee wiin so inhumanly 

tarort who had prom-ded on the eipclition. eiwutal. He wo* a couain of Tippoo'a, and 

lit m disgraced for having failed In the often employed by him. 
miwiuu, and for having cmbeulud the imaiey 

VOL. II, *" 


so that the property in the villages in dispute may be ascertained 
by amicable intercourse. While I am confident that the declaration 
of the Aumil of Ave-acomchy is void of truth, I think it will 
appear to you, as it does to me, that this is an instance where the 
disinclined temper of the Aumil to adjust matters in an amicable 
manner as they occur, is so evident as to strengthen my recom- 
mendation that Aumeens be deputed to inquire into the respective 
claims of each party in disputed places, and I must regret that 
my letters on this subject, which is for the mutual good of both 
parties, have not yet been answered. 

The Governor-General in Council to the Governor in Council at 

Fort St. George. 

Honourable Sir, Fort William, Feb. 11, 1793. 

We have received your letter dated the 22nd ultimo, and 
we have taken the subject of it under our very serious con- 

We must confess that Mr. Swartz's sentiments, in addition to 
other circumstances, have created great doubts in our minds of the 
just right of the present Rajah of Tanjore to the succession to the 
Raje, and we are entirely persuaded that he is personally very 
unworthy of that station ; but it is necessary to proceed with great 
circumspection and delicacy in impeaching a right, that has been 
sanctioned by a solemn decision passed in consequence of the 
answers that were made by fifteen pundits to the questions that 
were referred to them. 

We therefore can only recommend to you at present to pro- 
claim Serfojee presumptive heir to the Raje, but we shall in the 
mean time, without mentioning the names of the parties, call upon 
learned pundits in this place and at Benares for answers to the 
substance of the questions that were put to the pundits at Tanjore 
after the death of the late Rajah, and it will also be proper in 
you to endeavour to establish, in a clear and authentic manner, 
whether the opinions of any of the Tanjore pundits were obtained 
by the means of bribery and corruption. 

We liighly approve of the caution that has been given to the 
Rajah by your president, against the adoption of a son at the 
present period, with the view of depriving Serfojee of rights which 
may, upon deliberate inquiry, appear to be incontrovertible. 

We have, &c. 


Feb. 18, 1793. 
Ordered that the following questions be pat to the most 
respectable pundits here and at Benares : 

Whether by the laws of the Sinister , or any other Hindoo laws 
or customs, an Hindoo Rajah has a legal right to adopt a distant 
relation, to the prejudice of an illegitimate brother living at the 
time of the adoption ? 

Whether a boy may be legally adopted from a family which has 
no other son, but where there' are daughters older than the boy ? 

Marquis Cormwallis to Sat Charles Oakelet, Baht. 

glR, Calcutta, March 1, 1793. 

I have received your letter dated the 13th instant, inclosing 
the letters from Colonel Braithwaite and Colonel Bruce ' and the 
answer from the Board ; and I will most readily, at your request, 
give you my sentiments freely on the line which Government ought 
to observe in the transmission of military orders. 

In all cases where secrecy and dispatch are not requisite, they 
should be sent through the Commanding Officer of the army, both 
because men accustomed to military business will arrange the 
details necessary for their execution with more precision, and 
because it will tend to support the consequence and authority of 
the Commander-in-Chief. 

In circumstances where dispatch alone is required, Government 
should in the first instance transmit the orders to the officer who is 
to execute them ; but should lose no time in forwarding copies of 
them to the Commanding Officer, that he may not be exposed to the 
ridicule and consequent contempt which must attend his appearing 
ignorant of what is passing in the army which he is supposed to 
command, and that he may have an opportunity of suggesting any 
addition or improvement in the final execution. But, if the service 
should likewise be of a secret nature, the communication should be 
limited to a bare notification that orders have been sent to certain 
officers or corps, until Government arc of opinion that more full 
information may with propriety be given to him. 

The subdivision of the troops, under officers commanding sepa- 
rate districts, must tend to simplify the public business, and to 
render the management of so unwieldy a macliine as an army 
much less complicated, when orders are conveyed in the manner I 
have recommended ; and it has besides the additional advantage, 

1 Lieu 1. -Colonel llobert Brno, b. 17M, d. Nor. 4, 1796. 

r 2 


that an officer of rank, and who is charged with a considerable 
degree of responsibility, is constantly at hand to stop the beginnings 
of any disturbances that might arise either amongst the troops, or 
in the country. The authority of Government and of the Com- 
mander-in-Chief, will easily prevent those officers from embarrassing, 
instead of promoting, the public service, by their troublesome and 
ill-founded jealousies, or by mistaken ideas of their own importance. 

What I have said is particularly applicable to the case of your 
having only a temporary Commanding Officer of the troops. But 
the forms that I have recommended should be invariably observed 
even when the Commander-in-Chief is a Member of Council ; and 
Government, by avoiding details in that department, will be in its 
proper place as a superintending and general controlling power, in 
the same manner as Is practised with regard to the departments of 
Revenue and Commerce. 

It may be considered as a general truth, that all armies have a 
propensity to relaxation ; and that strict habits of subordination, 
which constitute the essence of military discipline, can only be 
maintained in any army by the strong and experienced hand of a 
military commander. 

The Governments in this country should always keep a watch- 
ful eye upon their respective Commanders-in-Chief, and exercise a 
complete authority over them. And when they see reas6n to 
disapprove of their conduct, it will be their duty to endeavour by 
representation to effect their removal. But until they can be 
removed, and particularly in cases where Commanders-in-Chief are 
evidently deserving of confidence, their consequence with the troops 
under their command should, in order to render them useful in 
their stations, be decidedly supported. . . . 

I am, &c, 


Right Hon. Henry Dundas to the Marquis Cornwalus. 

[Private.] Received March 2, 1793. 
MY DEAJR LORD, London, Sept. 17, 1792. 

In your letter you allude to the important question of the 
perpetuity of the Decennial Settlement, and I have the very great 
satisfaction to inform you that the same conveyance which carries 
this, carries put an approbation and confirmation of your sentiments 
on that subject It has been longer delayed than I expected, but 
the delay was unavoidabla Knowing that the Directors would not 


be induced to take it up so as to consider it with any degree of 
attention, and knowing that some of the most leading ones among 
them held an opinion different both from your Lordship and me on 
the question of perpetuity, and feeling that there was much respect 
due to the opinion and authority of Mr. Shore, I thought it in- 
dispensably necessary both that the measure must originate with 
the Board of Control, and likewise that I should induce Mr. Pitt to 
become my partner in the final consideration of so important and 
controverted a measure. He accordingly agreed to shut himself 
up with me for ten days at Wimbledon, and attend to that business 
only. Charles Grant staid with us a great part of the time. After 
a most minute and attentive consideration of the whole subject, I 
had the satisfaction to find Mr. Pitt entirely of the same opinion 
with us. We therefore settled a despatch upon the ideas we had 
formed, and sent it down to the Court of Directors. What I 
expected, happened ; the subject was too large for the consideration 
of the Directors in general, and the few who knew anything con- 
cerning it, understanding from me that Mr. Pitt and I were decided 
in our opinions, thought it best to acquiesce, so that they came to 
a resolution to adopt entirely the despatch as transmitted by me. 

The subject I have just wrote upon, naturally leads me to 
advert to what your Lordship has so often urged me upon — the 
finding a proper successor to you. I can assure your Lordship, 
you have never imposed any task upon me that I have found more 
difficult to accomplish. The truth is, that I had almost despaired 
of it, and it is not a month since I had determined to write to you 
entreating you to remain a few months more, and promising that, if 
we did not find a successor in the course of the winter to our mind, 
I would come out to India myself, the moment the charter of the 
East India Company should be settled, sooner than which time it 
was impossible for me to leave this country.' I trust, however, that 
what we have now resolved upon, will, ander all circumstances, 
meet with your approbation. In considering the proceedings of 
your Government on the Decennial Settlement, although Mr. Shore 
differed from you on the question of perpetuity, it was impossible 
to consider the whole of that subject without admiring his talents, 
indnstry, and candour. Mr. Pitt and I therefore agreed to recom- 
mend him to the Court of Directors as provisional successor to you. 
He had some difficulties on account of domestic circumstances — 
Mrs. Shore, 1 to whom he is much attached, not being in a condition 
to attend him immediately. He is willing either to remain for a 
few years at the head of the Government, or to become second hi 

1 Mm. Shore, b. 17(11, d. Jul; 13, 1834. 


Council, if we think it right, upon further inquiry, to send out any 
other person from this country, or to come home again, if that suits 
our arrangements best We have got great credit by recommend- 
ing him for this appointment, and from the high opinion you 
entertain of him, I trust you will be satisfied with it. 

I wrote to the King, who is at Weymouth, giving him my 
reasons for adopting this measure, and I send you a copy * of tho 
letter he wrote in answer to mine. He is in perfect health, and 
delighted beyond description with all the recent events of India. 
I know not which he admires most, your conduct of the war, or the 
peace by which you have concluded it. The King wishes Aber- 
crombie to succeed you as Commander-in-Chief, with a seat in the 
Supreme Council. I have recommended it, and I suppose the 
Directors will do it next Wednesday. You see therefore that you 
will be relieved from your apprehensions of Mr. — taking his 
seat at the Council board immediately, and some means must be 
taken to prevent his ever doing it. I think it right, however, for 
my own sake, to say to you that I do not acquiesce in the strictures 
you make in your letter. All you say may be perfectly true, but 
your Lordship will recollect that I have no means of knowing these 
private anecdotes, or the opinions you entertain of individual 
characters, except from what your Lordship from time to time may 
communicate to me. Nothing has ever dropt from you adverse to 

the character and pretensions of Mr. . I saw him standing 

at the head of the Board, and therefore, as the Court of 

Directors did not choose to give up their ideas of seniority, or to go 
down so low as Duncan, which, upon your authority, I urged, I 

very readily acquiesced in Mr. , in preference of several 

others that were mentioned. . . . 

I suppose we shall see Medows very soon. His conduct to you 
has been highly honourable, and is everywhere felt as such : you 
need be under no apprehension of his being well received at St. 
James's. The King feels on all that subject exactly as you wish. 
He had purposely reserved for him and Abercrombie, two Bed 
Ribbons, that they might be bestowed upon them at the end of the 
war in India ; and that mark of the King's approbation of their 
services was announced in the Gazette, immediately after the 
receipt of your letter communicating the termination of hostilities. 

In conferring the Marquisate on your Lordship, we went on 
your brother the Bishop's authority, both as to the thing itself, and 
not changing the title of Cornwattis. I trust your Lordship will 
give me full credit when I assure you that amongst many other 

1 Mr. Dundas transmitted the original holograph, instead of the copy. 


circumstances of satisfaction, which, both on public and private 
grounds, I derived from the happy termination of the war, none has 
given me more sincere pleasure than the very high and exalted 
situation in which your Lordship stands in the public opinion, and 
the love that is borne to you by every man in the kingdom whose 
opinion you can have any value for. 

I propose the beginning of next month to go to Scotland, and 
be idle for six weeks or two months, and upon my return I shall 
set immediately to work with the arrangement of the new Charter. 
I have already pretty much formed my opinions, and I trust we 
shall carry through all that business with a high hand, and, I 
should hope, without any serious dispute with the Court of 
Directors. Before I go to Scotland I shall explain to Mr. Shore all 
my ideas, that he may communicate them to you. 

I remain, &c, 

Henry Dundas. 

The King to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas. 


Weymouth, Sept. 5, 1792, 4 P.M. 

Unless a very proper man of distinction could have been 
(found) to be Governor-General at Bengal, no one could have been 
so properly thought of as Mr. Shore, who will certainly more 
explicitly follow the Civil plan Lord Cornwallis has laid down than 
any other person ; I trust at the same time a seat at the Supreme 
Council will be conferred on M.-Gen. Abercrombie, and the 
Commission of Commander-in-Chief of the Forces in the East 
Indies ; and a fit person entrusted with the command of the Forces 
in the Carnatic. G. R, 

Mabquis Cornwallis to the Court op Directors. 

Honourable Sirs, Fort waiiam, March 7, 1793. 

I request that you will be persuaded that I feel myself 
highly gratified and honoured by the flattering expressions of 
approbation which you have been pleased, in your letter to this 
Government dated the 19th of September, 1792, to bestow upon 
my conduct during the late war, and upon the conditions of the 
peace by which it was terminated ; and I beg that you will accept 
of my warmest thanks for the sanction that you have given to the 
issue of the gratuity which I had taken upon myself to make to 
the officers and soldiers under my command, as well as for the 



additional bounty which you have so liberally ordered for them, as 
a public testimony of the sense that you entertain of their merit 
and valour. 

The notification that you have given of the appointment of Mr. 
Shore to succeed me in this Government has likewise afforded me 
very great satisfaction ; but as there were many objections to my 
preparing the minds of the Native Powers for my resignation of the 
Government, until I knew with certainty that a successor had been 
appointed, and might soon be expected in India, and as the season 
is now so far advanced that, even if Mr. Shore should arrive to- 
morrow, I must either depart in so abrupt a manner as to hazard 
very material inconvenience to the public interests, or remain a 
few months longer in Bengal, I have felt it as a duty which I owe 
to you and to my country to sacrifice my own private wishes and 
all personal considerations, and postpone my departure from hence 
till the month of August next. 

I have accordingly given notice to all the Native Powers of my 
intended resignation at that period, and I trust that in the interval, 
every political arrangement Mill be completed that can tend to 
strengthen the prospect of a long continuance of the present 
general tranquillity. 

I shall likewise have time to explain fully to Mr. Shore the 
principles of the plan which has been adopted by this Government, 
at my recommendation, for the future collection of the revenues, • 
and for a regular and efficient administration of justice in the 
Bengal Provinces, and to avail myself of the suggestions which his 
zeal and ability may enable him to give me for establishing the 
system upon a solid and permanent foundation. 

The plan being described in the letter in the Revenue Depart- 
ment, and particularly detailed in my Minute which will be trans- 
mitted with it as an enclosure, it is unnecessary in this place to 
enter into any explanation of it ; but I think it incumbent upon me 
to say that the radical defects which have long prevailed in your 
dominions, in the administration of civil and criminal justice to 
your native subjects, have been no less unworthy of the British 
character than injurious to your interests. And as the plans that I 
have introduced for remedying those evils have been the result of 
my most deliberate consideration for several years, I indulge myself 
in very sanguine hopes that they will be found worthy of your entire 
approbation, as being well calculated for giving additional security 
to the lives and properties, and for increasing the happiness, of 
many millions of people. I foy^ ^ 



Marquis Cornwallis to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas. 

DEAR SIR, Calcutta, March 7, 1793. . 

I received on the 2nd instant your letter dated the 17th of 
September, and was very happy to find that the mode of termi- 
nating the war had given such general satisfaction in England. 

Having promised in my letter to you by the Manship that 
would not leave India before a successor arrived, and being so 
deeply interested in the success of our affairs in this country, that 

I would suffer anything rather than contribute to put into 

the Chair even for a month, I was unwilling to give any notice of 
my intended resignation to the country Powers, or to make any 
public preparations for it, previous to the arrival of the packet. 
The very long passage which the Tartar made, has now reduced me 
to the necessity of deciding whether I would hazard the ill 
consequences to the public affairs of a sudden and abrupt departure, 
or continue some months longer in Bengal; and, although the 
climate of the approaching season is not very inviting, I have not 
hesitated to prefer the latter. . . . 

I sliall be very anxious to hear how you have settled the 
business of the Charter, of which I think the military part the most 
difficult, although perhaps it may not be so immediately troublesome 
to you as that wliich relates to the Court of Directors. I have 
never yet been able to form any satisfactory plan for the Indian 
army, but I am fully persuaded that it cannot go on long on its 
present footing. . . . 

I transmit to the Court of Directors by this opportunity a copy 
of my Minute on the subject of the separation of the collection of 
the revenue from the judicial authority, which has obtained the 
sanction of the Board ; you will perceive that I have made a few 
alterations since I sent it to you, they were suggested by some of 
the most able men in this settlement, and when I have completely 
carried the plan into execution, I shall feel not only that I have 
secured the most important advantages to the natives, but that I 
have struck at the root of the abuses which so long disgraced the 
British administration in India. j am & c 

Marquis Cornwallis to the Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry. 

DEAR JAMES, Calcutta, March 9, 1793. 

. . . If I had no thought but for my own comfort and 
gratification, I should not hesitate a moment about my immediate 



departure from this country, but a Governor-General, tt u I 
one who has been engaged in such important scenes as myself, 
canuot take an abrupt leave without great inconvenience and injury 
to the public service. I have therefore determined to retain the 
(iiniTinnent till August, by which time everything will be bo 
arranged that no lniseluef or confusion is likely to arise from my 
resignation. Shore is not yet arrived, but we expect him hourly. 

The Commodore, who promised to be in the mouth of the river 
by the latter end of last month, whan be hoped to •■nny me home, 
has not made his ap[>carance, but I trust I shall have the satis- 
faction of seeing hiin in a few days, and of concert big matters with 
him for our August voyage. 

1 was glad to find tliat Brome had got safe home, when the 
whole Continent was in so great a combustion, and I am perfectly 
veil pleated with the idea of his remaining at Cambridge till wy 
return. The papers are filled with nothing but the horrors of those 
butchers and cannibals at Paris ; I trust that my friend the I N 
Ilruns wic will long since have infiietod upon them severe and 
exemplary chastisement Your affectionate brother, 



jam, March 31, 1793. 

Marquis Corswalus to nre Court of Directors. 

HnXUt 11AIILE SlHfl, Fort William, Mud) 21, 1793. 

I liave read with peculiar gratification the resolutions passed 
by the Ixird Mayor, Aldermen, and Common Council of tin- t. 'ity nf 
London, on the IiIj of October last, coninnmicated by your pnfalie 
general letter, dated the lUtli of that month, and I beg leave to 
Mqaari (hat yon will be pleased to convey to that respectable body, 
my warmest assurances that I put a very high value on tin- KDBn> 
hat ion that they have expressed of iny conduct during thi 
with Tipjwo Sultan, and that I Bhall ever feel it as a most dis- 
*$ngujah«d honour to have been enrolled in so flattering a manner 
in the list of the Citizens of London, 

I have, &c, 


Marquis to im RionT Hos. Hekrt r 

DUfl Sir, KMkH WM. 

1 bin..* hud the pleasure since I wrote IaM 
lii'U.i Bboii i vlvH mind it become mnoh man eubu-ged i 


firm, and whose sentiments are greatly improved by his visit to 

He has been perfectly fair and good-humoured about the 
permanent settlement, and his declaration that he will persevere in 
the present system of external management, and, above all, his 
approbation and resolution to support and enforce the late domestic 
arrangements, have afforded me the greatest satisfaction, and 
induce me to hope that I shall have grounds to retract the opinion 
I before gave, and to admit him as an exception to my general 
rule. He did not appear to be in the least disappointed by my 
resolution to retain the Government till August, but offered me his 
most cordial assistance whenever I might wish to employ him. 

The Commissioners on the Malabar coast are going on vastly 
well, and my friend Duncan, who is worth all the rest, is of opinion 
that, when the country has recovered a little from the late distrac- 
tions, the revenue will be nearly equal to the amount at which it 
was stated in Tippoo's schedules. 

Indian politics continue much the same: Scindia is still at 
Poona, and there is at present no appearance of his leaving that 
place ; the Nizam's Government is as feeble and disjointed as ever. 
Tippoo's first khist is paid to both those Powers, and his Vakeels 
have notified that a second may be soon expected. Captain 
Kirkpatrick has been received with great civility by the Rajah of 
Nepaul ; and Welsh remains at Gwahatty, where he is endeavouring 
(but hitherto without success) to bring about a reconciliation 
between the Rajah of Assam and the discontented chiefs. 

I observe that the consideration of the military establishment of 
India is postponed, and I sliall in the mean time apply my most 
serious thoughts, and obtain the best information and opinions that 
I can, on that difficult subject. I must however premise that I 
foresee great danger for our Asiatic possessions from a separate 
provincial army of Europeans, and I shall therefore certainly not 
recommend that principle in the arrangement. 

I am, &c, 


Marquis Cornwalus to the Rev. Mr. Swartz. 

SIR, Fort William, May 9, 1793. 

I have received your letter, dated the 12th ultimo, and am 
much obliged to you for the candid manner in which you have 
communicated your sentiments to me respecting the adoption of 
Serfojee and the succession to the Raje of Tanjore. 


From tin. 1 lespeotaHe character which yon have always borne, 
I entertain no doubt of your having recalled the attention of our 
Government to the claims of Serfojee from your perfect conviction 
of their being founded on justice, and you may be assured in 
order to guide the juilgniont of the Supreme Government, I sludl 
call upon the pundits of the highest reputation in Bengal and 
Benares for their opinions upon this imi>ortant question, 
I am, Ac, 



Marquis Cork w alus to tuk Rmht Hon. Bb 

I>EAH SlH, , CJcult«.M«j 10, 1783. 

. . . Our domestic affairs go on smoothly and prosper- 
ously, mid it is at Toona only that there is any aloud in the pall* 
tieal hemisphere, but on the footing we at present stand, 
things should take the most unfavourable turn, we cannot, I think, 
be materially aSeoted by them. 

Scindia has lately obtained a considerable advantage by liis 
successful interference for the release of a Brahmin of high rank 
whom Nana had injudiciously confined, and lias on this occasion 
extorted mob humiliating concessions from the latter, as must 
considerably lessen his weight and consequence in the Maratta 
.state, and in addition to tliis circumstance the march of tl 
to Bider, and the report of his intention to proceed to Pooria, lis* 
caused great alarm to the Teshwa's Ministers, towards whom Ilia 
Highness, or at least his Minister Axeoin al Omrali, is by no means 
supposed to bear any friendly disposition. 

It is difficult to guess how the ••■mU'-.t between Nana and 
Scindia will terminate, but where euuning and procra-.tituiti.iri m 
the favourite weapons, there is always a chance tbul it wfl] KM* 
eorue to extremity. With respect however lo Azeem al OmraL, [ 
think I i Mji venture to pronounce, that, after the declaration winch 
he made to Sir J. Kennaway, and the remonstrant that Sir Join 
will have communicated to him from me, he will not engago deeply 
in a business that must be attended with -o much dune. 
to his Master's interests as his own. 

Tippoo's second Khist DM arrived at Kisttuip-rry, and I am 
. i tin- hopo that the terms of the treaty will be 
plt-ti ly executed before the period of my dciMrtiire. 

I an. An , 


Marquis Cornwallis to Tippoo Sultaun. 

May 29, 1793. 

. . . Some time ago I communicated to you my intention 
of returning to Europe at the expiration of. a few months, and I 
represented the chief motive for deferring my departure, which in 
consideration of the assurances that I made to you at Seringa- 
patam on receiving charge from you of the young Princes, is 
almost wholly confined to the expectation that before the time 
which I have fixed for my departure shall arrive, I shall be enabled 
to return them to you. After the repeated declarations which I 
have received from you that there are no prisoners confined within 
your dominions, and after the solemn attestation of Heaven to all 
acts and in particular to this of releasing all that shall be alive, 
which was purposely inserted in the treaty relative to the prisoners, 
I cannot but be surprised at the frequent information which I have 
received under many corroborating circumstances, of several Eu- 
ropeans being still detained within your territories, and which I 
have regularly transmitted to you. It cannot now be necessary 
for me to assure you that my earnest desire to live in harmony 
and to cultivate a sincere friendship with your state, will never 
permit me to attend to the designing conduct of interested persons, 
who may be desirous to disturb the tranquillity and goodwill that 
prevails, nor am I ready to pay attention to the reports which 
men who may have made their escape, may make to me under 
the impulse of revenge for the sufferings which they may have 
undergone, unless I may be induced to give them credit from the 
circumstantial detail of corroborating facts ; and it has been with 
the view of defeating the pernicious tendency of too easy a belief, 
that I have informed you of every point which has come to my 
knowledge, that you might direct the release of those who on 
enquiry yo.u might have found to be in confinement, and that you 
might by means of the same enquiry have obtained a knowledge 
of the fate of those who once your prisoners may be no more, par- 
ticularly of the fate of two officers of cavalry who were taken at 
Canveripatam, and of a surgeon who was taken in the vicinity of 
Bangalore. I can therefore only repeat my earnest requests on this 
point, and my reliance on your friendship and on the personal regard 
subsisting between us, that you will renew your positive orders for 
a minute report on the fate of all who may be dead, and for the 
release of those who may be still alive. 

Impressed by the earnestness which you display in your letter 
to accommodate all matters still unadjusted, it will afford me an 


inexpressible happiness to meet your wishes, and those which the 
Princes have notified in their letters to me, that I will call at 
Madras on my way to Europe and see them set out, in a manner 
consistent with our cordial intimacy, to return to you. But inde- 
pendent of this motive, the personal regard which I have imbibed 
for them in discovering their good manners and disposition during 
the period that I had the happiness of being in their company, will 
always make me anxious to see them, and to be personally present 
at the happy time when, in pursuance to the engagements subsist- 
ing with the Allied Powers, they shall commence their journey to 
you. As this, however, will in a great measure depend on the 
season when I shall embark from Bengal, for I can scarcely suppose 
that their return will be delayed by anything that rests with you, 
I can only for the present assure you that such an opportunity will 
afford me very great happiness. 

I will not now occupy you with any further remarks, than that 
I trust you will ever find me and my successor, Sir John Shore, 
desirous of meeting your wishes, that henceforward a cordiality aftd 
permanent friendship should subsist on the firm basis of sincerity 
and good faith between the two Governments. 

The Governor-General in Council to the Governor in Council 

at Fort St. George. 

Honourable Sir, Fort wuiiam, June 20, 1793. 

. . . The Governor-General in a letter to Sir Charles 
Oakeley, dated the 8th instant, recommended that a corps of obser- 
vation should be immediately formed under the command of Colonel 
Floyd, for the purpose of intercepting supplies and cutting off all 
communication between Pondicherry and the country, and he like- 
wise desired that all previous arrangements should bo made for 
assembling a sufficient force, and for being prepared in every respect 
to besiege the place, doubting at the same time whether it would 
be prudent actually to engage in the attack before we could rely 
on a naval co-operation, and expressing his intention of going to 
Madras as soon as the season and other circumstances should 
admit of it. 

As, however, it may be very uncertain whether Lord Cornwallis 
can possibly arrive on the coast before the middle of August, we 
do not wish that the commencement of the operations should be 
delayed on his account, if it should appear to the satisfaction of 
your Board and of the Military men of most experience, that the 
siege may be undertaken with a reasonable prospect of success. 

1793. WAR WITH PRANCE. 228 

The French regular troops, to the eastward of the Cape of 
Good Hope, consist of two regiments of an establishment of about 
1000 each, with some artillery, and as nearly half of that number 
are now at Pondicherry, it is not probable that more than 300 or 
400 men can be sent from the Isle of France, and although with 
that reinforcement, and the sea open to them for supplies of provi- 
sions, the garrison might make a long and vigorous defence, yet 
we conceive that an army might be assembled of strength enough 
to reduce the. place, provided there were means of conveying by 
land a powerful and well supplied artillery. And in order to be 
prepared for these disadvantageous circumstances, we wish you to 
turn your thoughts seriously to this object, lest we may ultimately 
be under the necessity of adopting it, and it will at all events be 
proper that you should engage a number of Brinjarries to attend 
the army, as they will be very useful in supplying the followers, 
even if the communication by sea should be perfectly open for us. 

. . . We can at present have nothing to apprehend from 
Tippoo, or any of the other country powers, but if it were other- 
wise the more our force is assembled the more formidable we 
should be. In regard to the Poligars, we have already expressed 
our sentiments against your having recourse to arms except in 
cases of very serious extremity, and if your servants employed in 
the collections act with temper, moderation, and integrity, we trust 
it will be rarely necessary ; but if such a case should occur at this 
critical period, and any Polygar should be weak enough to take 
advantage of the temporary absence of our troops to throw off his 
allegiance, there could be no great mischief in postponing his chas- 
tisement for a few months. . . . 

We have, &c. 

The Governor-General in Council to the Court of Directors. 

Honourable Sirs, Fort William, Aug. i, 1793. 

. . . On the 11th June we received from the Governor 
in Council at Fort St. George copies of despatches dated the 
10th April, from His Majesty's Consul at Alexandria, with a detail 
of intelligence from Europe, notifying in positive terms that the 
French had declared war against England and Holland on the 
1st of February, 1793 ; he held himself responsible for the truth of 
this intelligence, and we determined to consider it, under the 
sanction he had given to it, as sufficiently authentic to warrant us 
in adopting those measures that must have followed a regular 
official communication of the war. We therefore issued orders, 


which were effected without resistance, for taking possession of 
Chandemagore and the several French Factorial in this country, 
and seizing the vessels here that carried the French flag. \\V 
either confined or put the subjects of France on their parole, and 
we issued such commissions as were authorised by the Company '-. 
Charter, in the form necessary to warrant the commanders of the 
country ships in acting against the enemy at sea. 

The Government of Madras immediately commenced I 
sary preparations for the siege of Pondicherry, where Colonel 
Floyd with a large detachment arrived on the 11th of July to 
blockade it on the land side, while the Commodore, with His 
Majesty*! frigate the "Minerva," and three of your China sh i 
" Triton," " Warley,'' and " Royal Charlotte," are engaged to pre- 
vent supplies from bong imported by sea, and the French Factories 
of Karical and Yanam have been taken possession of by the i i 
of the Madras Government. . . . 

Lord Cornwallis is in hopes of being able to proceeil to (04 
coast in ten or twelve days; and we are embarking five coni| 
of artillery and twelve of Lascars to assist at the siege, with a bat- 
tering train and other stores in ships freighted to transport them. 
We are, &c . 



I have great satisfa* tioti in congratulating your Honourable 
Court on the reduction of the fortress of Pondkliern', and < 
the other French settlements and factorial on the eon tin 
India. . . , 

As it was of great consequence for the public interest, t 
Puiidieherry should Ijo reduced before the setting in of the north- 
east monsoon, I thought it prudent to adopt ari .; Dbi il 1 in my 
power to insure our success, and with that view 1 rocoint W 
that, in addition to the vigorous exertions of the Government of 
Furl St. George, five companies of artillery ami twelve '-'impaaiea 
of lasears should ho sent from lleugat, to be ready to assist in the 
ojMTatious of the siege in case thab BaRJCfifl -liquid pro v« to be 
BMMaujr, I likewise naofod bo repair to Hie Carnatic in p 
as soon as I could procure a safe conveyance, not only to take a 
share in the last piece of service, which ma likflv to .iccur during 
th. aaort remainder of my intended stay hi India, but in order that 
I might be at hand to give the Utmost energy tlnit might be posublo 
to our ef!'urt.s in caw l'ondieheny should I" reinforced, or other 


circumstances should arise to enable it to make a formidable 
resistance. . . . 

A large supply of rice and military stores of different kinds 
having been applied for by this Presidency, considerable quantities 
of both articles were embarked with the artillery and lascars on 
board the " Woodcote " and three conntry ships that had been 
engaged for this service, and the whole of these vessels, after 
much delay and difficulty in dropping down the river at that 
season of the year, at last quitted the Pilots in safety. I arrived 
at this place on the 7th instant, having left Calcutta on the 13th 

Upon coming into the roads, I was happy to find the meritorious 
exertions of Government in assembling the army, and in trans- 
porting the ordnance and stores for the siege, supported by the firm 
and public-spirited co-operation of Admiral Cornwallis, and the 
good conduct of Colonel Brathwaite and the troops under his 
command, had been attended with every good effect that could have 
been expected from them, and that the licentiousness and insubor- 
dination of the soldiers of the garrison had forced the Governor of 
Poiidicherry, after a fire of only a few hours from our first batteries, 
and before the works had suffered any material damage, to sur- 
render, by capitulation on the 23rd ultimo. 

The particulars of the transactions of the siege, and the terms 
of the capitulation, will be fully detailed in the despatches o£ this 
Government . . . 

It was confidently reported that a 40-gun frigate called the 
" Sybile " with three other frigates, and a convoy of troops and 
stores, were daily expected at Pondicherry from the Isle of France, 
and the master of a privateer that was taken declared that he 
sailed in company with them. The " Sybile," however, alone made 
its appearance during the siege with a detachment of artillerymen 
on board which were intended to have been landed, but stood out 
to sea upon being chased by the Admiral, and after touching for a 
few hours next day at Tranquebar, left the coast and has not since 
been heard of. . . . 

I shall not enter into any details of the state of your affairs 
in this country, but it is highly gratifying to me to know that 
you will be informed by the despatches from all the Presi- 
dencies, that they are in every respect in a most flourishing con- 

As a Bhip of war cannot be spared to carry me to England, and 
no public reason renders it necessary to postpone any longer my 
resignation of the Supreme Government, it is my intention to 
VOL. Ii. Q 



Chap. XV. 

take my passage in the " Swallow " packet, and to sail from hence 
early in the next month. j uaTe ^ c . 


Marquis Cornwallis to Sir C. W. Malet, Bart. 

SIR, Uwhv, Oct. 3, 1791 

I have received your letter dated the 15th ultimo, but as the 
question of our interference in favour of the Guicowar family is of 
an important nature and may involve very serious consequences, I 
can by no means give any decision upon it on the eve of my 
departure for England, and have therefore referred it to the consi- 
deration of Sir John Shore and the succeeding Government. 
I am, Ac, 

Corn wa i- 1 is. 

MARqtns Cornwallis to Sib Jobh Shore. 
DeABSiH, BrfwwO* (j 

I cannot leave this country, without repeating ray i 
wishes for the continuance of your health and the success of your 
Government. As I shall certainly be upon the watch rJ 
tiling respecting India, as well as probably in the habit of seeing 
Ministers, I beg you will not scruple to write to me on any poilll 
eitluT public or private in wlueh you are interested, and in tin- 
mean time tliat you will be assured that as far as 1 h 
sentiments, I will endeavour to counteract any plan or i-< 
home that militates against them. ... j am & c _ 


Although there is no system here in revenue or commerce, mid 
in fact everything is still to be begun, yet I must in joatioi -v, 
that the ordinary business of Government is carried on with purity 
and economy, and that Sir Charles Oakeley's character, thoQgfe Dot 
calculated for great reformation, has a considerable claim to esteem 
and respect 

Kicirr Bur. IIkmiy Pundas to 


: Maiujhis Corkwai 

My deab Loni), Whitehall, od. m, n«. 

. The appointment of a successor to your Lordship 
i already made, and the motive for that appointment mi 


fully explained to your Lordship, that it will be totally unnecessary 
to say more on the subject. 

Your Lordship's sentiments with respect to the appointment of 
Governors for India, I trust have been duly attended to, with 
respect to the appointment of Lord Hobart to the Government of 
Madras. A similar attention, as far as circumstances will admit, 
will be paid to your Lordship's sentiments with respect to future 
appointments. And though I have already fully stated the reasons 
which led to the appointment of Sir John Shore, I must observe 
that your Lordship's letter on the subject of Governors for India, 
was not received till several months after that appointment took 
place, and I could not, of course, avail myself of your Lordship's 
sentiments on that subject. . . . 

Your letter on the tax on spirituous liquors being likely to prove 
a full compensation for the abolition of the Sayer duties, cannot but 
be satisfactory, more especially as we have already given our 
sanction to that measure. ... 

I have not had time to attend with that accuracy I wished to 
the papers relative to your Lordship's plan for " separating the 
judicial authority from the collection of the revenue," and though 
I have the highest confidence in the propriety of all your Lordship's 
measures, yet as legal objections may arise on a subject of such 
infinite importance, I have thought it right, as the several papers 
with your Lordship's last corrections are now officially before us, 
to submit them to the consideration of our Standing Counsel, 
previous to giving any directions thereon. ... 

The arrangements for the renewal of the Company's Charter 
have been made, and received the sanction of the legislature with 
an unanimity almost unexampled. My private and confidential 
sentiments on that subject were conveyed to your Lordship through 
Sir John Shore, and, as therein intimated, the arrangement of the 
Indian army has been left till your Lordship's return, and on that 
important subject your sentiments and recommendations will have 
that due weight and attention which they must necessarily merit 

I am, Ac, 

Henby Dukdas. 

Lord Cornwallis had sailed for England "before this despatch 
reached India, and he did not receive it till after his return home. 
The proceedings against the Messrs. Hollond, repeatedly alluded to 
in this correspondence, appear to have been dropped before the 
close of 1793, in consequence, probably, of the brothers having 
previously sailed for America, where it is bejieved they both died. 

Q 2 





Lord Cornwalli8 returns to England — State of affairs on the Continent — The 
War in Flanders — Jealousies of the Austrians and Prussians — Lord Corn- 
wallis proceeds to the seat of war — Conduct of the Emperor — His motives 
in leaving the army — Interview with Marshal Mullendorf — Lord Cornwallis 
returns home — His plan for new-modelling the Indian army — Proposal to 
confer on him the chief command of the Allied Armies — His explanation 
to the Duke of York — Disgraceful conduct of the Austrians. 

On his return to England, Lord Cornwallis found that a con- 
siderable English array, under the command of the Duke of York, 
was engaged, in conjunction with the Austrians, Prussians, and 
Dutch, in the defence of Flanders. Their conjoint operations in 
1793 had been successful, but the jealousy felt by the two great 
German powers towards each other, threatened to max the prospects 
of 1794. 

The Duke of Brunswick had thrown up the command, and 
Prussia had employed the Comte de Kalkreuth l to carry on secret 
negociations with France. To remedy this evil in some degree, it 
was settled that the Emperor of Germany should have the nominal 
command, the Duke of York and the Prince of Saxe Coburg* 
acting under him at the head of their respective contingents. For 
a short time success attended their exertions, but the scale soon 
turned, and though the Duke of York defeated Pichegru * on the 
10th of May with heavy loss, the Austrians, under Generals 
Clerfait 4 and Kaunitz, 5 received a most severe check a few days 
later. On the 22nd, however, the Allies, principally owing to the 
efforts of the English, succeeded in compelling the French to 
relinquish the siege of Tournay, and to fall back upon Lisle. 

1 Adolphe Frederick, Comte de Kalkreuth, 
a Field-Mai bhal, b. 1737, d. June 18, 1818. 
He wa« always adverse to the war with 
France, and uniformly urged the Prussian 
Government to withdraw from the contest. 
He advised the retreat of the Duke of Bruns- 
wick in 1792 ; and fmmed the capitulation of 
Mayence in 1793, under which the garrison 
was allowed to act against the Vendeans, 
thus deciding that war. 

* Frederick Josias, younger son of Francis 
Josias, Prince of Saxe Coburg Saalfield, b. 
Dec. 26, 1737, d. unm. 1815. He com- 

manded against the Turks in 1787, and, 
with the assistance of the Russians, won 
the battle of Martinisti, Sept 22, 1789. He 
retired into private life after 1794. 

» Charles Pichegru, b. Feb. 16, 1761, d. 
unmarried, April 7, 1804, not without suspi- 
cion of having been murdered iu prison. 

4 Francois Sebastien Charles Joseph de 
Croix, Comte de Clerfait, a Field-Marshal, 
h. Oct. 14, 1733, d. July 18, 1798. He had 
served in the Seven Years' War. 

* Francis Wenzeslaus, Comte de Kaunitz, 
b. July 2, 1742, d. Dec. 20, 1825. 




The Prussians meantime had taken no part in these move- 
ments. When they had been assured that their alleged want of 
provisions, ammunition, waggons, &c, would be supplied by the 
English commissariat, the real reason of their inactivity became 
apparent Lord Malmesbury, in the beginning of June, wrote to 
Lord Elgin, 1 " they serve for ready money only." In fact there 
can be no doubt that the Prussian Cabinet was not inclined to act 
cordially with the other Allies, and that, as it expected to obtain 
some great advantage by concluding a separate treaty with France, 
frivolous excuses were made, with a view to mask the real inten- 
tions of the Government. The withdrawal of Prussia from the 
coalition would have been a disastrous event, and every exertion 
was made by the other allied powers to avert this calamity. Unity 
of action was essential to success, but unity could not exist if each 
army acted independently. Yet the objections to assigning an 
undivided command to any one General were almost insuperable. 
The Prussians were ready so far to submit to a superintending 
authority as to consent to serve under the Emperor of Germany, 
whenever he should be actually present ; but should he withdraw 
from the camp, they would not obey an Austrian General. The 
Austrians, on the other hand, would not serve under a Prussian 
General. Reciprocal communications as to their intended opera- 
tions, with mutual requests for assistance, were, it is true, inter- 
changed between the Prussians, the Austrians, and the English, 
especially by the two latter powers, the Duke of York being at all 
times the most ready to act cordially with the other Allies. But 
no plan of operations was settled, and the heartburnings and 
jealousies daily augmented. Under these circumstances it was 
thought advisable to send to the Continent some person of high 
reputation and eminent character, who might ascertain the real 
position of affairs, and whose advice would be listened to with 
respect. Lord Cornwallis was selected to fulfil this mission. He 
had been for some time in close communication with the Govern- 
ment on all matters connected with the Low Countries, and it 
was finally arranged that he should proceed ta Flanders without 
any ostensible command, and there discuss all matters with the 
Duke of York, with Marshal Mullendorf a for the Prussians, and 

1 Thomas, 7th Earl of Elgin and 11th of 
Kincardine, a General, b. July 20, 1766, d. 
Nor. 14, 1841; m. 1st, March 11, 1799, 
Mary, sole heir of William Hamilton Nisbet, 
Esq.,ofDirleton; 2nd, Sept. 21, 1810, Elisa- 
beth, dau. of James Townshend Oswald, Esq., 
of Dunnikier. Minister at Berlin, Aug. 1 795 
to March, 1799, and then ambassador «i Con- 

stantinople to Jan. 1803, during which time 
he formed his celebrated collection of marbles. 
* Richard Joachim Henri, Comte de Mul- 
lendorf, a Field-Marshal, b. 1724, d. Jan. 28, 
1816. He had warmly promoted the treaty 
of Basle, and was always adverse to hostilities 
with France. 



Chap. XVI. 

with the Emperor or his Generals (the Prince of Coburg and 
General Clerfait) for the Austrians. The necessity for his imme- 
diate departure was the more urgent, because the Emperor, acting 
under secret and probably treacherous advice, had intimated an 
intention of returning to Vienna. 

Lord Cornwallis landed at Ostend June 2nd, and proceeded on 
his mission, the details of which will be found in his despatches. 
He failed to induce the Emperor to remain in Flanders, and before 
his return to England he had the mortification of hearing of the 
battle of Fleurus, and the fall of Charleroi and Ypres. A series of 
similar events followed, and the increasing bad feeling between 
the Duke of York and the Austrian Generals (especially General 
Clerfait) diminished the hope of the Allies redeeming their mis- 
fortunes by some bold and united movement. The Austrians them- 
selves began to feel the incapacity of their Generals for conducting 
operations on a large scale, and to be sensible that their military 
skill was insufficient to cope with the talents of the French Com- 
manders and the enthusiasm of their troops. A hint was therefore 
thrown out from Vienna, that if the local rank of Field Marshal, 
which would place him above all the German Generals in the Low 
Countries, were conferred upon Lord Cornwallis, the Emperor 
would not be indisposed to place his armies under his command, 
and hopes were entertained that the Prussians might follow the 
example. Comte Mercy <T Argenteau l was to be sent to England 
with some definite proposition of this nature, and Lord Spencer* 
and Mr. Thomas Grenville 3 were appointed to proceed on a similar 
mission to Vienna. Colonel Boss accompanied them, in the double 
capacity of an intimate friend of Lord Cornwallis, and of an officer 
well able to advise them on military subjects. 

Their principal objects, as stated in their instructions, cfatted 
July 19th, were to stop the further progress of the French by some 

1 Florimonde Claude, Comte Mercy d' Ar- 
genteau, b. 1722, d. Aug. 26, 1794, unm. 
Ambassador in Paris from Vienna from 1766 
to 1790. For many interesting letters of 
his, see Correspondence between Mirabeau and 
the Comte de la Marc (Prince d'Aremburg), 
lately published. 

1 George John, 2nd Earl Spencer, E.G., 
b. Sept. 1, 1758, d. Nov. 10, 1834; m. 
March 6, 1781, Lavinia, dau. of Charles, 1st 
Earl of Lucan. Lord of the Treasury, March 
to July, 1782 ; Privy Seal, July to Dec. 1794; 
then First Lord of the Admiralty to Feb. 
1801, and Secretary of State from Feb. 1806 
to March, 1807. M.P. for Northampton, 
Oct. 1780 to March, 1782, and then for 
Surrey till he became a peer, Oct. 31, 1783. 

• Right Hon. Thomas Grenville, 2nd son 
of the Right Hon. George Grenville, b. Dec 
31, 1755, d. Dec 17, 1846, unmarried. 
M.P. for the County of Bucks from Oct. 1779 
to March, 1784 ; for Aldborough from Nor. 
1790 to May, 1796 ; for the Borough of 
Buckingham to Jan. 1810 ; and again for the 
County of Buckingham from March, 1813, to 
1818. In early Dfe he had a commission in 
the Guards, but left the army Feb. 1780. 
He was employed on a special mission to 
France in 1782 ; to Vienna, 1794: to Ber- 
lin, 1799. President of the Board of Con- 
trol from July to Sept. 1806, and then 
First Lord of the Admiralty to March, 
1807. Chief Justice in Eyre from 1800 
till his death. 




vigorous and well-concerted united movement; and, as the first 
step, to relieve Valenciennes and the other towns, which were then 
about to be besieged by the French. 

Affairs in the Low Countries were meantime becoming worse 
and worse. The Duke of York repeatedly remonstrated, both in 
public and private letters, about the conduct of the Austrian 
Generals, especially on the 21st and 22nd July, when he com- 
plained in most bitter terms that the Prince of Coburg had 
retreated without giving the slightest intimation of his plans, either 
to him or to the commanders of any of the other corps, and that 
he was thus compelled to fall back on Antwerp, which he was 
obliged to evacuate on the 23rd. The British Government, incensed 
at such conduct, and convinced of the incapacity of the Prince of 
Coburg, then insisted, as a sine qud nan, that he should forthwith 
be removed from his command. No great difficulty was made in 
dismissing both him and the Prince de Waldeck, 1 but it was im- 
possible to prevail upon the Court of Vienna to name a successor. 
Negociations proceeded for some time, and in the course of them 
it appeared that Austria claimed an indemnity * from France for 
her expenses in the war for the defence of Flanders, which M. de 
Thugut 3 declared had never produced 200/. a-year net income. 

The English Government had in the mean time felt so confident 
that Austria would assent to Lord Cornwallis being placed in com- 
mand, that they determined to submit the subject to the King — a 
matter of considerable delicacy, as it involved the supercession of 
the Duke of York. Accordingly a long Minute of Cabinet was 
prepared, reciting in detail what had passed between the English 
and Austrian Governments, and stating that it was clear that 
neither the Duke of York nor General Clerfait would be cordially 
accepted by the two armies as Commander-in-Chief, and that it 
was therefore necessary to appoint without delay some person who 
would have the entire confidence of the Allies. That in conformity 
with the suggestion of Comte Mercy and Comte Stahremburg, 4 it 
would seem expedient to give the local rank of Field Marshal to 

1 Christian August, Prince de Waldeck, b. 
Dec 6, 1744, d. Sept 25, 1798, in Lisbon, 
unmarried. Field-Marshal in Austria, 1797, 
and Captain-General in Portugal in 1798, 
where he was Commander-in-Chief. 

* The sum which the Austrians intended 
to claim does not appear. On this, as on 
other occasions, they seem to have expected 
that their expenses should be repaid. In 
1815 they eren suggested that an indemnity 
should be paid by (ranee for the injuries in- 
flicted on the Palatinate by Turenne in 1674. 

* Francois, Baron de Thugut, b. March 30, 
1736, d. May 28, 1818 ; m. 1803, a Belgian 
lady. He first distinguished himself by his 
knowledge of Eastern languages. On the 
death of Prince Kaunitx in 1794 he became 
Prime Minister, the duties of which office he 
had practically executed for some time. 

4 Louis Joseph Comte de Stahreinburjr, 
b. in Paris March 12, 1762, d. Sept. 2, 1833 ; 
m. Sept. 21, 1781, Maria Louise, dan. of 
the Due Charles I/Arenburg, Ambassador 
in London from Aug. 1792 to 1796. 



Chap. XVI. 

Lord Cornwallis, stipulating that he should have the virtual (if not 
the nominal) command of all the Allied Armies. The position of 
the Duke of York was commented upon at length, and a hope 
was expressed, that, for the various reasons assigned, he would not 
object to serve under Lord Cornwallis, though in their existing 
ranks the Duke of York ! was the senior officer. The Minute con- 
cluded by declaring that, in the opinion of the Cabinet, this was 
the only step which afforded any chance of repairing the calamities 
sustained by the Allies during the present campaign. 

This Minute was on the same day transmitted to the King by 
Air. Pitt, who accompanied it with a letter 8 suggesting that Mr. 
Windham * should be sent to Holland to explain the position of 
affairs to the Duke of York The King acceded to the proposition, 
but with great reluctance, and the result was communicated to 
Lord Spencer and Mr. Grenville in a despatch dated August 29. 4 

Mr. Windham accordingly went to Holland, and at Bois le Due 
joined the Duke of York, who was very unwilling to give up the 
command, or to act under Lord Cornwallis ; but if it were con- 
sidered absolutely necessary that Lord Cornwallis's proposed ap- 
pointment should take place, he said he was disposed to serve as a 
volunteer. Mr. Windham, on the 4th September, communicated 
to Mr. Pitt the substance of the several conversations he had had 
with the Duke of York, evidently himself inclining to the Duke's 
views, though admitting that if Lord Cornwallis could have the 
real command it would be of immense value. He considered, how- 
ever, that there was no hope of such an arrangement, as he was 
convinced of "the dreadful duplicity of the Austrians, and the 
unfeeling and unprincipled indifference with which they sacrifice 
the greatest public interests to their private emoluments and 
animosities' 1 — an opinion in which the Duke of York fully 

The conduct of affairs at Vienna was meantime most unsatis- 
factory. To retract all that had been promised or proposed — to 
advance claims which it was evident were inadmissible — were 
events of daily occurrence; and the arrival of Lucchessini* from 

1 The Duke of York was a General of April 
12, 1792 ; Lord Cornwallis of Oct. 12 in the 
same year. The latter obtained the rank of 
Colonel 16 years before the former. 

* The draft of this letter cannot be found. 

' Right Hon. William Windham, b. March, 
1750, d. June 4, 1810; m. July 10, 1798, 
Cecilia, dau. of Admiral Forrest. M.P. for 
Norwich from May, 1784, to 1802; St. 
Mawes, to 1806 ; Romney, to 1807 ; Higbam 
Ferrers, till his death. Chief Secretary in 

Ireland for a few months under Lord North- 
ington in 1783; Secretary at War, July, 
1794, to March, 1801 ; Secretary of State, 
Feb. 1806 to March, 1807. 

4 See Appendix. 

* Marquis Jerome de Lucchessini, of a Pa- 
trician family at Lucca, b. 1752, d. Oct. 19, 
1825 ; m. a sister of Madame Bishopswerder. 
He was one of the many adventurers whom 
Frederick the Great had collected around him. 
A man of talent but destitute of principle, 


the Prussian camp at Wola boded no good. There is now little 
doubt that he was in the pay of France, and that his object at 
Vienna was to watch and thwart the plans of England, and to 
make as much mischief as possible. Lord Spencer was shortly 
afterwards informed that Austria would not accede to the con- 
ditions proposed by Great Britain. Not many days later arrived 
the news of the surrender of Valenciennes, almost without resist- 
ance. Great indignation was felt in England at this event, the 
more so, as the Austrian General had assented to an article in the 
Capitulation, under which all the emigrants in the garrison were 
to be given up to the French, an act notoriously equivalent to a 
sentence of instant death. 

Although the strong remonstrances of the English Govern- 
ment could not be entirely disregarded, they were but coldly 
received ; and as the complete ascendancy gained by M. de Thugut 
over the Emperor's mind had by this time become apparent, by 
the withdrawal of Comte Mercy's proposals and the evident dis- 
inclination to act any longer in concert with England, Lord Spencer 
and Mr. Grenville solicited their recall. Their request was imme- 
diately complied with, and all further idea of conferring the com- 
mand on Lord Cornwallis was abandoned. 

Marquis Cornwallis to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas. 



Dear Sir, Tort»y, Feb. 3, 1794. 

I am just coining to an anchor in this bay, in the Swallow 
packet, and transmit duplicates of the despatches that were sent by 
the Scorpion, giving an account of the capture of Pondicherry. 
My fingers are so cold that I can only tell you that I left Madras 
on the 10th October, and that our affairs in India were in a most 
prosperous state. I anij & c#> 

The "Kino to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas. 

Windsor, Feb. 10, 1794, 46 m. past 7, A.M. 

Mr. Secretary Dundas has judged very properly in notifymg 
to me what drop'd from the Marquess Cornwallis on the subject 
of Lieutenant CoL Boss. I know how much on all occasions the 
latter has been in his confidence, and I shall certainly in a proper 
manner arrange his wishes of giving the rank of Colonel to Boss. 

G. B. 



Chap . XVI- 

Marquis Cornwallis to His Highness the Nabob Omdat ul Omeah. 

Feb. 3, 1794. 

This letter will be delivered to your Highness by Lord 
Hobart, 1 who carries with him to India the same sentiments of re- 
gard which I trust that I always manifested towards the Nabob your 
Father, yourself, and all your Family, and who will ever consider 
your interest and that of the British nation as inseparable. 

I mentioned to Lord Hobart the conversations that I have had 
personally with yourself, as well as through Mr. Cherry,* respecting 
the line which it would be most for your dignity and the peace of 
your mind to adopt, in the event of your Father's decease, in order 
to provide against the impositions and intrusions of interested men, 
who might, as they have done in the instance of your Father, attempt 
to render your good and generous qualities subservient to the 
views of their private advantage. 

If you should have the misfortune to lose your Father during 
the Government of Lord Hobart, he will I am convinced be de- 
sirous of meeting your wishes, and of joining with you in establish- 
ing such a plan as may appear to be best calculated to secure the 
future happiness of your Highness, and the prosperity of your 

I am, with the most sincere regard and attachment, 
Your Highness's 

Most obedient and faithful friend, 


1 Robert Lord. Hobart, afterwards (Not. 
14, 1804) 4th Earl of Buckinghamshire, b. 
May 6, 1760, d. Feb. 4, 1816; m. 1st, Jan. 
4, 1792, Margaretta, dau. and coheir of Ed- 
mund Burke, Esq., of Nerey, and widow of 
Thomas Adderley, Esq., of Innishannon. Chief 
Secretary in Ireland, April, 1789, to 1793; 
Governor of Madras, Sept. 1794 to Feb. 1798 ; 
Secretary of State, March, 1801, to May, 
1804; Postmaster-General, Feb. 1806 to 
May, 1807 ; and President of the Board of 
Control, April, 1812, to June, 1816. M.P. 
fbrBramber, Dec. 1788 to 1790; for Lincoln 
City to May, 1796 ; for Portarlington from 
1785 to 1790; and for Armagh to 1797. 
Called np to the House of Lords, 1798. 

* George Frederick Cherry, Resident at 
Benares, killed Jan. 14, 1799; m. Maria 

Martha, dau. of Henry Pan), Esq. On the 
death of the Nabob of Onde, in 1797, hit 
reputed son, Mirza or Vizier AH, was per- 
mitted to succeed him, but Sir John Shore, 
being soon afterwards convinced that he was a 
supposititious child, deposed him*. He was 
sent to Benares, but having been detected in 
carrying on intrigues with some discontented 
Zemindars, orders were issued for his removal 
further from Lucknow. Irritated at this, he 
invited himself to breakfast with Mr. Cherry, 
and murdered him and four other Europeans. 
He fled to Jeypore, but the Rajah of that 
state was compelled to give him up, stipu- 
lating, however, that his life should be spared. 
He was kept a close prisoner in Fort William, 
where he died in 1823. 


Marquis Corxwallis to Sir John Shore. 

DEAR SIR, Brome, March 12, 1794. 

I intended to defer writing to you till my return to town, 
but on a report that the fleet is to sail immediately, I cannot run 
the risk of their not carrying a line from me. 

I have been so much indisposed since my arrival by a trouble- 
some complaint, that I have been able to see very little of Minis- 
terial people, especially Pitt and Dundas, the latter of whom has 
likewise been in a bad state of health. 

You will, I think, be pleased at Lord Hobart's going out to 
Madras, with the provisional appointment to succeed you in 
Bengal, which leaves you at perfect liberty to stay or to come 
home according to the state of your health, or your inclination, or 
convenience in other respects. I have had much conversation 
with Lord H., who professes the most determined resolution to be 
perfectly correct, and who, from his abilities and habits of business, 
irill I tLt render important sendees, especially if he should remain 
long enough at Madras, where improvement is, to my knowledge, 
much wanted. I have pointed out some persons there on whom 
I thought he could rely, and I have advised him to visit the 
Circars in person, which is, I think, the only means of obtaining 
complete information. The judicial regulations are universally 
approved, and I am assured that it will be recommended by these 
ships to extend them to Benares if possible. Duncan will, I 
believe, be made Governor of Bombay, but he must first lay the 
foundation of the judicial system at Benares. As however I am 
not sure of Duncan's appointment to Bombay, I should not wish it 
to be talked of. 

I have given to Ministers my ideas on the future plan for the 
military establishment in India, but I have not yet had an oppor- 
tunity of talking to them about it, and I conclude it cannot be 
taken up this Session. 

I have not time to enter on domestic affairs, our success has 
hitherto not been answerable to the exertions of Ministers. However, 
the Portland Party, and indeed everybody but Fox, Lord Lands- 
downe, and the thorough-paced Jacobins, are strenuous in support- 
ing the war. 

I wish myself to remain quiet, but do not feel quite confident 
that it will be so. . . • 

My disorder (which is now nearly removed) prevented my 
attending as an evidence on Hastings's trial, and he has now very 


handsomely let mo off, to ray no small satisfaction. 1 I am, 
very sincere good wishes for your health and success, &c. 



Deu Sill, 

London, April 17, 1 

. . . This country is far from enjoying the tranquil state 
which now happily pervades all our Asiatic dominions. It is very 
difficult to make war, at least upon the Continent, with 
pect of success, but it is impossible to make j>eace without frater- 
nizing with the gang of murderers on the other side of the water, 
and following their bloody example. Three powerful befioafl hm 
Ihvh guillotined within these last three months, those of Brunt, 1 
Hebert, 1 and Danton ; 4 the rage for blood however seems insatiable, 
and the people see that of their former demagogues flow with us 
much pleasure as they did tliat of the Royalists, 

If Robertspierre a possessed the power and temporary inclina- 
tion to make peace, and to suffer the other nations of Eurojie to 
live quietly under the governments of their own choice, hffl Bft 
can hardly be expected to last another month, and indeed it is 
astonishing, considering the prodigious number that ho has put to 
death, that it has continued so loog. My wish would lead me to 
retire quietly into Suffolk, but this is not a time for a man who 
really loves his country, to indulge selfish inclinations, and I am 
afraid that I shall be compelled to take the field under much less 
promising auspices than I did in 1791. My plan for new modelling 
the Indian Army cannot be. taken tip till the next Sewitm of |\ir- 
liamcnt, but it will thon certainly be brought forward, and I really 
flatter myself that it will give as much satisfaction to 1 
officers in India, as an arrangement of so general and complicate! 
a nature can afford. , . . 

I was very averse to the measure of trusting the tempOTVJ 
management at Benares to Treves, and gave way to Duncan's soli- 
citation contrary to my own conviction ; Treves has however turn.i! 

' Lord Cornwnllii did, how««r, pit eri- 
dflmon Aprils, 17V4. 

• Jean rirm Btiuot. b. Jul. 14, 1754, 
p,,iU"iii^l 1-1. :n, iT<»;i; 111. 17s:i Mdllc. 
la lula, AilcUidt D'Oiloru. 
H* brgan lil'p ■> mi liowoie de Ictlra, 

> Jwnnn Utot Hthtit, b. 1 T5S, pitl- 
lotlnrd M-rch M. 1794; | 
gutrilir Fnuivoiac Gonjita, mi «£wn»*, 
whom tn Inlrvdornl to lire Nulmiwl Awin- 11c •■ ■ninng Dm lr.U1 nl ih. JB. 

ii.hiin, uk! h»J brrn from mirlj lift • nrn 
etcme. H« *M utilur ofili- 
unl li»d Unr> rurtsrictj «f l«iln< if 
Traud chargn upricul Mmi, Antoinctlx, to» 
j;n»» !o 1* «m nlhuliil '«. 

' G™raJ«c<iii—l>.B!.»,b.Oct. M.11M, 
guillotinta April 5, 1T94, Onpjiur; u 

■ Y<*st. 

1 Muimilim luilort Robapi«n, U April 
6,1759, guillotined Julj 88, 17W (10 Tkw 


oat on the whole much better than I expected when I first arrived 
in Bengal, and I trust for the sake of his poor wife, who is a most 
amiable woman, that he has not been guilty in so great a degree 
as to affect his future gradual promotion in the service ; I told her 
that so far from recommending him to yon to be Resident at Be- 
nares, if I was myself Governor-General, I should not give him 
that appointment. ... j am g c 


Right Hon. Hrnry Dundas to Marquis Corkwallb. 

My LORD, Whitehall, May 29, 179*. 

His Majesty having been pleased to destine your Lordship 
to serve with the body of troops in His Majesty's pay which it is 
His Majesty's intention to join to the Prussian army, to be fur- 
nished in virtue of the late subsidiary treaty between the Maritime 
Powers and His Prussian Majesty, and it appearing extremely 
desirable that your Lordship should proceed to the Continent 
without delay, in order finally to arrange the precise point where 
that army is to act, to accelerate its march to the point of its 
destination, and to arrange such other points of military detail as 
may be necessary to be settled before it can be brought into 
effectual service, I am now to transmit to your Lordship His 
Majesty's commands on these subjects. 

Your Lordship will, in the first instance, proceed to Flanders, 
to the head-quarters of his Royal Highness the Duke of York, by 
whose communications your Lordslup will be fully informed of the 
actual state of affairs as they may stand at the period of your 
arrival, of the present disposition of the allied forces on the 
frontier of France, of the intentions of the Emperor with respect 
to future military operations, and of his Royal Highness's senti- 
ments with respect to the best plans that "can now be adopted for 
the general prosecution of the campaign, and particularly for the 
application of the additional force to be derived from the subsidiary 
treaty. With respect to the latter of these points, the Austrian 
Government has lately made a proposal here for employing the 
Prussian force on the Rhine, and nearly in their present position. 
But this proposal is so evidently the result of that unhappy 
jealousy which exists between the Courts of Vienna and Berlin, 
and the use to be made of the Prussian force by such a plan 
would be so inadequate to the King's just expectations, that 
His Majesty did not hesitate to give it an immediate and decisive 


negative. And it is the more material that the language of all 
His Majesty's officers and ministers on this subject should be 
uniform and steady, as some leaning has lately appeared towards 
the same plan on the part of some of the persons employed by 
the King of Prussia, although this plan is entirely opposite to the 
former expressions of the King of Prussia's wishes. This dis- 
position is probably founded on motives very different from those 
in which the proposal of Austria originated, and the existence of 
which seems to furnish additional reasons to His Majesty against 
acquiescing in this idea. Lord Malmesbury, who has already set 
out on his journey to join M. Haugwitz ' and Marshal MbllendnrtT, 
was therefore instructed to prepare them for your Lordship's arrival, 
and in the mean time to express, in the most unequivocal terms; 
the King's determination not to consent to the Prussian ir>->ps 
remaining on the Rhine, but to urge as much as possible that 
those troops should immediately begin their march towards Liege 
and Namur, from whence they can with equal facility be drawn 
either towards West Flanders, or towards the country of HM 
Mouse, which appear to be the two most advantageous points for 
their being employed. 

Since Lord Malrnesbury's leaving this country, Lord Grenville 
lias received a letter nddresaed to Lord Malmesbury by GoOHl 
Haugwitz, appointing Maastricht as the most convenient 
for holding such conferences as may be necessary finally to 
arrange this business, and mentioning his intention of being tln-re 
on the 30th of this month. His Majesty's servants do not think 
it possible, previous to these conferences, and without a more 
precise knowledge of the Emperor's future plans than is BBS 
possessed here, to fix decidedly between the two points which 
I liave already mentioned, as appearing to l* 1 the most advan- 
tageous for the employment of the Prussian force. But this 
preference depends so much on the Austrian plans, that I should 
imagine that, with the knowledge of those plans, the qnasNOB 
maybe immediately and easily settled ; and if, on discussing the 
subject fully, the ideas of his Royal Highness and those of m 
Lordship should concur, as I have no doubt they will. His KtjMbj 
w<iM in such case, in order to avoid any further delay, consent 
<<n lii* part to the employment of the Prussian troops on any 
point within the line before pointed out, which should be settled 
in consequence of any general plan of operations concerted with 

1 Gntioi Hmri CW» Comt* ie Hmf- riiif , 1U11. of Ga»r»J 
wiU. b. June 11, 175S. J. Fob. 'J, 18.12. in wiu «t in tllumiBrf. uxl 
Vtnin; m. April II, 1777, Jobuuu Cttbe- gate in publics* well 


the Austrian Generals. The presence of the Emperor at Tonrnai 
affords every facility in that respect, and it is extremely to be 
wished that, previous to your Lordship's setting -out for Maastricht, 
the plan of operations and distribution of force should be so far 
settled with the Austrians, as to leave nothing to be done at 
Maestricht, except to intimate to Count Haugwitz and to Marshal 
Mollendorff the decision of the Maritime Powers in this respect, 
in whom, as your Lordship will observe, that decision is vested 
by the treaty, and to concert the most immediate measures for 
carrying that decision into execution without a moment's delay. 
If, unfortunately, any difference of opinion should still exist on 
the part of Austria, reference must be made here upon the 
subject, but, even in that case, it would be expedient that your 
Lordship should proceed without delay to Maestricht, in order to 
press the bringing the Prussian army down towards the Meuse as 
a position equally convenient for all the plans of subsequent opera- 
tions which are in view. 

Your Lordship will observe that the concurrence of the Dutch 
Government will be necessary with respect to the final distribution 
of this force ; but so much disposition has appeared on their part 
to coincide with His Majesty's views, and the interests of the 
Maritime Powers in tliis respect are so much the same, that there 
appears every reason to believe that they will readily concur in 
such plan as the King shall finally adopt. It is probable that 
on your Lordship's arrival at Maestricht you will find there the 
hereditary Prince of Orange, or some other person duly authorised 
by their High Mightinesses to arrange this business; and Lord 
Malmesbury will also be ready to give to your Lordship every 
necessary assistance in that respect, as well as in the future pro- 
gress of all such points as may arise to be settled \f ith Marshal 
Mollendorff or the Prussian Government. . . . 

I have, &c, 

Henry Dundas. 

Lord Malmesbury to the Marquis Cornwallis. 

My LORD, Maestricht, June 2, 1794. 

. . . I arrived here last night, and have had my first con- 
versation with Count Haugwitz ; the delay on our part in paying 
the subsidy at the periods mentioned in the treaty, is alleged by him 
as a motive for retarding the march of the Prussian army towards 
those parts. He, however, makes no objection to its com "ng here, 
and as the payments are now made, I trust it will begin to move 



Chap. XVI. 

as soon as tho magazines, Ac, can ta formed. IIo assures me it is 
completely effective, but in want of artillery, horses, and pontoons, 
which they cannot supply themselves with hut through our money. 
Lord Elgin, who is at tliis moment with me, will enter ten fully 
with your Lordship into these details, as I have given hiro an 
extract of my official letter of this date ; as I am in an 
of seeing you here in a day or two, I shall reserve till then the 
many other very material points to be discussed. I have written 
to tho Prince Stadtholder to request him to be here on Thursday ; 
he will be attended by General Bentinck, 1 in order to assist nt the 
conferences to be held here as to the employment at the PhNMH 
am y- I have tho honour to be, Ac, 

Malmesuu itv. 

Right Hon. Henry Dunuas to the 1 

[ECrwived Jane 3rd.] 


MY LORD, Whiletmll, Jan* 1, 17*1. 

I send for your Lordship's information a copy of a despatch 
I have just received from the Dulte of York, together witli n com 
of my letter to his Royal Highness. Your Lordship will easily 
conceive how embarrassing sueh a measure M the EbtpeHV pro- 
poses must be if persevered in, and in a peculiar manner so in the 
present moment, when your Lordship, under the direction of ttta 
Duke of York was about to concert with him the ulterior QMM- 
tions of the campaign. I hope I am mistaken in my apprehen- 
sions, hut I cannot help suspecting that there is something bflUnd 
tliat is not spoken out by the Emperor. If he is from am ■ ■\i- 
BOmaUnee induced to abandon the cause in which ho is engaged, 
the sooner that is discovered the better. I will but, hmn i 
:.r allow myself to indulge any speenhitiims of that B 
I trust the Duke of York and your Lordship will l«e to 
give me accurate information on the subject. Till that is reveivol, 
and it is known what is the true motive, and the final result of 
the Emperor's conduct, we must be in a state of very <ml>arni*ang 
suspense. I treat therefore to reei-in- very spi.-i-.lii; 
lights to enable His Majesty to form his final determination. . . . 
I have, Ar\, 

Estm i ' 

< Gtwnl Bmisck. Th«» wm tmnd of (lock, l>. Jalr, 17BJ, 

lli.l luiiilj on iMtt --n«- ■! tJmi tlm». 1-1, a.ini.w Otlotiii* Ki*1it*|u- LouW aV 

TIm om nwntltmpl in t)v l-il ■• pnMtf RbMti Isti. Mitllt . -Sim Mwjumtr <i«*W. 
I GiuUre Frabnck ComU Ben- 


Marquis Corxwalus to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas. 

SlR, Tonro»y, Jim* 5, 1794. 

I received on the 3rd instant, at Ostend, your letter dated 
the 1st, and I proceeded immediately to this place in order to 
receive H. It. H. the Duke of York s commands, both in respect to 
the march of the Prussian troops, and the extraordinary determina- 
tion of His Imperial Majesty to return to Vienna. 

I shall carry to-morrow to Brussels a letter from His Koyal 
Highness to the Emperor on the subject of his leaving the Low 
Countries, and I shall at the same time represent in the strongest 
terms the injury which the common cause most sustain by His Ma- 
jesty's perseverance in his present resolution. 

I am not, however, so sanguine as to hope that the Emperor 
will relinquish the prosecution of the measure that he has adopted, 
but I shall endeavour to obtain from him the most full and satis- 
factory explanation of his future intentions. 

In regard to the Prussian troops, there appears by a letter that 
I have received from Lord Malmesbury (a copy of which I enclose) 
to be no objection on the part of the Prussian Minister to the 
march of the Marshal Mollendorff from the Rhine into Flanders, 
and I have, by the Duke of York's directions, taken such measures 
for the supply of provisions, artillery, horses, &c, on their march, 
as will obviate the few difficulties which were offered by M. de 
Haugwitz to their immediate movement 

I have the honour to be, &c, 


filR, TWnay, Jane 6, 1794. 

The Marquis Cornwallis arrived here the night before last, 
and set oft' this morning for Brussels on his road to Maastricht. 

In the various conversations wliich I had with his Lordship, we 
thoroughly agreed in the great advantage which would arise from 
the Prussian army being employed in West Flanders in preference 
to every other operation that has been pointed out for it; his 
Lordship is gone with the intention of proposing this measure both 
to the Emperor and to Monsieur de Haugwitz. As by a letter 
which Lord Cornwallis received from Lord Malmesbury, we were 
informed of the difficulties which will be made to the immediate 
march of the Prussians, we have taken every measure in our power 



LOUD CORN \V A 1. 1, IS. Chap. XVI. 

to obviate them, and I have ordered Mr. Watson l to go himself to 
Maest.richt, in order to give every assistance to Lord Cornwallis, 
and to furnish his Lordship with the information which may enable 
him to convince the Prussian Minister of our ability to supply all 
his wants. From what the Emperor said to me the day before he 
left this place, and which has been confirmed by Monsieur dc 
Thugut to Lord Yarmouth, 1 it appears that his Itu|>criul Maji >u 
would prefer that the Prussian army should act in West Flanders 
rather than upon the Meuse, as was at one time p ro p otad, Ml thai 
it is to be hoped that uo difficulty will arise from that quartet! 

Lord Ooruwallis joins with me in anxiety for the success of this 
proposal, with respect to the destination of the Prussian army, as 
being equally convinced with myself that the siege of Lille is 
indispensably necessary to the favourable issue of tlie war. This 
will not only require a very considerable force, but such a one as 
from circumstances is not likely to be called away for any other 
occasion, which would probably be the case should U 
army be employed, to whom the necessity of defending the NhihIuv 
and covering Rrnmnln must ever be the first object 

I am, &c, 



H. R. H. the Duke of Yoke to the ltioiiT Hon. Sm I 

SlH, T-umnr, June 8, 1794. 

On Wednesday morning T received your despatch dated 
the 1st of this month, signifying His Majesty's orders tlm 
remonstrate in the strongest manner again^i Bis Imperial Muje-tv's 
intended return to Vi. mm. 

As the Emperor had already left this place last Fn 
ne linir in writing to His Majesty, and I send enclosed • DOM of 

1 Mr., afterwanl* Sr Bmpk Witwn, Hart.. 

n o«l«l KoT. <■!■), 180:1; b. Ftb. 7. ITj;., 

.' : m. I7i«>, Helen, ilau. of 

("olio c*BipW!, ha;., "i UUbiuA, r.iii- 

muaarr (irnrml (a America in Wall an 
Alderman rf London, and M.F. for iJ» L'ltv, 
I It L In ■ ,tl> lift be 
ha-1 bom in lb- nun, uul lout ■ by by the 
bite of 1 shark "bile Uthlii|{. To Ihl* the 

The beet sr n.iiim. ii uni it- l-.i <i( 

KM., h, FAi. 12, 1743,4 -tim. 17. Istt. 
m. 1*1, Frh. I, 17tJ(*. Aliw Ellanbalh. A.*. 
■n<) coheir of Herbert, Jivl Hid lnat Vle- 
coiint Windsor; iiml, April 19, 1778, W- 
Ml* Anne. far. and cobeii of Chail™. tn* 
■ml last Viscount Iivtne. M.I*, fur !.<■*- 
wlthiei, March, 1JWI, to 17S8, and then tm 
(Marf until be became a peart •"• LlaWw 
from 1711] to lliis. ai..i then for lb* cnoatf 
of to 17711. St«c(jui in Inland 
ITU lo LTM, A Lord of Um Tnawf 
fan March, 1774, t,. Saji ITSM. Kmi 

of tlir Hone, Jim-, ISO*, lo Feb. ISO*. and 

Lord < U.iii.ij- 1 Ijjtj ii Karen, IM., ;., 



my letter, which Lord Cornwailis, who left this place this morning, 
has taken charge of, as it may furnish him the opportunity of per- 
sonally enforcing it. 

With regard to the real motives which induced His Imperial 
Majesty to alter his intention of staying with the army the whole 
campaign, it is difficult for me to know them exactly, particularly 
as all the persons attached to the Emperor, and with whom I am 
acquainted, have already quitted the army and followed him to 
Brussels, but from what I could discover in a very long conference 
which I had with General Mack, 1 before he left die army, as well 
as in a subsequent one which I had with the Prince of Waldeck, it 
appears to me to have been wholly contrived by M. de Thugut and 
General xtollin, who has the greatest weight with the Emperor 
and is a tool of Thugut's. 

General Mack acquainted me that the very day before his Ma- 
jesty declared his intention of returning to Vienna, he sent for 
him and ordered him to explain in the presence of Count Merci 
and Monsieur de Thugut the whole of his plan for the campaign, 
as well as what he thought most advisable to be done in the 
present situation of affairs. General Mack added that, during 
this conference, there had been a very warm dispute between 
Monsieur de Thugut and himself concerning the number of troops 
which are necessary for carrying on offensive operations in this 
country, in which the Emperor agreed thoroughly with him, and 
declared with some degree of warmth to Monsieur de Thugut that 
he was now convinced from liis own knowledge of what General 
Mack said, and which had been denied by all the Ministers, that 
he had not sufficient troops in this country, and that, therefore, he 
meant to bring part of the troops now acting on the Ehine to 
join him. 

This unexpected declaration of His Imperial Majesty com- 
pletely silenced Monsieur de Thugut for the moment, but at the 
same time showed him that it was not hh interest that the Emperor 
should continue any longer with his army, as he was able to judge 
for himself, and would not listen so implicitly to his advice as he 
had done till then. 

What makes me think that this surmise of General Mack may 
be founded, is, that the Prince of Waldeck repeated to me two or 
three times, that there were certainly people who had great weight 

1 Charles, Boron Mack de I.nbarrick, b. 

was tried by a Court-martial, and condemned 

Ang. 25, 1758, d. Oct. 22, 1828. Hismilitarj 

to death. The punishment wm mitigated to 

career is well known. Kia Neapolitan cam- 

paigns did him no credit, but his ranankr at 

confinement he was liberated, and spent the 

I'lm pave rise to ■ suspicion or trenoti. He 

remainder of his life in obscurity. 

ii 2 



with the Emperor, and who were exceedingly anxious for His Ma- 
jesty to give up the whole of Flanders as being a country which 
had ever been of more incumbrance and expense to the Home of 
Austria than of any real benefit; that lie himself had entreats! 
His Majesty never to believe such bad advice, which the Bum 
promised him most, [faithfully], but the Prince of Waldeck added, 
God knows what they may make him do now that they have got 
Wm away from the army. 

I am likewise credibly informed, though I cannot assert it upon 
my own knowledge, that SI. de Thugut has declared openly tliat 
he lias done everything in his power to persuade the KiniK-rur to 
give up this country. j ^^ ^ 



Dead Sir, Bruwdi*, June a, i;«. 

I last night received your letter, and shall refer yon for 
information of all that has passed, respecting the Emperor 1 * de- 
parture and the march of the Prussian troops, to my correspond- 
ence with Mr. Dundas. 

Previous to the arrival of the Prussians at Namur, a plan must 
bi ODDOetted fur attacking the posts of Menin and Courtrai. which 
must he a preliminary measure to any operation that may bo after- 
wards adopted. If after the event of that undertaking, we find 
ourselves in sufficient force to attack Lisle, we must prooeed imrin- 
diately to the investiture of that place. But if that enterprise. 
either from the advanced season of the year or want of sufficient 
fame, should appear too hazardous, my idea at present is, that we 
must direct our operations against Maul>euge, Avesnes, Cumbrai, 
&c, after providing better means (linn "en formerly taken for the 
MM Mill J of West Flanders. 

I can say nothing at present on the question about myself, and 
indeed I trust that the Austrian force will not be so far reduced 
as to place us in the very confined circumstances that yon ni p poittj 
but at all events you may be assured that I shall ever have tlw 
] ml >lii- mUhre uppermost in my view. The Austrian is express the 
Kb to the employment of the Prussians on the M.-uw, 
and give the preference to their going to Wist Flondern, whirh 
»ill be " n convenient if we can attack Lille, but may be other* 
vriee rather embarrassing, as it would place thoin ou the defensive. 


All this however we will endeavour to arrange in the best manner, 
when the occasions shall arise. j am & Ci 

Marquis Cornwallis to H. R. H. the Duke of York. 

SlB, Brussellx, June S, 1794. 

I have no information to give your R H. respecting my 
negotiations at this place that is worth your notice, except what 
you will see in the enclosed copy of my letter to Mr. Dundas, as I 
do not think that a recital of my long expostulations with M. de 
Thugut and Count Merci would be either useful or entertaining. 

... I think MbllendorfTa want of 6000 horses rather 
extraordinary, and I shall take no notice of hie request to be 
allowed time to give up the posts which he has taken, to the Prince 
of Saxe Teschen, 1 as that .may soon be arranged if all parties are 
inclined to expedite the service ; but I shall adhere to my plain 
requisition that the Prussian troops shall march immediately into 
Flanders. I shall set out this afternoon for Maastricht, -from 
whence I shall communicate to you my further progress in the 
business of the Prussians. 

I have the honour to be, Ac., 


Marquis Cornwallis to the Riqht Hon. Henry Dundas. 
SlR, Bnuadla, June S, 1794. 

According to the intentions expressed in my letter of the 
5th instant from Touraay, I arrived here on the 6th, and was 
honoured yesterday with an audience of His Imperial Majesty, to 
whom I delivered Hin Royal Highness's letter, and had some long 
conversations with his Ministers ; but I am sorry to add that neither 
the contents of that letter, nor the earnest representations which I 
made in person to His Imperial Majesty, as well as to his Ministers, 
of the mischievous effects which his departure at this critical period 
must have upon the general interests of the alliance, appeared to 
make any material impression, nor to afford me any hopes that he 
would alter his determination. 

1 Albert, Duke of Sue TacJiin, son of Francis I., and lister of Marie Antoinette. A 

Anguctui II., King of Poland and Elector of monument to her memory wu executed by 

Saxony, b. July U, 1738, <L Feb. 10, 1823; Caoova. 
m. April 8, 1766, Marie Christine, dau. of 


I received, however, the strongest assurances from all, that His 
Majesty's zeal for the common cause was by no means abated, of 
which the object of his journey was a convincing proo£ being 
to convene a meeting of the States of Hungary in order to obtain 
supplies of men and money for the purpose of carrying on the war. 

The march of the 62,000 Prussians from the Rhine was objected 
to, in the strongest terms by the Ministers, who maintained that 
32,000 of those troops actually belonged to the Empire, that by 
the sudden removal of that army all Germany would be exposed 
to the ravages of the French, and that the Emperor would be 
obliged to provide for the safety of his Austrian dominions by 
detaching a part of his army from this country. 1 represented on 
the contrary that he had no right to suppose that the King of 
Prussia had not taken the means to fulfil his engagements to all 
parties, that by the treaty we were assured that the stipulated force 
would be ready to act on the 24th of May in whatever quarter the 
maritime powers should require their services, and that the present 
situation of our affairs in Flanders rendered their immediate march 
into this country indispensably necessary. After very long alter- 
cations, and warm remonstrances on their part, it was at last agreed 
(as I declared that we could on no account admit of a moment's 
delay in the march of the Prussians) that they would endeavour 
to accommodate them on their march, and that I should state to 
the British Ministers their earnest desire, that in the event of the 
deficiency of 32,000 Prussians, which they apprehended, upon the 
Rhine, all the powers in alliance would join in insisting that His 
Prussian Majesty should immediately make good his engagements 
to the Emperor. 

I shall set out this afternoon for Maestricht, where I hope, with 
the assistance of Lord Malinesbury, to arrange all matters with M. 
do Haugwitz. J fo^ &a> 


Colonel Craig ' to Colonel Ross. 

MY DEAR SlR, Tournay, June 8, 1794. 

Upon looking over your memorandum of the officers of Lord 
Cornwallis's staff, who were to be put in orders, it occurred to me 
that it might be necessary to say something relative to his Lord- 

1 Colonel, afterwards General, Sir James had originally been a private in the Honaehoki 
Craig, K.B., Colonel 78th Kegt., and Governor troops, probably the Horse Grenadier Guard*. 
of North America; d. Jan. 12, 1812. He 


ship's own appointment, at the same time that that of his staff was 
noticed, and upon submitting it to H. It. H. the Duke of York, he 
was pleased to direct that I should write to you to request, that 
you would ask his Lordship in what manner he would wish that it 
should be inserted. 

The Duke at the same time observed that he did not really see 
how he could put two persons in orders Adjutant General to the 
same army, and wished that I should ask you if you have a com- 
mission as such — mine is to be Adjutant General to the force 
serving under H. It. H. the Duke of York. This remark really 
proceeded from the Duke himself. If you have a commission, the 
words in which it runs will of course determine those in which it 
should be announced. If you have no commission, can it be other- 
wise than to act as Adjutant General ? or indeed we may adopt the 
foreign custom and Bay, Adjutant General to Lord GornwaUit, 
thus T" airing it an office attached to the person of the. Commander, 
&c, not to his army. Remember that this observation is not made 
with the smallest view to cavil on my part, but really to prevent 
an error. 

We are still quiet here — with our ears however every moment 
annoyed with the thundering upon our friends at Ypres, and it is 
very uncertain whether Clairfait will attempt their relief or not 
As to us, we are tick — that is our guide and director the Prince of 
Waldeck is so, and without a director I fear we shall remain fast 
tied to our tent-poles. Indeed, my good friend, I begin myself to 
be heartily sick. I believe in my conscience that with above 
50,000 men in this country, we shall suffer the disgrace of losing 
one of the only two garrisons which we have to look after. It will 
not however he our fault, for H. It. H. is urging day and night that 
something may be done. 

I inclose you a copy of the order which has been issued here 
relative to the decree of the National Convention, that their troops 
should give no quarter to the British and Hanoverians. It will not, 
I am sure, escape you, that the purport of it is as much addressed 
to the French as to the English — the truth is that it was intended 
to be so. We have accounts that they are much dissatisfied with 
the decree ; and the object has been to put the matter in that light 
which was thought most likely to increase that discontent. It is 
translated and printing, and we propose to have them scattered over' 
the whole country. It was thought that it would have a better 
effect in the shape of orders to the army here than in that of an 
address to that of the enemy.' 
1 Se* Anuuil Rtgtticr far IV 04, |>. 168, far thw General Older, which mi dated June J, 


I beg you will be bo good as to present my Iwet respects to Lord 
Cornwallis and to Lord Malmeabury, and that you will believe me 
with great truth, 

My dear Sir, your most faithful and nhfflMfflrt humble servant, 
J. H. Cbaki. 

Wo have accounts that 170 pieces of cannon hare left Lisle for 
the attack of Ypres. What a prize ! 

Don't think us very savage for including wives and children in 
the denunciation of vengeance. It is surely right to point ont tho 
advantage wliieh we have over them in that respect, though it 
may be doubtful whether it would be so to use it. 

Colonel Ross in reply stated, that it was understood in England 
tliat all commissions should he given by the Duke of York, ami 
that Lord Cornwallis considered that the orders appointing Ins 
staff might be prefaced with an extract from the instructions from 
the Secretary of State to the Duke of York, to the effect tliat Lord 
Cornwallis was to command a corps detached from the main army 
and intended to act with tho Prussians. As Lord Cornwallis's 
formal appointment never took place, the question about the staff 
fell to the ground. 

Majujiii.s Cornwallis to H. It. H. the Duke of York. 

SlR, M.yeme, June 18. (TM. 

I am most truly concerned at the failure of General Cl>r- 
fayt's attempt to relieve lores, 1 from which I think the most serious 
mischief is to be apprehended. 

It would afford me great satisfaction to be able to give hopes of 
any speedy assistance from this quarter, but your Royal Highness 
will see by the enclosed copy of a letter which I have just nosnwl 
from Marshal Mollcndirf, that he is exceedingly averse to the 
march, and as the vicinity of the enemy's forces and tho on- 
willingness of the Austrians to suffer the Prussian army to quit the 
ltlune will afford ample opportunity for chicane and delay, as 
well in tho troops of the former taking up the position of the latter, 
iw in the arrangements to put the Prussian army in motion, 1 iiin 
much afraid that we cannot exped any Btwvioe from it in Flanders 
in time to enable u» to undertake any materia] ■ 
in the BQUM of Che pfWWIll eiiinptiign. 

I iuWIn-uilW MUi U Hm 1711, i.i l u t„- T N.O, uulmn, nil U.' A 
rv|n]|.fl with gnat lov. 


Your Royal Highness will see, by the copy of my answer to 
Marshal Mollendorf, that I have appointed the morning of the 
20th for my meeting with him at Kirkheim-Poland, and yon may 
rely upon it that nothing shall be wanting on my part to impress 
him with the necessity of his losing no time in commencing bis 
march, as well on account of the honour of his master, as of the 
critical and dangerous situation of the affaire of the Allies in the 
Low Countries, where it was long since agreed by all parties, ihat 
the most rigorous exertions should be made, and where alone we 
are prepared with magazines and stores that would be sufficient for 
arduous and important undertakings. 

I have the honour, Ac, 


Marshal Mollendorf to the Marquis Cornwallis. 

[Received June 18.] 

Milord, ottaibcrg, ™ is jnin, 1794. 

Je viens de recevoir a l'heure meme avec un plaisir reel, 
l'honneur de votre lettre dat«e du 11™ courant, et je me hate d'y 
repondre incessament, pour me procurer le plutot possible l'avan- 
tage de vous revoir, Milord, et de vous renouveller en personne, 
les sentimens de la parfaite estime, et de l'attachement que vous 
me connoissez pour vous. C'eet en consequence de cela que je 
vous envoye un courier pour vous proposer tree humblement, de 
vous acheminer pour Kercheim-Poland, ou le portenr de la pre- 
sente aura l'honneur de vous conduire, Milord, et oil d'abord j'ai 
tout fait preparer pour votre reception. Je ne manqnerai pas 
aussi de m'y rendre tout de suite, des que vons aurez eu la bonte 
de me marquer quelle Bera l'heure oh vous comptez vous y rendre, 
pour ne pas vous faire attendre ; et je n'aurai pas meme manque 
non plus d'aller a votre rencontre a Mayence, si j'osois hazarder 
de m' eloigner beaucoup de mon poste actuel, menace a cbaque 
instant d'etre attaque par Tennemi D'avance cependant, Milord, 
je dois vous annoncer avec cette franchise que vous me connoissez, 
et qui m'a merite votre confiance, que je suis en embarras pour 
un des cootenus de votre lettre, 00. vous me parlez des operations 
offensives a entreprendre apres 1'arrivee des troupes Frussiennes 
dans les Pays Bas. Comment voulez-vous de grace effectuer leur 
marche, au moment ou je me vois chaqne jour aux mains avec 
l'ennemi, qui h 'assemble en force, pour tomber snr moi, et pour me 
donner la revanche but la grande deroote que j'ai mise a son 
armee, en l'attaquant avec vigueur centralement a Kayserslautern, 


et crevassant par la sa forte jonction de son arm£e du Khin et 
celle de la Moselle. Ce sont les jouraees du 23 et da 28 qui ont 
decide contre lui, et quoique je manquerois de tout, ear n'ayant pas 
d'argent je n'ai pu pourvoir encore ni aux magazins, ni au chevaux, 
canons, et pontons, mais ayant toujours la bonne cause gdnerale & 
coeur, j'ai cru sauver la Flandres en percent ici, ce qui devoit ne- 
cessiter l'ennemi de se retirer des Pays Bas, de veiller ici, et son 
propre pays et ses forteresses. J'ai trfes bien calcule aussi, car 
tout ces renforts pour mo faire face viennent des Pays Bas, pour 
qu'il puisse reprendre ses anciennes positions tres considerables. 

J'ai l'honneur, &c, 


Marquis Cornwallis to the Mar£chal Mollendorf. 

MON CHER MARfcCHAL, A Mayence, midi, le 18* Join, 1794. 

En arrivant ici ce moment, j'ai eu l'honneur de recevoir la 
lettre que V. Ex. m'a adressee en date du 15e de ce mois. 

Je me trouve extremement oblig6 par la proposition que vous 
avez eu la bont6 de me faire, de m'epargner une grande partie du 
voyage en me rencontrant k Kercheim-Poland, et comme il seroit 
un peu tard ce soir avant que cette lettre puisse parvenir k votre 
Quartier General, j'ai cru qu'il vous conviendroit mieux que je 
nomme le 20 me (le jour apr&s domain) pour notre entretien: Je 
partirai done d'ici ce jour Ik de trfes bon matin, mais comme Votre 
Excellence n'est pas 6galement comme moi maitre de son temps, 
je la prie de rigler son depart de la manifere qui lui sera la plus 

Les Allies ayant fait leurs arrangemens avant 1'ouverture de la 
campagne pour une defensive sur le Bhin et une vigoureuse offen- 
sive du quartier des Pays Bas, et les Puissances Maritimes ayant, 
pour assurer le succfes de ce plan, fait un Traits pour se pro- 
curer des services importans de l'armee sous les ordres de Votre 
Excellence, moyennant un subside de prfes de deux millions sterling, 
Votre Excellence verra, je suis persuade, rimpossibilite de changer 
a present le projet de campagne, aussi bien que les cas facheux dans 
lesquels les Gouvernemens de ces deux Nations seroient places si 
la campagne des Pays Bas £toit reduite a une malheureuse de- 
fensive, et si en memo terns les Troupes de S. M. Prussienne <£toient 
employees a une distance a ne pouvoir porter aucun secours, et d'un 
cot^, faute de magazins et de grosse artillerie, il n'est pas possible 
de faire cette ann6e-ci une impression s6rieuse sur la France. 

J'ai l'honneur, &c., 



Marquis to the Right HoK. Henry Dundas. 

SlR, Mayence, Jim* 21, 1794. 

In pursuance of the resolution which I communicated to 
you in my letter dated the 11th instant, I proceeded to tliis place, 
and yesterday Lord Malmesbury, Baron Kinkel ' (the Dutch Mi- 
nister), and myself, met Field Marshal Mollendorf by appointment 
about ten leagues from hence on the road to his head-quarters. 

I had reason, by a letter from the Marshal, which I found here 
on my arrival, to expect a strong opposition on his part to the 
requisition for the march of the Prussian troops into Flanders, and 
I was well aware how much he would be able to strengthen his 
arguments against the proposed movement, from the circumstance 
of his being actually engaged in military operations in (his quarter, 
and was therefore not sanguine in my hopes that anything that I 
could say would induce him to relinquish the plan of operations in 
which he had already engaged. 

He began by stating that the enemy opposed to him consisted 
of 110,000 men, and that he expected every day to be attacked by 
them. That if he should evacuate the posts he now held, the force 
under the Prince of Saxe Teschen would not be strong enough to 
occupy them, nor even to remain on the western bank of the 
Rhine, and that, consequently, as soon as he began his march, the 
enemy would harass and attack his rear ; he said that nothing 
should make him alter his present plan and proceed to Flanders, 
but a positive order from the King of Prussia to that effect ; that if 
his Prussian Majesty should order his army to march through the 
Duchy of Luxemberg, he saw so much difficulty and danger in 
effecting it, from the numerous enemy which he should certainly 
have in his rear and his flanks, and perhaps in his front, that he 
should be under the necessity of requesting his Majesty to send 
some General who was able to conduct it, for that he felt himself 
totally unequal to such an undertaking ; but that, if the King 
ordered him, be would move down the Rhine to Cologne, and 
proceed to Liege, or Moestricht, although he foresaw that, even by 
that route, his rear-guard would suffer considerably ; he added at 
the same time that he could not possibly be in a condition to begin 
his march in less than six weeks, and that it would take at least 
four weeks more before he could reach Liege, or Maestrieht He 

1 Baron Kilikel wan of German descent, and edly employed. From 1815 to 1821 hi™ 

entered the Dutch navy, in which he row to Dutch MinisteratStutgaid ; d.Xov. 10, 1831, 

the rank of Vice- Admiral. He was Minister at Maiihtirn. 
at Berlin in 179'J, and was afterwards repeat- 


.-tut i'<l that the corps of Prussians which His Majesty had agreed to 
furnish to be employed for the interests of the Maritime Powers, 
was complete at the time of the signature of the treaty, and then 
amounted to 51,000 fighting men, that they were now reduced by 
sickness, desertion, and other casualties to 30,000, and that by the 
time of his arrival at Maastricht they probahly would not exceed 
35,000 ; and that he was certain that the horses of his cavalry- 
artillery, and other equipments of his army would be reduced to 
the most wretched condition. 

The Marshal then represented how much the objects of this 
campaign would suffer by so large a body of troops being with- 
drawn for such a length of time from any service either offensive 
or defensive, and he then insisted much on the powerful inversion 
he had already made and should still make in favour of our army 
in Flanders, by continuing to act in this quarter opon the phin 
which he had commenced. He dwelt much on the danger to 
which the empire would be exposed by the removal of the Prus- 
sians, who had hitherto been able, not only to afford complete pro- 
tection, but to act with credit and advantage to the common cause, 
and insisted that, when he arrived in the Low Countries, Qmm 
would neither be time, nor should he be in a condition, to under- 
take any tiring of sufficient importance to compensate for the im- 
mediate mischief with which the proposed measure would certainly 
be attended. 

He then enlarged on several points, such as the force of the 
enemy, the difficulty of quitting his present situation, &<:, &e,, 
which we were not, either by information or local knowledge, pre- 
pared to controvert, nor, circumstanced as we were, could we pef> 
haps properly have entered into a minute discussion of them with 
a Commauder-in-Chief of a much cooler disposition than Hnbil 
Mollendorf ; and after a very long conversation on his |wrt to the 
above effect he delivered two papers, 1 of which the enclosed are 
copies, as containing hia sentiments fully on the whole subject. 

Nothing that the Marshal said had the least influence to con- 
vince my mind that any services, which it would be possible for 
the Prussian troops to perform for the benefit of the Allies in th» 
quarter, could for a moment be put in competition with the urgent 
necessitv "f th.-ir immediate aid in the Low Countries; but in the 
Imipcy in which we found the Marshal wc were desirous to avoid 
dona which might occasion farther ErritatfoiL 
■ Eon oonfined ooratlTes lo stale in moderate language, 
on one band, the groiuid that we had to complain of bis engi 

1 That |H[hib «• M| »"Mli j ■ ■ l ■ 1 1 j 1 1 ■. ; 


in offensive operations without concert with England and Holland, 
the necessity of the present case, the danger to which oar affairs in 
the Low Countries and even Holland itself was exposed, and the 
claim which the late treaty gave to the Maritime Powers for the 
services of the army under the Marshal's command in that quarter 
where they conceived they would best promote their interests; and 
on the other in answer to the flattering prospect which he held out, 
we denied that without a considerable battering-train he could 
possibly undertake any offensive operations of consequence, or even 
give any real alarm to the enemy, who knew that, whilst their 
fortified places were secure, any transitory irruption which he might 
make into their country would have no influence on the general 
state of the war, and we suggested our doubts whether he could 
even keep his present position, if the enemy should make any pro- 
gress between the Moselle and the Mouse. 

The Marshal's opinion was however not to be changed, and we 
could only obtain a promise from him that he would not engage 
himself any further in offensive operations, but make the prepara- 
tions necessary for his retrograde march, in case his Master, after 
receiving his representations, shall ultimately decide in favour of 
that measure. 

I refer you to Lord Malmesbury's correspondence with Lord 
Grenville for an account of the steps which his Lordship has 
thought proper to take, and as I do not see that my continuance 
in this neighbourhood can be of any further benefit to the public 
service, I propose to return immediately to the Duke of York's 
quarters, I hare, &c, 


Rioht Hon. Hurry Dundas to the Marquis Cornwalijs. 

My LOBD, Whitehall, Jime 30, 17»t. 

I have had the honour of receiving and laying before the 
King your Lordship's despatch of the 21st instant, inclosing copies 
of the memorials delivered to your Lordship by Field-Marshal 
Mbllendorff, relative to the Prussian troops which have lately been 
taken into the pay of Great Britain. 

Under all the existing circumstances, it appears to His 
Majesty's Ministers to be extremely desirable that they should, 
as soon as possible, have a personal communication with your 
Lordship, in order to consider the various important points con- 
nected with that subject ; and with that view 1 have it in charge 


from His Majesty to desire that your Lordship will take the 
earliest opportunity of returning to England, unless circumstances 
should occur which, in your Lordship's opinion, would render 
your further continuance on the Continent of advantage to the 
public service. 

I shall make immediate application to the Lords of the 
Admiralty that a frigate may be despatched to Sluys for the 
purpose of receiving your Lordship on board, if, under the con- 
ditions I have stated, your Lordship should judge it right to return 
to England. . . . On your passing through the head-quarters 
of the combined armies, it will be right that your Lordship should 
endeavour if possible to obtain the most accurate information of 
the strength of the forces on the different stations, as such informa- 
tion will be of material use to His Majesty's Ministers in the con- 
sideration of the various points which must, on your Lordship's 
arrival, become the subject of their particular attention. If your 
Lordship should not require the service of the frigate, you will, of 
course, order her return to the Downs as speedily as possible. 

I have, &c, 

Henby Dundas. 

Marquis Cornwallis to the Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry. 

DEAR JAMES, London. July 26, 1794. 

I have as usual been so occupied and teased with every- 
body's affairs but my own since I came to town, that I have had 
no time to write to you. I have indeed been much with Mr. Pitt 
and Mr. Dundas, who certainly do not deserve the reverse of for- 
tune that wo have experienced on the Continent. They have 
adopted the only measure in their power by the mission of Lord 
Spencer and Mr. T. Grenville, but I own I am not sanguine in the 
expectation that it will produce much good effect. Boss went very 
unwillingly, as it was exceedingly inconvenient for his private 
affairs. It will, however, be lucky for Brome, and render his 
residence at Vienna much pleasantcr. I have taken Lord Hert- 
ford's house in Lower Grosvenor Street, completely furnished, for 
one year at six hundred guineas, which gives me time to look 
about me. My expedition has not been a profitable one, but my 
baggage, horses, and wine are returned, and I shall keep every- 
thing in readiness till the end of the war, that I may not be subject 
to another expensive equipment. Yours &c. 



On their arrival at Vienna, Lord Spencer and Mr. Gronville 
found that M. de Thngnt held out no prospect of any forward 
movement, unless England, either as an actual subsidy, or by 
guaranteeing a loan, would provide Austria with a large sum — 
3,000,000/. at least His language was very different from that 
of M. Desandrouin, 1 who had admitted that a large part of the loan 
ought to be, and would be, assigned towards augmenting the num- 
bers of the army. M. de Thugut also seemed disposed to consider 
that Austria was not bound by her convention with England to 
defend the Low Countries, the value of which he rated low, but 
considered she was at liberty to employ her forces wherever she 
thought most advantageous. Lord Spencer and Mr. Gronville 
expressed their entire dissent from such views. 

Earl Spencer and Mr. Gresville to Lord Grenvtlle. 

MY LOBD, Vienna, Aug. 13, 1794. 

. . . With respect to a change in the command of the 
army, which we stated to be a necessary step towards insuring the 
success of a more active system of operations in the Netherlands, 
we did not meet with any great difficulty in obtaining a promise that 
the Prince of Coburg should be removed, and the Austrian Govern- 
ment agreed that on his removal the Prince of Waldeck must of 
course retire. We were not so successful in prevailing upon M. de 
Thugut to name to us his intended successor, and indeed it was a 
point on which we were under considerable difficulties. Of those 
who were named in our instructions, General Brown ' happens un- 
fortunately to be in so very bad a state of health as to be out of the 
question ; and on our suggesting the appointment of the Arch Duke 
Charles, 1 with Gen. Mack to assist him, we were first reminded of the 
objections which were formerly made by H. M. Ministers to the Arch 
Duke's appointment, and it was afterwards urged that this would 
so evidently be giving the command to Gen. Mack, that it would 
be running the hazard of offending all the Generals senior to him 
in the Austrian army. 

We observe in Baron Thugut's conversation a fixed opinion of 
the inutility of the Low Countries to the House of Austria, no 
appearance of any forward meal in the leading principles of the 
prosecution of the war, nor any prospect of vigorous operations in 

1 M. Deundrouin was the Treasurer of the * The Archduke Charlea, son of Leopold II., 

Belgian Provinces, and be came to England b. Sept. 6, 1771, d. April 30, 1847; m. 

to negotiate a loan. Se|it. 17, 1815, Henrietta Alexandrine Frede- 

* General Brown, H. 1704. He waa n riqnc WilheJmin*, dan. of Frederick Guil- 

of a General Brown in the Kuauao nerrice. laome, Princa of Naaaau WeUbourg. 


Chap. XVI. 

it, unless purchased by a loan in this year and a subsidy in the 
next. We have likewise to fear an extended claim to indemnifi- 
cation from the Court of Vienna, and much loss of time where 
little can be spared, by protracting the attempt to succour the 
fortresses during the dMB m rioM on the means of obtaining money, 
notwithstanding our pressing solicitations on the urgency of thut 
We liave, &c 


T. Qmn 


S. 179*. 

Dear Ross, Undoo, Ang. 1 

I have been detained in town, to my utmost mortification 
and misen', at the earnest request of Mr. Pitt, these last iTlIllrim 
days, in expectation of Count Merci, who is not yet arrived, and 
who I believe was so frightened at being obliged to put back in 
the bad weather last week, that lie has now no great inclination 
to put to sea. The wind has been easterly yesterday and to-day, 
and if he does not arrive in the course of this night I must make 
my escape. 

You know as much about MOllendorf, Saxe Teschen, and 
Coburg, and their proposed defensive plans, as I do; it may be 
the best thing for the moment ; but if the French are determined 
to push on, their position will not, in my opinion, be long main- 
tained. Indeed I have no confidence in any defensive line of con- 
siderable extent, without the support of very strong corps that are 
moveable and active; and that. fr<>m what I have seen, does not 
appear to bo more the system of the Prussians than the An* trim is. 
Wo know but little of what has passed at Paris, but it seems car- 
tain that Rubers] liitrrc ami his party ' are destroyed. It is impossible 
to foresee the consequences of this event, but it cannot change 
matters for the worse. By all accounts the French tinny in the 
Low I'liuntrit-a is so separated, and in such a state of riot ami 
ili^mler. that a good General with our present force would soon 
noOVffl t'hindcrs. 

[ suggested to Mr. Pitt the expediency of having an active, body 
in i|iillv afloat, for the additional security of Zealand, 
about which province we were for some days under ■■:■ 
hensions. I will write again as soon as I liavo seen Mcrci, although 


I do not expect to have much more to say, as the great object, 
viz. the change of a Commander, must depend upon our friends at 

Give my love to Brome, and present my best respects to Lord 
Spencer and Mr. Grenville. The Ministers appear to go on with 
great union and cordiality. 1 j Qm & c . 


Right Hon. W. Pitt to Marquis Cornwalus. 

[Private and Confidential.] 
My DEAR LORD, Hollwood, Aug. 24, 1794. 

Comte Mercy still continuing very ill, we had last night a 
conference with Comte Starhemburg, to whom he had made over 
his instructions, and to-day we have received a despatch from Lord 
Spencer and Mr. Grenville, with an account of what had passed 
between them and the Austrian Ministers at Vienna. The general 
result is, that they express a great desire to conclude the alliance, 
a readiness to prepare for the next campaign, and to give imme- 
diate orders to make a forward movement to save the conquered 
fortresses, provided we supply them with an advance of money to 
relieve their present necessities, and secure to them large pecu- 
niary assistance for next campaign. They also agree to remove 
the Prince of Coburg and the Prince of Waldeck, and we under- 
stand the former has himself sent his resignation, but they have 
fixed no successor. General Brown is so ill as to be out of the 
question. They state objections to the Arch Duke or Mack ; and 
in the mean time, till they name some one else, they say the com- 
mand must devolve upon Clairfait This is all that has passed at 
Vienna ; but Comte Starhemburg, in concert with Comte Mercy, 
has within these few days repeatedly suggested an idea, which is 
the point I more particularly wish to mention to your Lordship, 
with the freedom with which you have allowed me to use in all 
our communications. He says there is no Austrian General whom 
his Court can name in whom it would have entire confidence, and 
he is persuaded that if you had the command of our army, with the 
local rank of Field Marshal, there would be no difficulty in so 
arranging it that you might have the virtual command of the 
whole army, Austrian as well as British. He has recurred to this 

1 This letter was written shortly after the been feared that the union might not have 
junction af the Duke of Portland and a section been cordial. 
of the Whig party with Mr. Pitt, and it had 

VOL. II. 8 



Coai\ XVI. 

idea in such a way, as to persuade me and Lord Grem 1 1 1 
far aa Austria is concerned, the measure is probably practicable. 
I need not say how advantageous we should tliink it to the cause. 
It is in truth of more importance than I could easily express to 
any one, and than I can attempt to express to you. 

I am fully aware of the apparent difficulty of superseding the 
Duke of York's command. But on thinking otbx tin? subject. I 
think that difficulty not insuperable. He has, I believe, nod 
sense enough to feet that his having the commaud of the whole 
combined army is out of the question. His being under the com- 
mand of Clairfait, or the two armies remaining independent of each 
other, I think ho must feel to be equally inconsistent with any 
plan that can bo useful ; and I do not at all despair that '' 
those circumstances to him distinctly, and calling his ■tftMlfmH to 
the nature of the crisis, he may be brought freely to acquiesce in 
such an arrangement, and to continue to serve under y<nt. 

If therefore your Lordship felt, as I trust you would, inclined 
to undertake a task on which perhaps everything depends, 1 should 
in that case write fully to the Duke of York on the subject, and 
also lay the proposal before the King. 

I hardly know how to desire, in the uncertainty of the result, 
that you should take the trouble of another journey, and yet I 
know that it is hardly possible to discuss a subject of this sort 
sufficiently by letter, and I know too that yon take too warm an 
interest in what is passing to attend to personal inconv i 

The suggestion is certainly not one which one should consider 
as easy to execute in ordinary times, but it is 1 before 
probable bhanee 'if pvttiag tilings into a good train, and therefore 
hardly any difficulty ought to stand in the way of it Let me only 
add again tliat I hope to see you before you determine. 
Believe me, &c., 

\V. Pitt. 

MAnom* Cornwai.lis to Coumkl Ross, VncmA. 

Hear Rohb, Cuifoni, Aug. ss, km. 

After I bid nted above ■ fiirtnijjht in and about town, 
i "iint Herd BRit ad, trith ■ fever, but without any military |iro- 
poaitiatt, at [■deed en ld< i of doing anything on tin- Continent f-* 

Hie remaitider of (J ampuign, The Count was routined to lti» 

bed. and could not !»■ nea ; btti aa soon as Mr. Pitt had ascerteiowi 

Irnin ilir Iiiij-tijiI Minister, tlml tin- w.le objects of his 1 


were an absurd plan for the government of Flanders, 'after it 
should be reconquered, and a scheme about the Prussian subsidy,' 
which seemed to be little more or less than to get it into then- 
own hands, he allowed me to return into Suffolk. After giving a 
decided opinion against the Flanders plan,' which appeared to be 
equally weak and wicked, cautioning our friends not to give too 
much into the second, and exhorting them to try every possible 
means to save Valenciennes, I returned to the peaceful shades of 

The fall of Soberspierre is certainly a great and extraordinary 
event, and must convince every thinking man in France (if such 
man there be) that it is impossible for them to form a Government 
upon anything like the present system ; but I do not see the pro- 
bability of its producing any immediate effects in our favour, and 
I must confess that I think our present prospect is gloomy. The 
coast of France is almost our only resource in respect to any 
offensive military operations ; but the difficulties are so great that, 
however well disposed our friends are, it is doubtful whether any- 
thing can be undertaken. 

I conclude that despatches from Vienna must have been 
received since your arrival at that Court, and I am inclined to 
believe that I should have had a line from P. or D. if they had 
any good news to impart. 

I was sorry to find by a letter from Bronte that he would have 
left Vienna previous to your arrival. He had just heard a report 
of Lord Spencer and Mr. Grenville being to come, but did not 
believe it 

I am, dear Boss, most heartily wishing yon a speedy return, 
Your most faithful and sincere friend, 


Mabqdis Corswallis to the Right Hon. W. Pitt. 

DZAB SlR, Culford, Aug. 25, 17M. 

Although the difficulty of the proposed arrangement appears 
to me absolutely insurmountable, and even if, contrary to my 
expectations, the promise of hearty confidence and support from 
the Court of Vienna and the acquiescence of the Duke of York 
could be obtained, the station in which I should be placed would 

1 The Enfliih Government did not alto- 
gether repudiate thin idee, u appear! from 
Lord Grmnlle'a deepatehea. 



Chap. XVI. 

be the most arduous and invidious in which a man could possibly 
find himself, I have too great a personal regard for you, and too 
much deference for your sentiments, to hesitate about going to 

I shall set off very early on Wednesday morning, and shall be 
at Lord Hertford's house before four o'clock, when I shall be ready 
to obey any commands with which you may honour me. If 
Wednesday should be a Cabinet dinner, as 1 believe is the ease, 
I had rather see you anywhere after that is over than meet you 
there, and can, if it should be more convenient to you, meet you at 
Wimbledon either on Wednesday night or Thursday morning. 
I am, &e., 


Loud Grf.nville to Earl Spencer and Mk. Grekyille. 


My Lord and Sib, Dmn**j stmt, Aug. ac, i 

... It appears that Comte Mercy was instruct 
urge in the strongest manner, the three following points, forming 
the requests which the Emperor was desirous of bringing forward 
at tlu's crisis, in order to enable H. I. M. to act with vigour against 
the common enemy. 

1st. That some immediate pecuniary advance should be made, 
without which it was strongly urged that the Austrian U 
not bo kept on the Meuse, in a state of preparation for active 

2nd. That means should be adopted for assisting Uu tankfan 
loan of which no more than 300,0<XI/. had yet Wen paid. 1 

3rd. That H, M. would enter into the discussion of future 
■magnnents •■( pi-cimiui-y aid, wiucfa might nmore the £flbndthi 
arising from the exhausted state of the Emperor's finances. 
I have, &c, 


The Bngtiab Government agreed to advance 150,000!. as a loan, 
on condition that the Austrian troops should maintain their 
position. But they would not, daring the prorogation of Parlia- 
ment, make any further loan, or give any guarantee to the existing 
contractors. And Lord Spencer was informed, that notliing would 

1794. COMMAND OP THE at.t.TF.T) ARMIES. 261 

be proposed to Parliament with that view, unless it were distinctly 
shown that Austria would act with vigour. Lord Spencer was 
further directed to take care that the command of the army was 
not irrevocably settled without the consent of England, who had, it 
was considered, a strong claim to nominate the Commander-in- 

The following is the King's answer to the Minute of Cabinet 
proposing to give Lord Cornwallis the command of the allied 
armies : — 

The Kino to the Right Hon. William Pitt. 

Weymouth, Aug. 27, 1794, 35 put 1, P.H. 

I have this instant received Mr. Pitt's letter accompanying 
the Paper of Considerations which I undoubtedly should wish to 
keep, but not knowing whether Mr. Pitt has a fair Copy of it, I 
have thought it safest to return. Whatever can give vigour to the 
remains of the Campaign, I shall certainly as a duty think right 
not to withhold my consent : but I own, in my Son's place, I should 
beg my being allowed to return home, if the Command is given to 
Lord Cornwallis, though I should not object to the Command being' 
intrusted to Gen. Clairfait : from feeling this I certainly will not 
write, but approve of Mr. Wyndham's going to the army, and shall 
be happy if my Son views this in a different light than I should. I 
will not delay the messenger,. as I think no time ought to be lost 
in forming some fixed plan, and that the measure of sending Mr. 
Wyndham is every way advantageous. 

Geohge B. 

Marquis Cornwallis to Colonel Boss, Vienna. 
DEAR BOSS, Lower Gnarenor Street, Aug. 28, 178*. 

After having been kept the whole summer in town, I had 
flattered myself with a little quiet, when I received a letter from 
Mr. Pitt, saying that the Austrians had no General to send in the 
room of the Prince of Coburg, and that they have proposed that, 
for the present at least, the command should devolve upon Clairfait ; 
bat that Merci, who is just dead, and Staremburg, had proposed 
that I should have the command with the local rank of Field 
Marshal. The Ministers had an idea of the Duke of York's 
acquiescence in my taking the command, and serving under me, 
and Windham had undertaken to go over to the D. of Y. and 
procure his approbation of this plan. 


On seeing Mr. Pitt yesterday as soon as I came to town, I 
told him in the first place how very unwillingly I should embark, 
on any terms, in so arduous and desperate a business ; but that my 
going to take the command of the army, and to be Commander-in- 
Chief of the British troops, which was a point of the utmost neces- 
sity, while the Duke remained was absolutely impossible ; and that 
even if he could be brought to consent to it, which I hardly 
thought, that I must decline it. I admitted with Mr. P. that little 
good could be expected from Clairfait and the D. of T. ; but I said 
that if it was the wish of His Majesty's confidential servants that I 
should have the task imposed upon me, that I thought the only 
way in which it could be done, was to state to the D. of Y. the dis- 
agreeable situation in which he would himself be placed under the 
command of Clairfait, and how disadvantageous such an arrange- 
ment would be to the public service, and to propose to him, as 
there was little prospect, especially under such a plan, of any active 
service for the remainder of the campaign, to ask a temporary leave 
of absence, and mention their wish that I should, for the present, 
take the command. 

I am so convinced of the impossibility of going on according to 
the first proposition, that nothing shall make me accede to it. You 
will easily conceive how much I lament that you are at such a dis- 
tance from me. I am just going to Wimbledon, but shall pass 
through London to-morrow in my way to Suffolk, when I will write 
you another line if anything new haa been started 

I am, &o., 


Marquis Corxwallis to Colonel Ross, Vienna. 

DEAR BOSS, London, Aug. 29, 1794. 

Windham sets out this day for the Duke of York's quarters. 
Nothing has been received from H. B. H. since he received from 
Lord Spencer the communication of Clairfait's appointment, and 
of the orders from Vienna to attempt the relief of the fortresses. 
Lord Grenville said he would write this day to desire that you 
should return immediately. You will easily conceive how much I 
feel the arduous task that is soon likely to be imposed upon me, 
and how anxious I must be for your arrival. The forward move- 
ment, if practicable and in time, is a matter of no small difficulty, 
and will require a great deal of detail I conceive it must be made 
by the Meuse. 


The K. and many others will attribute the sacrifice I mate, and 
the great hazard that I run, to excess of ambition, instead of giving 
me credit for feeling the duty I owe to my country. 

I am in great haste ; for God's sake lose no time in coming. 
Tours, &c, 


Right Hon. Henry Dundas to the Mabquis Cornwallis. 

My LORD, Hone Gwib, Sept. l, ITU. 

Having had the honour to communicate to His Majesty the 
information I have received from your Lordship, that on your 
passage from India to Europe, you had attentively considered the 
state of His Majesty's and the Company's troops in that part of the 
world, and had reduced into writing your sentiments as to the plan 
which it may be advisable to adopt: I am commanded by His 
Majesty to request that your Lordship will furnish me with that 
plan in detail, as His -Majesty is desirous of knowing your opinion ■ 
on the best mode of new-modelling the army in India, with a view ' 
to give safety and permanence to our Indian Empire, and to pre- 
vent the continuance or revival of those discontents and jealousies, 
which have so often manifested themselves between the King's and 
the Company's troops, as well as between the Company's troops 
belonging to the different presidencies. 

I have, &c. f 

Henby Dundas. 

The paper which Lord Cornwallis transmitted in reply to this 
letter is of great length. The substance of it will be found in the 


Mabquis Cornwallis TO Sir John Shore. 
DEAB SIB, Bran., 84*, 7, 1794. 

I have within these few days only, received your letter dated 
the 14th January, which has been pretty long on its passage. The 
death of Scindia, 1 of which we have received accounts overland, 
will nearly remove every political difficulty of your Government, 
and the rectitude of your measures will insure success in all the 
internal business of the country. 

The French, although tbey have neither security of person or 

I SinJi. died Feb. IS, 1794. 



Chap. XVI. 

[HiOJWtty, although the streets of Paris and all their principal towns 
are daily stemming with Wood, and their Government, if such it 
can be called, is the most tyrannical and cruel that ever existed, 
still carry on the war with a vigour and energy that is scarcely to be 
conceived ; and when one set of butchers are themselves slaughtered 
at Paris, the army nays the same deference to their murderers, as 
they had before done to the villains whose heads they had cut ofE 

Our success however has been almost complete everywhere, 
except on the Continent, where nothing but disgrace has attended 
us, but I think our misfortunes there have been more owing to the 
incapacity and misconduct of our leaders, than to any peculiar 
merit or good behaviour of the enemy. How we ore to get out of 
the war, and what effect the continuance of it, and the consequent 
increase of taxes, may nave upon the temper of tlus country, it is 
diiiicult to foresee; but the present Opposition in both Houses is 
truly contemptible both as to numbers and character, and I believe 
I may safely say, that nine-tenths of the nation at large are more 
heartily disposed to support the British constitution. 

Mr. Hundas first mentioned to me on my arrival in England, 
hia intention tliat Duncan should be Governor of Bombay, and you 
will easily conceive that, knowing as I did the importance of a good 
Government in our new acquisitions on the Malabar coast, I warmly 
. in niniged and cultivated this favourable disposition in the Board 
of Control. A party however in the Court of Directors liave 
hitherto contrived to defeat Mr. Dundas's plau, wishing I suppose 
to get a Governor who would be more attentive to then privets 
recommendations and jolis, than to the measures that would l»> 
most likely to promote and secure the happiness of the inhabitants. 
and the permanent interests of the Company and of Great Britain. 

Mr. Dundas declares that if any person ahull be ftpponttod I fur 
they talked of Seton), he will positively recall him, so that I 
suppose in tlie end Duncan must prevail. 

1 am well aware of the importance of paying imimililtfl 
attention to the military establishment of India. I believe 1 bflCm 
told you that I had collected all the information I could 
^ subject, previous to my departure from India. On my postage 
home, I drew out a plan for uew-uiodeliing the Indian amy, 
is to be brought forward as soon as Patliamant me.-ts. mid vttofc 
will, 1 trust, prove advantageous to the public service, and givu as 
general satisfaction to the officers as can be expected from a 
measure of tliat kind, where so many different interests are c 
I am, most sincerely yours, 



Each succeeding month only increased the difficulties of the 
Allies, and rendered their position more precarious, and the ineffi- 
ciency of the British and Austrian commanders more apparent. 
Though at one time Mr. Windham had been induced to recommend 
Mr. Pitt not to remove the Duke of York from his command, yet 
his better judgment convinced him that when danger was immi- 
nent, the advice not to employ Lord Cornwallis had been most in- 

Right Hon-. W. Windbau to Earl Spencer. 

Mt DEAR LOUD, He»d Quarter* near Bail la Due, Sept. 13, 1794. 

Whatever your anxieties may be, mine, I dare say, are still 
greater ; nor will you wonder that I should be bo, when I tell yon 
that of the evils that threaten us, I cannot forbear to consider part 
as owing, by possibility, to my own wrong judgment. You saw the 
letter written on the instant of my first conference with the Duke 
of York on the subject for which I came over. To gain him to assent 
to what was proposed was probably utterly out of my power, though 
I had pressed the matter with greater pertinacity than I can ever 
bring myself to use ; but I certainly yielded more in my own 
opinion to the difficulties and risks of sending over Lord C. 1 imme- 
diately than I now wish I had done, or than I should have done, 
could I have known at that instant all that subsequent inquiry and 
observation has enabled me to know. A crisis such as that which 
we are now in, sets aside all considerations but that of the means 
fitted to carry into effect the end one has in view. We are here 
with an army of 30,000 men, and menaced with an immediate attack 
of an army of 50,000, in a position by no means advantageous, and 
where the fruits of victory seem by no means likely to compensate 
the consequences of defeat If by my way of stating the objections 
to sending Lord C, I have been die cause of preventing his coming, 
and that the event of the action with which we are threatened 
should be unfortunate — God forgive me. It will be better that I 
should be among the number of those who will lose all sense and 
being upon that occasion, than live to the suspicion of having 
contributed to an event so fatal 

I will not enlarge upon the reasons which have made me change 
my opinion, so far as I had then an opinion to change, which was 
to be collected, I fear, from my letter to Mr. Pitt One reason was, 
that in the plan of operations supposed at that moment, a great 
deal of connection was to have subsisted with the Austrian army. 

1 Lord Cornwalli*. 

: : 33 » -l^I5l Chap. XVI. 

~ """■"— - "^ ~~~ liii'iT'r c ziir "■■■: "jg^^-v*^ ^j^l a tfll more 
* ~ : ~""* r - — ■ ^a^-.j c x-r :c i^r jams, iLat ox.peration 

'."" " ::: " \_ : - '—^ - ~ ~ ^-- * - sLil wt± sll army of 30,000 

■»■>»-• ^^^ — 

--^-— . - i^i • .rn^ ±r~ :•; *r: iji.^eriselTes. With- 

«"•• -s-^^^i.-^.^- t lll . _ cT. I atir-un "~:c:~ wish at a moment 

L * •■■■■ * — 

* "*- "■- ^ ::™:--^«.> ^_~--*"*r^i* £vvr fTf-rT «xher considera- 

- _■ • 

-" ; : *""> : - — *- -rrrrj^if tzii izir-rin" had the com- 

* "^ " -- v;--^. : -^. itLrlz icj-I: :.: I* fought, and 

".: :-■: ~- " n* v-^L Vw r Trr. is now I fear 

»:.;.• . .-L- ■ :ii7 ii>rv» :s. zi^i r*i- nails are now 

• -: . . : :i -i -o -. ilr >:I. »ii?L cay possibly 

* : '^ * -..- :.:* ~::j. -:•- i«-:-^s? c :■: iir £^- ;-f these points. 

"■":..::■- ".:.;»* :■ ;.""*. i> z^r :; :* nade lor the re- 

> . .".-:■: v._ uj: :, rj.c :tf ■zz^-xvssary. 

* -.-::.: ...j vT.TTr- :: t;c l-c-fore. but from 

^ * :. . ::.;." I :-»i I'T'";: :: sav iiat could arrive 

■; —. >• :.;*■: >-.:. .: :•. ^?e;~fCi>5. I now write. 

■- - - *.-: :._;'i "vr - — j:i. -:j pressed with the 

■ ** -x . :.- :* r. ".: L-.-i .L-.rr* ru^nlj. I suspect, from 

> ^ • ":,- .Tr r:. :•!:. fw ;ir;c^i i. ct such as the 

. • r- :. :>- v-*l :c I-.-aT-i^ from England, 

w. w. 

• « '•••••• •. "* ^ : • . siiL. 

":^t-; n&ir vou. till vou shall 

% • * 

* . . v v x It. of. 5*ri- 14, 1794. 

N . ,. > - , -.*.-» s .!.*:, m :js rilitvw ^ie from much 

\ • • - . .> ^ ••»,:: - ... :.>/» ; :r;'ii the summary 

wvv , . . * .-. .•- •..*■."..;. «*;nei to incline by 

. ^ •/. .-... :..;•*: I slu;ui have been 

.» . .».. *.v?«s. .^ ..*...: ..;*.. .T;:\:;:> situation jh>s- 
. ». * . \.%.w . :, :v.\?s".:'. .-.:..: \ try little pix»ba- 

• ■ 

, "' \, .• \ .ix >*..> .;'.'.:.N\i that nothiiur could 
. v ..-.\ ././>.-...«: .. %> .: .«::.: ^isiu's than to assume tho 

\ * ,; :!:... I >*iw .w sttxmclv as liimself, the 


impossibility of bis serving, or even remaining, with the army 
under me. 

I conclude I am now completely mined at St. James's, indeed 
I could not be much worse than I was before, but that is a circum- 
stance that will not disturb my rest, nor abate in the smallest de- 
gree, my attachment and affection for the great personage from 
whom I have formerly received much favour aud kindness. 

I cannot judge without much more circumstantial information, 
whether our army will be able to maintain a more forward position 
during the next winter. I suppose it must depend, as well as the 
recapture of Antwerp, upon our gaining some very decided advan- 
tage over the enemy soon after our troops are put into motion. I 
always conceived the two measures of a forward movement and the 
exchange of Lord Moira's corps, to be absolutely incompatible. 

I perfectly agree with Lord Moira in thinlring that, if our account 
of the strength of the Boyalists is correct, and not exaggerated, that 
it would require at least 20,000 good British troops to undertake 
any solid operations in France, and indeed a much larger body 
would be required to afford any very sanguine hopes of success. 

As to myself, I can only repeat, that whilst I am able, I shall 
ever be ready to serve my country ; but you must remember that 
Lord M. will no more serve under me than H. R. H. would, and I 
think you should not lightly deprive yourselves of the services of 
the former, who, as a soldier, is, in my opinion, of the two the most 
worth retaining. 

I return you all the papers, except the printed paper from India, 
which I have not had time to read. It is more unjust than unusual 
to abuse a man for his measures before it is known what they are 
to be, but I think the author too contemptible to make it worth 
your while to trouble yourself about him. 1 

I will come to you to talk over the arrangement of the Indian 
army whenever you please, after the end of this month, but I 
should be sorry to be absent from "Suffolk for more than three or 
four days at a time, unless it was absolutely necessary. I have how- 
ever not only declared, but shown my readiness to attend, whenever 
Mr. Pitt and yourself have wished to see me. 

I am, &c, 


> Ad attack Upon Lord Cornwall;" for hii supposed tmwi on the Indian limy. 




Dear James, h™™, s.|H. is, itb*. 

You will have seen much in the papers, and perhaps hare 
heard various reports, about my being employed upon the Continent 
An arrangement has been in agitation (to which nothing but my 
love and duty to my country would have made me consent) to have 
placed me in one of tho most arduous and invidious situations pos- 
sible. Tho plan is now at an end without any difficulty bating 
been thrown in its way on my part, bo that I have a prospect of 
remaining at peace at least for this year, and at the same time of 
feeling the satisfaction of not liaving sacrificed the public service to 
any selfish consideration. 

Everything here is quiet and goes on smoothly, thanks to your 

care and good management. Brome is now on his return, bat I 

should hardly suppose that he will arrive in the course of t" * 

' month. I a,^ & Ct) 


:■ 0d ROB 
A 1,1, Tff. 


Earl SimeER to Marquis Coknwalus. (By Colon ll Ross.) 

[feorirtd Sqrt. 27.] 

My Lord, v™™, s*pt. is, it«4. 

In pursuance of Lord Grenville's desire, I take the liberty of 
writing a few lines to your Lordslup on the state of our asgotutioafl 
at this Court ; and I am very happy that Colonel Boss will deliver 
this letter to you, as he will be able from the knowledge he has of 
what has been passing here, to give your Lordship a much baton 
idea of it than I could do in the short time allowed me for writing. 
We are sorry to find tliat the Ministers here do not afford us any 
reason to hope that the conditions which we have been instructed 
to annex to the guarantee of the loan and grant of the subsidy from 
Great Britain, will be thought admissible by the Emperor. Thnj 
seem pretty decidedly of opinion that H. L M. will not be bnqgM 
to consent either to the keeping so large a force as has been re- 
quired in the Netherlands, or to intrusting the command of that 
force to an officer not in the Austrian service ; and they state as 
:i! im.iI ittcSy impossible, the expedient of drawing from the 
Empire an equivalent to Prussia for the subsidy when transferred 
to Austria. 

Though wo had failed in this part of our proposal, we thought 
it our duty to endeavour to provide against any misunderstanding 


that might arise on the subject of the command for the remainder 
of the present campaign ; and on this point we received general 
assurances both from the Prince de Rosenberg 1 and Mono, de 
Thugut, that measures should be taken to secure a good under- * 
standing between the two armies, though Mons. de Thugnt took a 
distinction between the concert to be entered into for the plan of 
operations, which he contended should be on a footing of more 
perfect equality than what regards the execution of the plan when 
agreed upon, in which he admitted that a preference must neces- 
sarily be given to your Lordship's superior rank. It is necessary 
at the same time to observe that, though they agreed in the neces- 
sity of taking proper measures for this purpose, they seemed to be 
of opinion, from the present circumstances of the campaign, that 
there would very probably be but little occasion for the two armies 
to act together during the remainder of it. 

I lose no time in apprising your Lordship of what has passed on 
this subject, in order not to delay Colonel Boss's departure, whom 
we know you will be very glad to see. 

With the aincerest wishes that you may meet with every 
possible success, j fove the honour, &c, 


Marquis CoRtiWALus to Colonel Ross. 
Dear Rose, Cuifcni, Oct. 10, 179*. 

I have just received your letter, and propose being in town 
this day sennight, the 17th, 

The accounts from the Continent are truly disastrous, and I 
think past remedy ; and I sincerely hope that . I shall be able to 
keep clear of the business, but with my feelings there must still be 
some danger of my being involved. Balfour writes that the army 
is very sickly. Yours ever, 


Earl Spencer and Mb. Orenville to Lord Gkenville. 
[Receded about Oct. 19.] 

My Lobd, vImm, Oct. 7, itm. 

. . . Upon the general subject of the negotiation it is 
evident that this Minister (Mons. de Thugut) retains his expeeta- 

> Fiuqom Snnphiqna, Prince da Rosen Dee. 27, 1788, Maria Caroline, dan. of Cotnta 
betf, b. Oct. 18, 1762, d. Aug. 4, 1832; m. Fnmeoii inWin* de KnareoheJter- Marten. 



Our. XVI. 

tions of obtaiuing from Great Britain the guarantee of a loan of 
6 millions ; and that his wishes for the next camrwigu lead to see 
40,000 Prussians and 35,000 Austrians added to the British array 
' in Flanders, making one combined force nnaSff Jlritish command 
for the protection of Holland, while a large Austrian army might 
act upon the Khine, supplying there the place of the F 
We have, &e,, 

T. Ghe] 

The idea of placing Lord Cornwallis in command 1 
almost entirely relinquished, he was very anxious to explain what 
had really passed on the subject to the Duke of York, to i 
therefore he addressed the following letter: — 

Mabquis Cornwallis to H. R. H. the Duke of York. 




*■"!"(» now 
i what 

CoUM, Nor. 8, 1T94, 

Although I am very unwilling to intrude upon your Royal 
Highness on a business personally concerning myself, at -.-. 
when yon are so much occupied with matter! of nan bnpoitaao% 
yet as some circumstances have not long since occurred, which have 
been misapprehended on tliis side of the water, I am very desirous 
to state them to you iu a clear and true light, as tlioy really hap- 

Upon my return from the Continent, 1 represented iu the 
strongest terms, agreeably I" your instructions, and indeed as my 
duty required, the alisoliite necessity of removing the Pre 
Cobiirg and Prince of Waldcck from their situations, and the im- 
portance of making an attempt to relieve the fortresses in French 
Flanders. The Cabinet, iu consequence of your Itoyal Ilighneas'a 
letters and message delivered by me, resolved, that us the business 
was of a most pressing nature, a person should be immediately sent 
to Vienna for the purpose of carrying these two points at the 
Imperial Court, and as the Minister was known to be averse to 
Ltioy 1 (who WW besides thought too iulinn far *> active and 
ndd i> kd kppomtaMst), to hasten as much as possible A 
purture of General Brown to take the command 1 of the army in 
Handera, It was at first proposed thai I should be charged] with 
this niivanii : bat on the reflection that tome alteroatJOBaof 

1 JimjjIi t*nii{iibi, (.'ulnte ib Lwrjr, • FifM- whitl 

W.1.W, i.. 0* 21, lias, A Nov. V 

H* wu i i nr m *»l from iu oM Norman fmilj 

,. I',i;l:i[„l * I 
it Lawr. ■ alrbmtait It 


pleasant nature had passed between the Austrian Ministers and 
myself, on the subject of the march of the Prussians, and that it 
would be unreasonable that I should, after bo long an absence from 
my domestic concerns, be again requested to take a journey to the 
Continent to execute a commission which might probably be as 
well performed by another person, — Mr. Grenville was named to 
go to Vienna, and Lord Spencer was afterwards prevailed upon to 
accompany him, as it was conceived that the presence of a member 
of the Cabinet would give more weight to our propositions and 
induce the Court of Vienna to use more than ordinary despatch. 
Of this I was informed by Mr. Pitt when Colonel Ross and myself 
dined with him on his return from the Cabinet ; and he then added, 
that Lord Spencer had desired that a military man should go with 
him, to assist him in combating any military objections which might 
be started by the Austrians, and that it had been agreed by his 
Majesty's Ministers, and warmly approved by Lord Spencer, that, 
from the knowledge which he must have acquired of the temper 
and disposition of our Allies, by having attended me to the Con- 
tinent, as well as from his general character and habits of business, 
Colonel Roes would be a very proper person to be employed upon 
this occasion. 

Colonel Ross, who was on the point of setting out for Scotland, 
remonstrated most vehemently against this nomination, and urged 
his want of fluency in speaking French, and every other argument 
that could be suggested ; but as Mr. Pitt and Mr. Dundas stated 
the ruinous consequences of delay, and pressed his going in the 
strongest terms, he was at length so far overruled as to consent to 
go, if no other expedient could be adopted in eight-and-forty hours, 
which ho most earnestly requested Mr. Pitt and Mr. Dundas to 
attempt The mission proceeded in a few days, as yon know, 
accompanied by Colonel Ross, and from that time no change what- 
ever took place in the resolutions of the Cabinet, respecting the 
affairs of the Continent — as far at least as any communication was 
made to me — till the arrival of the first despatches from Lord 
Spencer and Mr. Grenville, when I received an express from town 
on the part of Administration, acquainting me that General Brown 
was so ill as to be out of the question, and that it bad been pro- 
posed by the Court of Vienna that the command for the present 
should devolve upon Clairfait. It was then stated to me that our 
Government could have no hopes of success in bo hazardous and 
difficult an enterprise as was then in agitation, if it was to he con- 
ducted by a man who had so little exertion, and who had been so 
unfortunate in all his undertakings as Clairfait, and who had on a 


former occasion shown no goodwill to co-opemto with your Royal 
Highness; and the expedient was then proposed to me, which was 
communicated to yon by Mr. Windham, and which was said to 
have originated with Count Merci, and to have been suggested at 
his request, during his illness, by the Imperial Minister in London. 

In answer to a proposal of so embarrassing a nature, I said that 
the idea of my commanding your Royal Highness by means of a 
temporary rank was absurd and preposterous, and what 1 nuver 
would agree to, even if you were to ask it ; that 1 did nut bfllkm 
that the Court of Vienna would consent to have their army com- 
manded by a foreigner, not withs! a tilling Count Merci's opinion, or 
that Clairfait would acquiesce in the authority of that kind of local 
commission, which was, I believed, unknown in the Austrian service, 
and that if all those difficulties were removed, it was not probable 
that I could arrive at the head-quarters of the army, and make my 
arrangements for moving, in time to save the fortresses. But as I 
had ever maintained that it was highly disgraceful for an officer 
to refuse his services in the line of his profession, whenOTCr bfl 
should be called upon. I did not, even in this case, feel myself at 
liberty to decb'ue the most arduous anil invidious situation in which 
perhaps a General bad ever been placed, in the event of Clairuuts 
expressing bis willingness to acknowledge my command, and of 
your Royal Highness being disposed to ask a temjioran- leave of 
absence from the army. 

Conscious as I am that I was actuated by no motives but a 
strict sense of the duty which I owe to my King and country, and 
that, at so critical a period, when a Iitd6 exertion 00 our jmrl 
might have averted those evils which have since come upon us, 
and which will, I am afraid, nearly overwhelm this country, it ma 
meritorious to consent to encounter the dangers wluch so immi- 
nently threatened me, and which men of more selfish principles 
would have avoided, I certainly do not think that my conduct 
requires any apology, and I have too much respect for your Royal 
Highness to suppose for a moment that you would expect it ; and 
I should not now have troubled you upon the subject, if I had not 
known that it had been suggested to the first personages in tbia 
country, that the plan of my obtaining the command of the army 
had been preconcerted, and that Colonel Ross *s journey to Vienna 
was connected with it. 

I hardly conceive that your Royal ERgbsMI OU think roe base 
ftwngfc to bows ciub'avoiip-d t<> si!|>|'liint jaB fa the command of 
the army, by ft dirty intrigue, or foul enough io lmvu 
place myself in a station which WM BO Ifkfllj Id ruin my t 

1794. STATE OF THE ARMY. 273 

and destroy my future peace of mind. But as reports may have 
some weight until they are contradicted, and as this suggestion did 
unfortunately make an impression in a quarter where it gives me 
the greatest concern that it should have found any credit, I have 
presumed to trouble your Royal Highness with a plain statement 
of facts, and to assure you upon my honour, that there did not 
exist the most distant idea of my being employed on the Con- 
tinent, when Colonel Boss went to Vienna. 

I have the honour, &c, 


Marquis Cornwall^ to Colonel Ross. 

Dear Boss, Cni&rt, Not. ai, itm. 

I inclose a copy of a letter which I yesterday received from 
the person ' who sometimes wrote to me from the army before we 
went to the Continent You will easily conceive how desirous he 
is that bis name should not be brought forward. I communicated 
the paragraphs marked by inverted commas to Dundas, with the 
strictest injunctions not to guess at the author. Unless I had done 
something of tliat kind, my friend's letter could have answered no 
purpose. My own situation is however delicate, and I am not 
without serious apprehensions of being sent for and pressed to 
undertake what no other person will attempt, and what I am afraid 
cannot now possibly succeed, for discipline and confidence are not 
plants that will grow in a day, and it seems too certain that many 
days cannot paBS before all remedy will be too late. 

I do not know the cause of the prorogation * of Pariiament ; it 
is perhaps better that it should not meet now, if money is not 
immediately necessary, but it is unlucky that more notice could not 
be given, as all sudden measures create alarm, and naturally make 
people suspect the worst. 

The Duke of Grafton very gravely says, he is afraid of the 
effect it may have in the country, wishing at the same time that it 
may blow it into a flame. 

I have postponed my going to town in consequence of the pro- 
rogation, but that will not save me hours of misery on account of 
the state of public affairs, and of anxiety with regard to my 
own situation. j am £ c 


1 There u no (race who this pcrton in. t IVInment wm prorogued to Dec. 'M. 




Arnheim, Nov. 11. 

I have not troubled you with letters, as you too well know 
there lias not been anything pleasant to communicate. But now 
we really are come to such a critical situation, that unless some 
determined, decisive, and immediate steps are taken, God knows 
what may happen. " Despised by our enemies, without discipline, 
confidence, or exertion among ourselves, hated and more dreaded 
than the enemy, even by the well-disposed inhabitants of the 
country, every disgrace and misfortune is to be expected. You 
must thoroughly feel how painful it must be for me to acknow- 
ledge this, even to your Lordsliip, but no honest man who has any 
regard for his country can avoid seeing it Whatever measures 
are adopted at home, either removing us from the Continent or 
remaining, sometliing must be done to restore discipline, and the 
confidence that always attends it. The sortie from Nimeguen * on 
the 4th was made entirely by the British, and executed with their 
usual spirit, they ran into the French without firing a single shot, 
and consequently lost very few men; their loss was when they 
afterwards w r ere ordered to retire. Yet from what I have men- 
tioned in the first part of my letter, I assure you I dread the thought 
of these very troops being attacked or harassed in a retreat." 

I have never ventured to open myself to any one on this sub- 
ject, nor would I to any one but yourself; but however grateful I 
am, and hope always shall be for tie constant kindness and friend- 
ship I have experienced from him, and well knowing the many 
really valuable qualities of heart and mind that the person in 
question 2 possesses, yet things are in such a state that I cannot 
avoid giving my opinion to the only one I know whose high character, 
reputation, and love of liis country could save us. I conclude you 
know that the Duke of Brunswick has refused the command. 

Rigiit Hon. Henry Dundas to Marquis Cornwallis. 

[Private and Confidential.] 
MY DEAR LORD, London, Nov. 27, 1794. 

I delayed answering your letter, because Mr. Pitt and I 
had lately so many serious communications on the subject of it> 
that I w r as certain some decided measure must come out of it It 
80 happened, and on Sunday last Mr. Pitt wrote a very long and 
dutiful letter, but at the same time a very honest and firm one, to 
the King, stating the necessity of putting an end to the Duke of 

1 Nimeguen surrendered on Nov. 5. 2 The Duke of York. 


York's command of the army on the Continent. The letter was 
felt as a very severe blow, anil aa such received, but acquiesced in 
as what could not be avoided. Yesterday in the Closet, he did not 
say a word on the subject either to Mr. Pitt, or to any other 
person. I therefore late last night wrote to him again, and I send 
this day a despatch to the Duke of York, of which I send you s 
copy. We are in hopes, but by no means certain, that the cam- 
paign will now end by the enemy going into winter-quarters, and 
if the Dutch do not make a separate peace in the mean time, we will 
then have a little breathing to tliink what is to be done. We pro- 
pose as fast as possible to let 'the command into General Aber- 
crombie's hands, but there being senior officers, it requires a little 

I expect Lord Moira to call upon me immediately. I shall 
have occasion to write to you again soon. I would wish much to 
see you, and would desire you to come up, or I would come down 
to you, but in the present moment if I was to do either, I would 
not be surprised that it should be suspected the late step with 
regard to the Duke of York was taken in concert with you. Per- 
haps the arrangement of the India army may afford such an oppor- 
tunity. The King has had your piper tins fortnight. If he does 
not return it to-day or to-morrow, I intend to write to him about it. 
Yours very sincerely, 

Hbsby Dundab. 

Right Hos. Hesry Dundas to H. R. H. the Ddke of York. 

SlR, H°™< Gqard>, Not. 27, 1794. 

The present very extraordinary and critical situation of 
Holland, and the state of the combined forces employed for the 
protection of that republic, render it extremely desirable tliat His 
Majesty's confidential servauts should as soon as possible have a 
personal communication with Your Royal Highness upon those 
important subjects, and" I am commanded to. signify to Your Royal 
Highness, His Majesty's pleasure that you should take the earliest 
opportunity of returning to England, leaving the command of His 
Majesty's British forces in the hands of such British officer as may 
bo next in seniority to Your Royal Highness, after furnishing him ' 
with such information and instructions as Your Royal Highness 
may judge to be necessary for Ids guidance. 

I have the honour to be, &e., 

Henry Ditnoas. 
t 2 


Majlis Couvwallis to Colosel Ross. 

Dear Rose, Cuiford, Nov. as, 1794. 

I had a letter this morning from the person to trham I 
communicated ray information, I find the important measure of 

recalling ' has heen adopted with an honest firmm-v. tbtM^h 

with every degree of duty and propriety. It is intended tin; 
Command of the British should for the present devolve on A., and 
us il is supposed that the enemy are going into winter-quarters, tli'-tv 
will he time for arrangements if the Dutch will persevere in tin: war. 

The person told me that Lord M. was to come to him imme- 
diately, and that he wished much to see me, but was afraid either 
to ask rae to come to town, or to come hither, fur fear of Treating 
suspicions of a similar nature with those which we have before 
beard at? 

The papers say that the Irish affairs are settled, which I hope 
is true, but if our friend Lord Milton * is intended for the secretary, 
I should a little doubt the propriety of that nomination. 
I am, &&, 

Marquis Cornwallh to Colonel Ross. 
Dear Robs, aurora, Dec. 5, itm. 

I have received an answer to my letter,' expressing perifaol 
satisfaction at my statement, and full of civility and kindness ; 
this will remove all awkwardness at our meeting. 

I have heard notlu'ng more from Mr. D., but it is strongly re- 
ported tliat Lord M. is going immediately on some expedition. The 
Bishop writes that he does not himself deny it. 

Believe me, Ac, 


H. R. H. the Duke or York to Marquis Corswalus. 

[RaoeiTCd Dm. (.] 
Ml DEAR LORD, H—l Qiiulen *t Aruhi-fm. Nov. U, 1TM. 

I lake the earliest opportunity to acknowledge the receipt 
of your very friendly letter uf the 8th, R 3 l i.- 1 . , . .■■ 

Ul.nk m origin j I, meint for Hie Duke HHIlltlj iliow I* mm not. 

* ii«.i k T. in J bri "f Darcbf^tr. 
* The King *u iq.jiw-1 fc> line Idler ul * Lord I'oiuwullli to Uw Duk* 

iJut Lend OaRiMUmi >u dwlrom of taper- d»Ud Calford, Not. S. 
.nlinc ih* Duke of York, which IhaM UlUra 


Friday, and beg yon will accept my most sincere thanks for the 
frank and open manner with which you have explained to me .the 
transaction concerning Colonel Ross's journey to Vienna, and 
which, even if I had ever had any doubts, would have fully cleared 
them up. 

I need not, I trust, assure you that I am not of a suspicious dis- 
position, and at the same time I have too high an opinion of your 
character to think that you are capable of any low or dirty intrigue. 
It was natural for His Majesty's Ministers in the very critical 
situation in which we have been for some time, to be anxious that a 
person of your Lordship's military talents and reputation should 
not remain unemployed. 

I am however equally sensible of this fresh instance of your 
friendship towards me, and beg you will believe me ever with great 
trutu> My dear Lord, yours most sincerely, 


Marquis Counwalus to Colonel Ross. 
Bear Ross, Cuiford, Dm. is, itw. 

Balfour is come over, and his letters — for I have not seen 
him — arc very desponding. He tells us what cannot be done, but 
does not say what can. The Marquis de Bouill£ ■ on the contrary 
writes on the 4th December, " Je crois quo la Hollande est sauvee 
pour cet hiver, si ceux qui commaudent out la moindre conriais- 
sance du metier, et ne fout pas qitelques nouvelles bevues ; elle 
le sera la campagne prochaine, si Ton met a la tete de l'armoe 
destince a la de'feudre, un General qui ait de la capacite, et qu'on 
lui doune des moyens suflisans, ce qui me paroit tres facile." 

I have heard nothing from Ministers since I wrote to you last ; I 
shall go up at the meeting of Parliament, but hope to get down 
again, as I have much business here on my hands. 

I have agreed for a manor and estate adjoining Lord Bristol's 
park, which is more than an equivalent for Wordwell, and which 
costs me l'2,000l., so that I can change Saxhuin for Stowe without 

1 rrancjoij Claud* Amour, Marnui* de who commanded a small detachment of 
Bouille, b. Nov. 19, 1729, d. Nov. 14, 1800, cavalry nt Varenuea, tuld the Editor that he 
in Loudon. He had wired with distinction in requested leave of the King lo charge with 
the Seven Venn' War, and iu the West Indies, the men he had the mob who intercepted 
At the time of the lliglit to Varenne. he them. The Queen urged him to do it, but 
commanded the troup do the Xorth-KaMern Louie would take no lesponsibility, and 
frontier of Kroner, whom he had succeeded would give no order till it was tuo late, 
in retaining to their duty, and had his orders M. de l»ama» added, be had ever since re- 
been punctually followed, Louis XVI. would gritted not acting without orders, 
probably hara escaped. The Conit* de Dvnaa, 




ny QXpOMO nf ready money, except the BOOM, which I agreed to 
pay extra, and without remorse, as I am sure afWordweE 
tfa6re » ■ reasonable Lord Bristol. 

My coneepoodttri frith (he nnny seems a little bight ■■ 
consequences of Ids letter, but'I do not see how I could have acted 

Laily Wahlegrave ' and her children are come to spend some 
days with us ; this* cireuin stance will confirm Mis Yanneck* in her 


I am, &c, 


M-mynis Cornwallis to Colonel Ross. 

\<i VT*L 

Dear Eoss, Cuiforf. D«e. 19, ire*. 

I yesterday received your letter dated the 14th, and felt glad 
to have got once more into correspondence with you. You had not 
then received my letter thovl the nOfttL 

I have heard nothing more from Aihniui-tninnn. who, [supposes 
aa usual have their hands too full, but when I go Op to km for tin* 
meeting of Parliament I shall know all. From an account I 
rsoensd fnnu Balfour of a conversation with Mr. Pitt, I have no 
doubt that the rriiiiiiinitul buineai is to go on, thoogn 1". 
deaponding, and says he guv i< 

20,000 nun which the K. of P. i* botrnd to fhrmih to the B n psjp J T, 
and which had been withdrawn, have, I Bee by the pspen, boon 
ordered bach t" the Uayne on the neeeee in Poland;* and our 
guarantee of payment of the interest of the loan of six millions' to 
the Emperor, looks as if the Austrians had agreed to take their 
share in the ensuing campaign. I trust they will do it man 
tually than in the last 

Adieu, my dear lloss. my letters will lie mm 
I get to ! ■ Yours. AV., 


1 KliuMh Uu™, dan. of Jamm, Sn4 

K»rl W.lrti-p*". H« 'IJ*t mb, «1w»k*, 
5lh tUil, lnvl 1-rn <!».*:.. i 

JlIlK pfKvliltj,'. Hi lllf <HI' '•>' 10, 

« Cntiiuk V«iiK»k, <•> 
Vum«4, lit Bnil., li. about 17.1, .1 Miinl! 

•ru Pitiy T 

■M ■ »n|i|w™-i! nwrrinc* Uu* ' 
wnllii aiul W nl. W>;i»r», — 
11 rrprtttri. 
* ' Hra^-a ra Marad !>i Sun 
ami Wmit .on 


Marquis Corswalus to Colonel Ross. 
Dear Ross, London, Dk. so, i?m. 

I Lave received your letters dated the 26th and 27th, and 
have now only a moment to tell you the Continent is out of the 
question, as the greatest part if not the whole of our troops are to 
be withdrawn, to be replaced by Austrians, unless the Dutch make 
a separate peace. 

The Ordnance ' with the Cabinet is to be offered to me, but as 
the P. to whom I wrote the tetter of explanation is I believe to be 
Commander-in-Chief, and to have a seat in the Cabinet, the 
situation of an inferior military man in the Cabinet will be very un- 
pleasant. My wishes are to decline, but as that might greatly odd 
to the present sufficiently embarrassed state of affairs, I have not 
perfectly made up my mind about it Pray give me your senti- 
ments. If I should be induced to accept, X must call upon you to 
take part with me. 

Pierrepont * was totally mistaken, as far at least as regards Lord 
Chatham. 5 y our8 ever> & ^ 


Maihjuis Cor nw alus to Colonel Ross. 

Dear Ross, London, De*. si, 1794. 

I tlu'nk upon the whole that everything went off yesterday 
as well as could reasonably be expected (for we had no right to be 
very sanguine), exce[>tiug only the defection of Wilberforce,* which 
must be felt as a cruel stroke by Pitt The Thorntons 5 went 

' Lord Coruwalli* was appointed Master- 1780toM*rch,1784; for Yorkshire, to 1813 ; 
(lencral, Feb. 13, 17!):., rice the Duke of mid for Braraber, to March, 1825. On thii 
Kidiuiond, who had held that office since occasion he moved an amendment to the ad- 
Jan. 1, 1784. Tin; Duke of York became dress, cxpraring a desire for peace almost on 
Commaikk-T-in-Chief Feb. [1, 1735, but he any term), lo the great satisfaction of the 
was not then, nor was lie at any future time, Foiites, and to the euuiil displeasure of nearly 
in tlie Cabinet, all his private mid political friends. In a 

3 Hon. Evelyn Henty Frederick Pierrepont, letter given in his Lilt, he states that he had 

eldest son of Cluirlcs, 1st Lord Man vers, b. much hesitation, and that his speech was 

Jan. IS, 1775, d. Oct. 22, 1801, before his quite incoherent, as his doubts about his 

father was raised to the Earldom. M.I', for course were so great. 

Bossiney, April to May, 1706, and then for * Ue-bert Thornton, h. Jan. 9, 1759, 4. 

Noll Dghamshirc till his death. March 12, 1826 ; m. Sept. 12, 1786, Maria, 

1 Lord I'hatham was not made Blaster- dan. of Francis Eyre, Esq. M.P. for 

Ceneral till June, 1801, on the resignation of Bridge water July, 1785, to June, 1790, and 

Lord O.mwall is. Colchester to March, 1817. Henry Thorn- 

' William Wilberforce, b. Aug. 24, 1759, ton, b. March 10, 1760, d. Jan. Ill, 1815 ; 

d. July 29. 183:1; m. May 30, 1797, Bar- m. March 1, 1730, Mary Anne, dan. of Joseph 

Im.i Ann, dan. of Isaac ypooner, Esq., of Sykes, Esq., of West Ella. M.l'. for South- 

Eltodcn Hall. M.l'. for Hull from Nov. war* from Stspt. 1782 to Lis death. 



Chap. XVL 

with him, and Sir Richard Hill, 1 member for Shropshire— -so far 
was the Methodist connexion. But his colleague Mr. Duncombe,* 
and Mr. Burdon, 8 member for Durham, likewise were in the 
minority. In point of numbers this is no great matter, but the 
example is dangerous, and four county members make some noise. 
I have not seen any of the Ministers this morning. Pitt was not 
well yesterday, but they say he spoke admirably. 

Yours, 4c, 


1 Sir Richard Hill, 2nd Bart., b. Jane 6, 
1732, d. Nov. 28, 1809, unmarried. M.P. 
for Shropshire from Oct. 1780 to Oct. 1806. 
He is commemorated in the Rolliad : — 

M Shall these for petty merits be renowned, 
And no proud phrase with panegyric sound 
Swell thy short name, great Hill? here take 

thy due, 
And hence be called the Scriptural Killegrew." 

* Henry Duncombe, uncle to Charles, 1st 
Lord Feversham, b. 1728, d. April 10, 1818, 
unmarried. M.P. for Yorkshire from Oct. 

1 780 to May, 1 796. He seconded the amend- 

* Rowland Burdon, b. 1756, d. Sept. 17, 
1838 ; m. 1st, June 27, 1780, Margaret, dan. 
of Charles Brandling, Esq., of Goeforth ; 2nd, 
1794, Cotsford, dau. and sole heir of General 
Richard Matthews. M.P. for the County of 
Durham from Nor. 1790 to Oct 1806. Very 
few others of Mr. Pitt's supporters Toted in 
the minority, but among them was Mr. 
The numbers were 246 to 73. 



Lord Corawallis Master- General of the Ordnance — Threatened invasion of Eng- 
land by the French — Celebrated retreat of Admiral Comwallis — Military 
arrangement for India — State of the Indian army — Court Martial on Admiral 
Cornwallia — The Nabob of Arcot — Discontent of officers of the Bengal army 
— Judicial regulations in India. 

Marquis Corswallis to Colonel Roes. 

DEAR ROSS, Lower GroaTenor Street, Jan. 19, 1 795. 

I have just time to acquaint yon that all is over in Holland. 
The Dutch sent terms of capitulation to Pichegru, but he scratched 
them all out, except that which asked the free exercise of their 
religion, which was not probably the article that they had most at 

The D. of Y. told me in the drawing-room, that the enemy 
attacked the Guards at Rhenen ' on the 14th, who repulsed them, 
and that they themselves suffered very little loss, and that our army 
had retreated unmolested to Deventer, leaving only two or three 
hundred sick, who were too bad to be moved. 

I am, etc., 


Marquis Cokn wallb to Colonel Ross. 

DEAR ROSS, Lower Grosvenor Street, Jan. 26, 1795. 

The die is at length cast respecting the Ordnance, and the 
new part of the Administration (and I believe particularly your 
friend Lord Spencer) have forced Mr. Pitt to turn out the D. of R. 
notwithstanding his voluntary return to his duty in the Cabinet, 
and, as I understand, his promise to behave better in future. Lord 
Amherst * is to quit, and the D. of Y. is either to be Commander-in- 

1 The French attacked the whole line from * Jeffrey, Lord Araherat, ao created May 20, 

Arnheim to Amereogeo, bat without (access. 1776, K.B., b. 1716, d. Aug. 3, 1797; m. 

The Guards drove them back at Rheneu, 1st, Jane, dau. of Thoma* Duliwn, Esq, of 

losing only 3 officers and 20 rank and file Hampton; 2nd, March 26, 1767, Kliiabeth, 

wounded. Lieut. -General Harcourt com- dau. of General the Hon. George Cary. A 

mauded the English, and Comte Walmoden Field-Marahal and Colonel 2nd Lift Guard* ; 

the whole army, which consisted mainly of Conmuadsi-in-Chiaf in America from 1758 

HanoTeriani. to 1764, during which time be subdued 


Chief, or the official channel of transacting military business with 
the King, but to have no seat in the Cabinet By what fell from 
Dundas last night, it is, I believe, the intention to give Sir W. 
Howe the Tower, and make Abercromby Lieutenant-General of the 
Ordnance. 1 

You will easily conceive how ill it suits with my opinion of the 
times and of the prudence of some people, and with my ardent wish 
for quiet and retirement, to exchange the Tower for the Ordnance, 
but I yield to the pressure of the moment and to my determined 
devotion to the public service. 

I do not think in your present military rank and situation, in 
every respect as to fortune and character, that the office of private 
secretary to the Master General would be suitable and proper for 
you, but still I am very desirous to avail myself somehow of your 
assistance in the arduous task which I am about to undertake ; I 
hope at any rate you will come soon to town ; you must agree 
with me in thinking that this country never was in greater danger 
of a serious and formidable invasion, and consequently feel the 
comfort that it would be to me to talk over the most effectual 
means of resisting it, just as I am taking upon myself almost the 
whole military responsibility in Council, with a person whom I love 
so much, and for whose talents and judgment I have so great a 

The Committee of Company's officers have passed severe 
strictures on my plan, and pertinaciously adhered to the insolent 
demands of the Bengal Committees. The Court of Directors not 
knowing what to do, partly led by Baring and others who wish to 
thwart the measures of Government, and partly from not caring for 
the trouble of reading the paper, and from despair of being able to 
understand it, have come to a short vote, " that they will on no 
account consent to the transfer of the Company's army to the 
King's service," and Dundas does not think it wise at this time to 
attempt to force the measure down their throats, so that our ar- 
rangement falls to the ground, and there is great reason to appre- 
hend that next year the Bengal army will be in a state of mutiny. 
The Cape, Trincomale, Cochin, &c, &c, are all subjects of important 
and speedy consideration. j am £ c 


Canada; and General Commanding-in-Chief in * No change was made. Lord Cornwallis 

England from March, 1778, to March, 1782, remained Constable of the Tower, and Sir 

and again from Jan. 1793 to Feb. 1795. He William Howe Lieut-General of the Ord- 

was also Lieut. -General of the Ordnance from nance* 
1772 to 1782. 


The plan proposed by Lord Corawallis, to amalgamate the 
Company's European troopB with the King's army, was, as may be 
seen, not approved of by the Company or their officers. The 
latter made many complaints, some of real, some of imaginary 
grievances, and their demands were couched in very improper 
language. They appointed one committee in India, and another 
in London, with whom the Government communicated. The 
question gradually became very serious, and in 1796 assumed a 
formidable aspect. Some details will be given in 1797, when 
Lord Corawallis was nominated Governor General in order to put 
down what had then become a mutiny. 

Marquis Cornwallis to Colonel Ross. 
L>EAR ROSS, Lower Grosvenor Street, Jon. 27, 1785. 

I received your letter congratulating me on my having 
no share of responsibility, a few hours after I had informed you 
how deeply I am to be engaged. 

Icanuot entertain a doubt of this country being invaded ; indeed 
I do not see what the French can do else, for they will give them- 
selves very little concern about an Austrian army on the Rhine, if 
such an army should exist, of which we too well know that we 
cannot insure the certainty by paying for it. 

I hope and trust you will come up soon, and indeed I think 
the King will soon be looking about for his Aides-de-Camp ; 
but I do not at present see why yon should not be Surveyor 
General. As the House of Commons sat till six this morning, 
I have had no opportunity of seeing any Ministers since I wrote 

I must confess that I feel an alarm and anxiety about public 
affairs, that entirely destroys the comfort that I hoped to derive 
from the happy circumstances of my family and fortune. 
I am, &&, 


Ix>rd and Lady Sydney are in great joy at Harriet 'a ' marriage 
with Lord Dalkeith. 9 

1 Harriet Catherine, rfau. of Thoma», 1st ' Lord Dalkeith, afterwards, Jan. 11, 1812, 

Viscount Sydney, b. Nov. 27, 177:1. il. Aug. 4th Duke of Buccleugh, K.T., b. Maj 2*, 
24, 1814 ; m. March 23, 1795, Charles Wil- 1772, d. April 20, 1819. 


Maimjuis Coh.vwallib to Coloxei, Ross, 

DEAR ROSS, Lower GroiFmor Strwt, Jan. 31, 1785. 

I franked a letter to you from Lady Spencer on tin' Bulged 
of your coming south ; she says she shall not be diverted fr>- ■■■ 
attempt to bring yon op, by one ur two failures. 

I have not Been either Pitt, or Dundas since I wrote last, and 
am now confined by a most shocking cold and cough, but In 
stand the JJ. of IE. received his dismission on Sunday last. I 
of Y. is to be a Field Marshal, and to conduct the milidiry I-i^in- -• 
as Benior officer on the staff. Whether we shall get any good by 
Hub, God only knows, but I tliink things cannot change for the 
worse in that department. 

If the French land, I should not like, to trust to the new Field 
Marshal for the defence of ( httt >rd. 

My situatiou is not enviable, yet I trust you will make up your 
mind to take a share with mo, and I do not see why yon should not 
be Surveyor General. I know you do not want a [dace, but I must 
have a capable friend in one of the efficient offices. 

The military arrangement for India is m a had way. the I>i- 
illhI tile officers equally reprobate my plan, and the I 
MOqJ the demands of the latter: Mr. Imndas says he will enter 
aerimuly into the business. During tide flattering pnapeel of the 
Imsincss being satisfactorily settled, the Committee in Fori \\ illiant 
are daily printing and circulating papers, which are little short of 
high treason. I am, &c. 

Corn w a 

Mabuuis Coiinwallis TO THE ISiuut Hon". Ebm DVUU. 

Dkab Sin, OnmehrSM, M. I, til 

I do not mean that anything I said last nfghl should ■ 
vey an idea tbat I have the smallest objection to Sir I " 
Orey. From what I have heard of Abcreromby, I should con- 
ceive he was the roan of the sound--! undci'Mandiug. but tiny 
and myself have been acqimiiitfd Dear eight-W}d<thirt] 

■■■■■ have not lived much together, unless when m htM 
met in our prufewioiial duties, we have always been good friend*. 
and have. 1 liclicve, in a certain degree had :i reapi 

1 tnri tbat Mr. I'itt will beartilv enter U ■■ 


finding some office for G. Berkeley, 1 whom on his wife's' account I 
should wish to treat with the greatest attention. You will easily 
conceive what an object it must be to me to get Boss into that 
station, and what benefit the country must derive from his abilities 
and experience iu every species of business. Boss himself does not 
wish it, but if you are right in compelling me, I am very sore that 
it will be wise to extend the compulsion to him. 

I am, &c, 


Marquis Cornwaijjs to the Right Hon. Henry Dun-das. 

DEAR SIR, Lower GrosYcnor Strcef, Feb. 12, 1795. 

I believe you will recollect that in several discussions at 
Wimbledon, I was of opinion that our passions should not operate 
in points of political expediency, and that after I had the strongest 
reasons to be dissatisfied with the Prussians, I always maintained 
that we should still endeavour to get them, if there was any prospect 
of deriving any essential support from them. 

If a corps of Prussians under the Duke of Brunswick could be 
produced, with auy hopes of their acting with energy, it would 
greatly tend to dispel the gloom which I confess at present 
depresses my mind to a degree that I can hardly describe, and with 
a reasonable security that we should not be egregiously duped, I 
think we can hardly pay too dear for them. 

The station of a body of troops with transports, and every 
equipment for service on the East Coast, is certainly a most advi- 
sable measure, with a view either to offensive or defensive operations. 
I am, Ac, 


Marquis Cornwallis to Colonel Ross. 
Dear Ross, London, fa. is. nss. 

You will easily conceive that when discussions are held in 
the Cabinet, involving measures on which the existence of every- 
thing that is dear to us may depend, the only military member of 
that Cabinet would have great satisfaction, at this most critical and 

1 Hon. fieorge Cranfield Berkeley, after- M.P. for Gloucester county from April, 1783, 

wards Admiral of the lied, G.C.H., non of to April, 181(1. 

Aneiuiii), 4th Earl of Berkeley, b. Sept. 2, * Lady Emily Berkeley, b. 1762, d. Oct. 

WW, d..Keb. 25, 1818; m. Aug. 23, 1784, 19, 1832. 
Emily Charlotte, dau. of Lord George Lenoi. 


dangerous period, in opening himself freely to a friend i 
judgment he su highly values. At the BUM time 1 DBS 
you to come up without passing by Castlemilk. 1 I write in tlto 
greatest haste. x ara< A ,„ 


G. A. Robinsus, Esq., to the afAaqCH Corswattis. 

[K*riwi1 hk 1 Ftt.] 
Mv Loro, c»icuu«,.v: 

A memorial has. been received from tin- offleen of the unity. 
which will be transmitted by tin ■ Nancy. There ire tome szeep- 
tumal iiTprfiiilfflin m it. 1 think, end Borne promisee which they 
BMmne without sufficient grounds. It proves, however 
dsnfal than, from report, I had expected. The ferment they are in 
will certainly not subside until tin y know what snangi i 
tiimllv to be made, but as I have do donbt Bomethiag 

bawSenl is intended with regard to quickening pr ton, nd 

: ^iiK.r both Ax temporary retncb to Europe, and 

ntii 'in-'iit from the nrrioB without loss of everything, I ft 
apprehension but that they will soon be composed and quiet 
I am, &-o„ 


HAitqois Cokswallis to Sir John Shore. 

iii .si: BlB, 

Ifloiloo. M«reh 13, 1' 
. . . The critical situation of this ruimtry, Hid ini 

nil Europe, oceopies the i'nll attention of on i 

to tli ink of India, wmoh, thank I led, preseote no press- 

. -. Tin.- military ilisi'onti'iit^ ajone teem !<> require im- 

iil. ■ ■ l i . ■ i - notiM, and nbm aaangeaerd i-- now ndac the oousider- 
:it i. in of the Oonrl of Director* 

Tin- rery QQibeal treatmenl trbich I net nitfa in some of the 
Bengal publication*, and the rant of cottfideooe, and indeed the 

n towards me, which appeared tn I 
Officers in] ■ re allowed ti> tab 

vilin had mi ohura whatever i" be re-«dmitted into the I 

: i. bu most eagerly e mb race ti pportn 

bj the Court of Directors to withdraw niyaalf 

mwr Annan, *Wh Colon*] Rna> but nw-ntlj> bought. 


entirely from taking any further concern. Copies of my propo- 
sition will lie sent out, and I feel pretty confident that the sensible 
and candid officers in the Company's service will not consider me 
as their enemy. ... j am( & C) 


Marquis Coknwallis to the Right Hon. Henry Duxdas, 

DEAR SlR, Low Groe-Tenor Street, May 14, 1795. 

I inclose to you a copy of a letter which I have received 
from the Majors and Senior Captains of H. M. regiments serving 
on the coast of Coromandel, and as I understand that the measure 
of appointing second Lieut. -Colonels and second Majors is likely to 
be considerably extended at home, and that the young regiments 
which are going to India are all on that establishment, I think it 
absolutely necessary tljat some attention should be paid to the 
officers who have served long in India, and who have so strong s 
claim to favour from their meritorious conduct during the late war 
in Mysore. I ami &c<j 

Marquis Corxwallis to Major-General Ross. 

DEAR ROSS, Lower Grosrenor Stint, May 23, 1795. 

The same idea about the cavalry occurred to me, and I 
mentioned it yesterday at the meeting of the Cabinet The sub- 
ject is very delicate as well as important. If the Elector of 
Hanover adopts the neutrality under the wings of Prussian pro- 
tection, he will set a bad example to the other Princes of Ger- 
many, offend Austria, and discourage the whole business, and he 
will necessarily be obliged to withdraw his contingent from the 
army of the Empire, as the Landgrave of Hesse has done. If be 
does not take shelter behind the line of demarcation, 3000 "British 
cavalry, joined to his Hanoverian troops, will not protect the 
Electorate from falling under the yoke and requisitions of France. 

In such a case it may not lie easy to make l hear cool and 

dispassionate reason, but still Ministers must do their duty. Single- 
ton* is appointed, and as Lord Spencer told me that Mr. Pitt had 
undertaken to speak to Berkeley about the other change in the 

' Sic in wig. — tin King. he held (except from Feb. 1806 to II arch 

" Storckrvper of the Onlnance, which office 1807), to Jane 1829. 


Boor<l, I wrote to Mr. Pitt to put hira on his guard again 

liny option to Berkeley, but to mention it u b matter d 

my peqneat. I shall siill endeavour to come to Watli 

days before the birthday, hut Lord Lauderdale's 1 motion will keep 

me in town till Friday morning, and I am very desirous of passing 

two days at Cnlford. j am fa 


( P.S. The King gave the 17th Dragoons to Delanoey' spon- 
taneously, to the great surprise of the said Delaueey, ami I believe 
of every other person. 

Rir.nT Hos. WnxiAM Pitt to the Marijuis Corswallis. 

MY DEAR LORD, Downing Street, SUuriny, Shy 23, 1791. 

I am happy to tako the first opportunity of telling yoo that 
Lord Berkeley * has been with me for the propose of t 
that his brother might be appointed Colonel of Marines 
ing the office of Surveyor-General. This busmen (rill tin nf* 
settled in the most satisfactory manner. j lim jjv^ 


M Aligns Corxwallis to Major-Grneral Ross. 

Morning. II *j- 35. 

4 1 am going tn paea ftd 

Dear Hobs, 

I write early this morning, 
and dine with the mess at Woolwich. Macleod poamod In 
liiiuli that I should do so, ami by baa manner of npntiVrng of it, 1 
thought that he was i-fopiiiiuii (hat my neglect of Woolwich began 
ratlier to be teen in an unfavourable light. 

Some fools by the bye. put it into his head that mining ■odd 
be so easy as my getting him the rank of Lieut.-Colim.l ; in slmrt. 

1 l-ord IjiiiiI.. ! 

W W ill •( rung l«!iirusg»— it ww iH^nlitnt 
■ ■ 
* Majar-CI*iwrt),*ft«nr:ii ■• ■ 
Df I^ocy, *h an Amrrirun l.npliti, am) 
had oannHUMlxl a corjn of Provinciala *t 
Kn Vori; Colnn«] 1-tli Owgonm, d. .-W. 
)tn. H» **• IW™-k-Mn.tir.ii^mTnl |.ir 

TlllllV »..(!., bljl Htl L.1|1..V^.| 1'r.JTTl J||- g||| 

iii cnoMquflU* ol'i Ida I callow L ' " 

H.P. to KtlfcHMflani B*j4, 1T»*1 to Jiaw, 

) irUfRflkiW, 

El tSlOi m «" 

I,...; ... . .> . 


according to the old idea, that I had notliing to do hut to intimate 
my wishes, that K ing, Ministers, &c, &c, might eagerly run before 
them. I satisfied him, however, very easily that all this was non- 
sense, and that if I could bring myself, in contradiction to my own 
sentiments and professions, to ask for it, I had not the smallest 
chance of obtaining it, 

Berkeley called on me yesterday, and by his conversation any 
person would have concluded that he had no idea of quitting the 
Ordnance those twenty years ; but I suspect that tliis was to try 
me. 1 did not, however, let him see that I had the smallest know- 
ledge of lus brother's request to Mr. Pitt. It would not have been 
fair to the latter not to give him the full advantage of granting a 

Windham told me that the Corsicans were so jealous of the 
French, and hated them so much, that it was determined to 
send no corps of Emigrants thither; I therefore returned the 
papers with Windham's answer to Sir Robert Gunning. 1 I cannot 
leave town till after Lord Lauderdale's motion on Thursday, and 
then, if business and Cabinets do not interfere, I propose to go to 
Culford on Friday, stay Saturday and Sunday, come to W'arley * on 
Monday, and return to town for the birthday on Thursday morn- 
ing, but all this is hitherto uncertain. j am £ e 


Thank God there is a fine wind for the outward-bound fleet. 
My brother is going out with a cruising squadron. They say Lord 
Titchficld 3 is to marry Miss Scott/ 

1 Sir Robert (1 mining, Bart. K.B., so ere- liuiri, b. June 24, 1768, d. March 27, 1854; 

ated Oct. 17, 1778; b. June 8, 1731, d. m. Au K . 4, 1795, Htmietta, dau. of General 

Sept. '2?.. ISIfi ; m. Isi, Anil. 175J, KliM- John S.„tt of Balcomie. Sl.l'. for Bucking, 

beth, dau. of John Harrison, K*q., of Grant- hainshire from April, 1791, till he became h 

ham (*he died April 14, 1752) ; 2nd, Keh. tVer. Lord of the Treasury from March to 

14, 1757, Anne, dau. of Robert Sutton, l>q. Sept. 1807 ; Prixy Seal, April to August, 

of Scofton. Minister in Denmark from N'ov. 1827 ; President of the Council to Jan. 1828. 

, 1765 to Feb. 1771; in Prussia toDec. 1772; * Born April, 1775, d. April 28, 1844. 

and then in Russia to 1776. Under fieueral Scott's will her large fortune 

1 Lord Corawallia hat been appointed, was to be divided between her sisters, atfter- 

April 2;f, to command in Emu ami Hertford- wards Countess of Moray and Viscountesa 

shire, with two Lieut.-fienerals and five Canning, if she married a Peer, a Peer's 

Major-Generals {among whom was Major- eldest son, or if her husband did not take the 

General Ross) under him. His headquarters name of Scott. Lord Titehfield always pre- 

were at Warier Camp. filed the name of <o his signature, and 

■ William Henrr, Marquis of Titchficld, the litters waived enforcing the penalty, Dunn 

altei wauls, Oct. 3d', 1809, 4th t'uke of Port- receiving 100,000'. each. 


Marquis Cornwallis to Major-General Ross. 

DEAR RO88, Grosvenor Street, June 4, 1795. 

The promotion has at length taken place, but there were 
great difficulties about Berkeley on account of Sir A. Douglas ' and 
several men of strong pretensions. The King told me yesterday 
that now Berkeley had vacated his place in the Ordnance, he 
should appoint a successor without waiting for my recommendation, 
and very graciously named you. j am £ a 


Marquis Cornwallls to the Right Hon. William Wjndham. 

DEAR SlR, Warley Camp, June 28, 1795. 

I have assembled the Militia Colonels and stated to them 
the mischief which the service must sustain, unless they will con- 
sent to supply an efficient force to recruit the corps of Artillery, 
and throwing myself afterwards entirely on their liberality and 
public spirit, I trust I have softened them, and hope to get the 
proportion of serviceable men from them immediately. 

I wish you would recommend it to the Generals commanding 
in the different districts, to take the most conciliatory means of 
prevailing upon the Colonels of Militia to act with liberality on 
this occasion, and to forward the object which the Legislature un- 
doubtedly had in view, of rendering the corps of Artillery equal to 
the services which may be required from it. An erroneous notion 
prevails amongst the Colonels (which I assured them was perfectly 
groundless), that after they had replaced the one man in fifty that 
w r as now required from them, the Artillery would, under the pre- 
sent Act, have a right to call upon them for another supply. No 
time should be lost in contradicting any such intention or power 
in the Act, as I remember Lord Grenville did in the House of 
Lords when called upon by Lord Radnor, 2 for under the idea of 
its existing, the Militia Colonels actually consider themselves 
merely as recruiting officers for the Artillery. 

I am, &c, 


1 Captain Sir Andrew Snape Douglas, R.N., 1750, d. Jan. 27, 1S28; in. Jan. 24, 1777, 

b. 17ti2, d. June 4, 1797; m. Anne, dau. of Anne, dau. and coheir of Antony, last Lord 

— Burgess, Esq., of New York. Feversham of that creation. 

* Jacob, 2nd Earl of iiadnor, b. March 15, 


Marquis Cobswalus to Major-General Boss. 
DEAR ROSS, Wnrley Camp, June 28, 1795. 

I have received your letters dated the 26th and 27th, and 
am glad to find that people see the Admiral's conduct in the light 
it deserves.' To make a handsome retreat before a very superior 
force must ever, cither by sea or land, be a most difficult opera- 
tion, and put the firmness and capacity of the Admiral or General 
to the severest trial. 

We are to have &feu dejoie this evening, and as I am in great 
haste I shall inclose a copy of what I have said to Windham on 
the subject of the Militia drafts for the Artillery. 

Windham is a very good fellow with all his eccentricity, and it 
would be convenient that you should he in the habit of seeing him 
often. . . . Yours ever most sincerely, 


Sib Robert Abebcrombv to the Marquis Cobnwalus. 

[Received Aug. 21, 1795.} 
MY LOUD, Camp near luvmpore, in Rohilcnnd, Dec. IB, 1794. 

I was in hopes that your Lordship's plan for new-modelling 
the Indian army would have been brought forward in the last 
Session of Parliament, as I Bhould have been happy to have seen 
it carried into effect before my departure from this country. Your 
Lordship is well aware of the violence of many of the officers on 
this establishment, and how difficult it will he to satisfy them. 
But a State is not to give way to the unreasonable demands of its 
servants. And I have no doubt that the arrangement to be formed 
at your Lordship's recommendation will give satisfaction to all 
moderate men. 

Some time after my departure from Calcutta, the death of 
Fyzullah Khan,* Jaghindar of Hampore, gave rise to a most daring 

> The celebrated retreat of Admiral Corn- Sujn ul Dowla, whom Mr. Hating* had rein- 

walli>. He wns overtaken on June 16 by n forced with 7000 Company** troops. Kyiulla, 

fleet consisting of 12 soil of the line, 12 fri- unable to retain the possessions or his prede- 

gates, and 7 smaller levels. His force con- cejwra, settled at Ram]-ore. and died July IS, 

silted of 5 sail of the line and 1 frigate. 1794, Hi* eldest son, Mahommed fcllee 

A fter I wo day *^istnntfi^di tineas the French Khan, succeeded him, but was deposed by 

never ventured to close, he reached Plymouth his ymmper brother, (Iholum Mahommed, 

withoiit losing a kindle !-hi(i, nr„l only 1 2 men Aug, IS, 1794, and died a few dap after of 

killed ami wounded. Few victor iei ever de- the wounds received in the struggle. In the 

peried more irpprobation. battle nw Barally, two battalions of Sepoys 

■ r'yuiHa Khan was chosen 1o be chief of and the whole of the Native Cavalry (then 

the Uoh ilia* art er thedmth of H.illi Rehmnt, for the lint time brought into action) were 

killed April 2:i, 1774, in action against cut to pieces, owing to some injudicious move- 


usurpation and rebellion against the Vizier's government and 
authority by Golam Mahomed Khan ; when a younger son of 
Fyzullah Khan, who, after having murdered his elder brother, 
Mahomed Ally Khan, usurped the Jaghire, and assembled a very 
considerable army of Affgans. The Governor-General resolved to 
support the Nabob, and to punish Golam Mahomed. As I hap- 
hened to be near the scene of action, Sir John Shore expressed a 
wish that I would take upon myself the immediate command of the 
two brigades stationed at Cawnpore and Futtyghur, in order to 
bring the matter to a speedy conclusion, and, if possible, without 
the effusion of blood. 

I accordingly lost no time in assembling the troops, and cross- 
ing the Ganges near Futtyghur, proceeded towards Barilly, which 
town and country were threatened by the army of Golam 

Early in the morning of the 22nd Oct. I reached Barilly, and 
on the 23rd I took a position seven miles in front in order to 
cover it. 

I was extremely anxious to bring the Rohillas to a sense of 
their duty ; but after every endeavour to avoid hostilities, I was 
forced to engage the army of Golam Mahomed (consisting of about 
25,000 men), who advanced to attack me on the morning of the 
26th. The result was as honourable to the British name as I could 
have wished, though not without a very considerable loss on our 
side, as your Lordship will perceive from the public accounts trans- 
mitted by Government, to which I beg leave to refer for par- 
ticulars. The slaughter made by the enemy on our right was 
principally owing to a most disgraceful retrograde movement of 
the Company's two regiments of cavalry led by Captain Ramsay, 
who was posted on that flank. Captain Ramsay has since resigned 
the command of the 2nd regiment, and has solicited the permission 
of Government to resign the service rather than stand a court 

After the action Golam Mahomed Khan and his adherents fled 
with the greatest precipitation to Rampore, and from thence, with 
their families, treasure, and effects, to the fort of the Tangly 
Mountains, ten miles beyond Rhaer. We pursued, and on the 5th 
ult. took a position near the Jangh. On the Gth Golam Mahomed 
came into my camp upon no other condition than that of personal 
safety, I was in great hopes that the Rohillas would have sub- 

ments of Sir R. Abercromby, who, however, contrary to the wishes of Sir J. Shore, whose 
ultimately was completely victorious. He orders arrived too late. Captain Ramsay 
theu made terms with Gholam Khan, very floi to America. 

1795. AFFAIBS IN INDIA. 293 

mitted on their chiefs leaving them. I was, however, disappointed ; 
they did not choose to lay down their arms unconditionally. 

I knew too most certainly that the result of attack on them 
must have been the massacre of an indiscriminate multitude of 
men, women, and children, pent up within a small space, perfectly 
accessible to us, but from whence there was no retreat for them, 
and where no hounds could have been prescribed to the licentious- 
ness of the undisciplined rabble of the Nabob (who joined us three 
days after the action of the 2b'th Oct), whetted as it must have 
been by the temptation of the treasure, jewels, &c, of all the 
Kohilla families. 

I was convinced at the same time that the Rohillas- would have 
submitted to their fate rather than have lost all hold of Bampore, 
the only place of refuge left to them in Hindostan. 

I therefore, from motives of humanity, proposed that the Nabob 
should grant a jagliire to the son of the late Mahomed Ally Khan 
as a provision for him and the family, old servants and adherents 
of Fynallet Khan, excluding Golam Mahomed Khan from all con- 
cern with or residence in the country. The Nabob consented, and 
a jagliire, limited to tcu lacs, has been gratefully accepted by the 
BoluUas, under the guarantee of the Company. I am of opinion 
that their power has been so fur reduced that it is not likely that 
they will ever again aim at independence. 

Fyzullali Khan, by prudent management and economy, had 
accumulated a large sum of money, which has been dissipated on 
this occasion. The Nabob has received between forty and fifty 
lacs of it. 

Knowing your Lordship's anxiety to be informed of every cir- 
cumstance that materially concerns our affairs in India, I have 
troubled you with this long letter, and I trust that the very un- 
pleasant service in which I have been engaged will not be classed 
with former Rohilla wars, nor the conductor of it be charged with 
mean, selfish, or interested motives. 

Most earnestly wishing your Lordship success in the arduous 
war in which you are now engaged, 

I have the honour to be, &c, 

Hobt. Abebchomuy. 


DEAR EOSS, Warley Camp, Aug. 22, 1795. 

I received yesterday letters from Sir R. Abercromby, Scott, 1 
and Barlow. Scott justifies the whole of Sir R.'s conduct, both in 
the field and the negotiation ; but he says more in support of the 
necessity of attacking the enemy than in defence of the manner of 
doing it. 

Barlow, to my great concern, appears out of spirits, thinks that 
thje present Government in Bengal have no energy, and that Shore 
is not hearty in supporting the system. j am £ c 


Marquis Cornwallis to Major-General Ross. 

Dear Ross, Cuiford, Sept 20, 1795. 

The same dry and hot weather still persecutes us, and is 
equally hostile to shooting and to the turnips, and there never was 
a year so universally bad for partridges. I cannot help being un- 
easy about the fleet, as the scurvy, when it gets any head, makes 
rapid progress. D'Yvernois's 2 pamphlet affords some consolation 
in these dangerous times, but I cannot quite agree with him about 
the difference of the situation and resources of France and America, 
nor have I any hope that he will persuade the Empire to continue 
the war, and if the Emperor himself should be prevailed upon to 
do so, it will be more owing to the rhetoric of our guineas than of 
his writings. If you should hear anything of the D. of York, I 
should be obliged to you if you would communicate it to me, as I 
rather feel disposed to stay here till the end of the week. 

I am, &c, 


Marquis Cornwallis to Sir John Shore, 

DEAR SlR, London, Oct. 12, 1795. 

. . . The events in Europe have been so interesting, and* 
the situation of this country so critical, that Government have had 
no time to turn their thoughts to the East, at least not further than 

1 Colonel William Scott, afterwards Uesi- Republican party, and condemned to death 
dent at Oude, d. Sept. 27, 1804, at Agra. piir contnnvice in 1791. He was employed 

2 Sir Francis D'Yvernois, knighted May diplomatically at the Congress of Vienna. 
11, 1796, b. 1757 ; d. March 16, 1842. He He had a pension of 300/. on the Irish £s- 
touk an active pait in the affairs of his native tablishment. 

country, Geneva, and was driven out by the 


it is connected with the operations of the war ; all attention to in- 
ternal matters is out of the question, and if ever I open on the sub- 
ject, I find a disposition to get clear of it as soon as possible. An 
arrangement for the military is, I understand, going out, but I have 
not seen it, and from what I hear, it is in a very imperfect and un- 
digested state. The most essential points are however founded 
upon my proposition, but I hope my friends in India will feel that it 
is not fair to judge of any plan from a partial adoption. 

It gave me great satisfaction to learn that everything was 
arranged respecting Benares, and that the removal of Duncan to 
Bombay (where I am Bure he must be much wanted) will not affect 
the welfare and prosperity of that favourite province, which was 
always the object of my most anxious care. 

That we must soon get out of this war is certain, but how it is 
to be done I have at present no conception. My thoughts on the 
state of public affairs, ever since my return, have been most gloomy, 
and nothing has yet occurred to brighten the prospect 
Believe me, &c, 


DEAR BOSS, Waxley Camp, Oct. IS, 1795. 

It is now time that I should wish you and Mrs. Boss joy, 1 
and I do most truly assure you that no person can more sincerely 
wish you both a long enjoyment of health and happiness than 
myself. I desire that you will tell Mrs. Ross, that although I have 
had the pleasure of seeing her but once, I trust that we shall hence- 
forward be considered as intimate friends. 

I received a volume of queries on the military arrangement 
yesterday from David Scott, requesting immediate answers. I wrote 
my hasty opinions after t,he review, but I wish you could Bee him 
for half an hour before the meeting of the Court of Directors on 
Thursday next He is at present out of town. 

What a sad disaster this blow of the Mediterranean convoy ! * 
and how it will vex our friends the Spencers 1 

Believe me, &c, 


gate*. Tliey separated, mid 32 with the 
Argo reached England in safety. The otheii 
fell in with Admiral Richer?, who had wiled 
from Brest, Sept. 14, with rii mil of the line 
iiDii three frigatee, nnd Ihe Ceiucur and :SU 


liberal B'i 

« had m 

inied on 1 

3ct. 15 

UiiLhus t.velyn 




ining, Bart,, 


n<l merchantmen 


■ Ciibraltai 

■ Stilt. 25, 


roe uf Urn* 

sail of Ihe 

line and th 

r« fri- 



Chap. XVII. 

G. A. Robinson, Esq., to the Marquis Cornwallis. 

[Received Dec., 1795.] 
MY LORD, Calcutta, May 14, 1795. 

The prevailing opinion now is that the Swallow is kept to 
bring out the new military arrangements, and in this I hope we 
shall not be disappointed, for until they arrive the leaven of dis- 
content that exists in this army will be constantly fermenting. A 
late cause of great jealousy an(J discontent has arisen in the intelli- 
gence received of the late large promotion of King's Major-Generals, 
which is industriously represented, and in the present temper of 
men's minds easily credited, as a manoeuvre calculated to bring in 
Harris in Bengal, Floyd at Madras, and Balfour at Bombay, over 
the heads of all the Company's Colonels ; nor can it be denied I 
think, that the number of King's officers serving in India who 
obtain at the same time brevets in the ranks of Field Officers, pro- 
duces as injurious a preference to the Company's officers as the 
grievance formerly complained of, arising from their local rank ; 
but I havo still that confidence in the united operation of your 
Lordship's influence and just sense of the fair pretensions of the 
Company's armies, that enables me to look forward to the expected 
arrangements for a complete refutation of those impressions which 
the late promotion has given birth to. j am £ c 

G. A. Robinson. 

Marquis Cornwallis to Major-General Ross. 

Dear Ross, Cuifoni, Dec. 30, 1795. 

By a letter which I have just received from Nightingall, 1 
dated Falmouth the 26th, I apprehend the total dispersion and 
return of the West India fleet. 2 

He says that his transport was separated from the fleet in the 
night of the 21st, that the gale had lasted, with very little inter- 
mission, for twelve days, and that the troops were getting very 
sickly. He saw only sixty sail on the evening of the 21st, and they 
were much scattered. 

1 I ieut.-Colonel, afterwards Lieut.-Cicne- 
ral Sir Miles Nightingall, K.C.B., Colonel 
49th regiment, b. Dec. 25, 1768, d. Sept. 
17, 1829; m. Aug. 13, 1800, Flora, dau. 
of Sir Lionel Darrell, Bart. Served in India 
1790; in the West Indies, Holland, and 
India again from 179G to 1801, when he 
went with Lord Cornwallis to Amiens. 
Served a tliiid time in India to 1807; com- 
manded a brigade at Vimiera, and a division 
hi 1811 ; was on the staiT in the expedition 

against Java, and was Commander-in-Chief 
at Bombay 1810. M.P. for Eye from 1820 
to his death. 

2 Admiral Christian sailed with a large 
squadron, Dec. 8, having to convoy upwards 
of 200 sail. He encountered a succession of 
violent gales, and was obliged to return to 
Portsmouth, Jan. 20, 1796, with only six sail- 
of-the-line and 45 transports. Most of the re- 
mainder, however, escaped into different ports, 
but the object of the expedition of course tailed. 


I shall at all events come up for two or three days next week, 
as it will probably be to be considered what can now be done. 
I write in the greatest haste. Yours, &c, 


Marquis Coiinwalus to Majok-Genkral Ross. 
Dear Ross, Whitehall, Jan. 2B, me. 

Having been detained at Lord Spencer's till near twelve 
last night, I had no opportunity of making inquiries about you, but 
I hear this morning that you are arrived. As I wish to talk over 
several things with you, I will call on you about half an hour past ■ 
eleven, and we can walk down hither by one, when I appointed 
Macleod to meet me here. 

The melancholy accounts of the West Indian armament, and 
the certainty tliat Admiral Christian, 1 with the shattered remains 
of his fleet, is now on bis return, have deranged all our plans. I am 
myself inclined to think that it will be better to give up all further 
attempts of offensive operations for this year, to send troops enough 
to secure what we have, with active naval assistance, and endeavour 
to put the remainder of the unfortunate troops into a serviceable 
state against next autumn, which I am sure was not the case when 
they were embarked. 

Sly best compliments to Mrs. Ross. Yours &c 

Marquis Counwallis to Major-general Ross. 
Dear Ross, cuifoni, March is, 179*. 

Your letter, as well as one which I have juBt received from 
the Admiral, has given me the greatest concern.* I have just 
written to him, but despair, even if my letter should be in time, to 
alter his resolution. I need not explain to you what little weight I 

1 Vice- Admiral Sir Hugh Cloberry Chris- whom he ultimately left his fortune. He 

tin, K.B., <1. Nor. 1798. Commander-in- was tried, April 7, by a Court Martial on 

Chief at the Cape of Good Hope. three charges: lit. That ha returned, con- 

1 Admiral Cornwallis had sailed for the trary to orders, having tailed some way from 

West Indies with a considerable Beet, On England for the West Indies ; 2nd. That the 

his voyage, his own ship, the Koyal Sove- Royal Sovereign being disabled, he did not 

reign, was disabled in a gale of wind ; and, shift his Sag to some other vessel, but gave 

instead of shifting his flag, he returned to up the charge of the convoy to another 

England, leaving the command to the neit officer. On these charges the sentence was, 

senior officer. When he arrived in port he that blame was imputable to him for not 

was ordered to hoist his flag aboard a frigate, shifting his Sag to the Man or Minotaur, 

and proceed to bis original destination, but The 3rd charge. That he bad disobeyed the 

ho refused on the plea of bad health. The orders of the Admiralty by not hoisting his 

real fact was, he would not sail eicept with (kg aboard the Astra* frigate. On this charge 

his old Sag-captain, Captain Whitby, to he was acquitted. 



bam with him. He says, talking of the order to go out in a frigate, 
'• budaod I think tlii'V eooU not have been in earnest, I nit 1 feat 
it has been intended to affront ine, and put me on shore." After 
all Hint 1ms passed, can such suspicions l>o combated by any ra- 
tional argument? I have said ail that I thought could work upon 
him, and I shall most truly lament the issue which I I 
foresee, on liis account and on the account of my country. 
I am, i 

..u. Harris 1 re ot Uaiqdib OobkwaujBi 

, Ac, 



! WillUm, A- 

[ReorfTel March. lT9li.] 

My dear Lord, 

... I do not like to take up your Lordship's tin 
more than an acknowledgement of yours, hut I cannot bring 
myself to conclude without begging you will accept my warm 
thanks for your Lordship's kind attention tn the interest <>t' Hi. 
Majesty's Colonels, who hod the honour of serving under you in the 
Mysore war. Although the Directors have unwisely rej 
literal and excellent plans for new-modelling what is not now on 
army, wo are surely equally bound by gratitude to your Lordship, 

It is no doubt difficult for one evidently interested int) 
to speak on it without suspicion that h.- will lean to bit 
in giving his opinion, but 1 trust to your Lordship's knowledge of 
nu 1 1 uii self-interest could not influence me to advance anything 1 

OOncaiTed could make against my country; and I therufi 

without hesitation, that His .Majesty's officers Hhould be as muck as 

possible mingled in the European corps with the C p 

that the proposed relief from England should never bs p 

Climate and distance from home appear to haw erased al! me- 
morj nf th.-ir native land from most of these violent — Prtitumen, 

'■■■■.■ caD them, -and in my opinion the listen 

being led by ■ set of hot-headed young nun to sign such me nab 

a- the seniors have joined in, sufficiently authorise* then 
aside as unequal to command, or at best their being | 

I did not ooneeiYe from the armies of the other two FrenV 

n Colonel Cockerel's detachment that they 

could be, to dm • French term, so totally disorganised here, but 

the Subalterns are all become Generals ainoe ineetn 

>UNt,-0«ntnl,iia*rwiu>UGnttt«l,Oew V * IS, 17*;, A. M,.v If, 
Ham* OXJL, Ctlta Ht Cmml. dan. uJ i 

■M t..i.l ilmil Al*. It. IMS; b. Mm.Ji <"k«W !<<>•<■, K«|., M 'ft 


ventions have taken place, and never think of attending a parade ; 
and in this garrison, until the other day that a Captain Grant 
wanted to relieve himself on the main guard, and exchanges of 
duty stopped in consequence, there was scarcely any one put in 
orders in his own turn. In short, every circumstance I am witness 
to so strongly points out the necessity of taking the army from 
hands which can no longer manage it, that, instead of apologising 
for thus detaining your Lordship, I think I should be culpable to 
my country in not mentioning to you that I see no other chance of 
its being made serviceable to Old England. The whole must be 
King's, or India and it, will not long be our country's. 

Allow me to beg your Lordship to make my kindest remem- 
brance to my brother General, Boss, and that you wilt believe me 
ever most sincerely, &c, 

Geo. Habbis. 

Sir Robert Abercromby fo the Marquis Cornwailis. 

[ Received March, 1796.] 
Ml' LoitD, Calcutta, Aug. 25, 1795. 

Your Lordship's letter of the 9th September has afforded 
me great satisfaction, and I would fain hope that your repeated 
representations, with regard to recruiting our European army, will 
speedily have the desired effect ; the most fatal consequences may 
otherwise ensue : we now want 7000 men to complete. 

I am greatly mortified and disappointed at not receiving the 
much wanted arrangement for the Indian army. 

Mr. Dundas has favoured me with a copy of your Lordship's 
letter to him, conveying your sentiments on that subject ; and he 
informs me that the Court of Directors have given a decided opinion 
against the transfer of the army from the Company to the King, 
the basis of your Lordship's plan, which is liberal, removes more 
difficulties and affords greater security to the British interests in 
this country, than any other that has yet been suggested. 

It is full time that the army should be taken out of the hands 
of a set of men in no way qualified for the management of such a 
* machine. 

I am so thoroughly convinced that your Lordship's plan ought 
to give satisfaction to every reasonable man, that I immediately 
directed it to be printed here, in order that the whole army might 
know your real sentiments, which have been grossly and wickedly, 

In my letter of the 18th March, I mentioned to your Lordship 
that the native battalions on this establishment were dispersed all 



Chip. XVII. 

over the country, to the utter ruin oi' their discipline ; ami that I 
was going to consult with Sir John Shore about a RraMmnj ir 
has since been resolved that the establishment of peons, pikes. 
burkindossos, Ac., now under the magistrates, collectors, resi- 
dents, Ac. should be converted into a better-armed militia, cijiml 
to all the internal duties, and thereby relieve the regular Sepoys 
from that destructive Berries. There is also to be a militia corps 
for the duties of the town of Calcutta, which are • afcrau lv hanat- 
ing. 'Hie men being on guard for a month at a time, withost 
being relieved, get, consequently, a habit of slovenness and care- 
lessness on duty, which they di« not easily get rid •■(. 

It has been found that the native troops stationed at Fun 
Malbro', Prince of Wales's Island, and the Andaman.*, parti- 
cularly at the two former places, in mi not being relieved, 
planters, and have little of the soldier left in them. Your Lord- 
ship knows that there would be considerable difficulty in procuring 
regular reliefs from the battalions, which are clnVlly composed -if 
high-cast Hindoos. It therefore struck me that a marine corps of 
Mussulmans from Chittagong and the adjaceut districts would 
answer the purposes above mentioned. The corps to consist of 
twelve i-nnijiiinii s of 100 men each. Its head-quarters to be at 
Fort \\ iliiam, and the companies not on duty in the Islands will 
make part of the garrison, and will take many duties HO the river, 
for which the Sepoys of the line are but ill calculated. 

These arrangements will, undoubtedly, be attended with some 
extra expense, but as the object is of great importance, I would 
fain hope that your Lordship will approve of them. . . . 

Lord Hobart and fiw Commodore fitted out an expedition 
against Malacca: tin; force consisted of four Eurojiean '' 
panics and a battalion of Sepoys, under Major Brown, but tin* 
Nizam having, on account of the revolt of his son All Jab, 
redemauded tin- two battalions, lately dismissed from lfydrahad, 
Lord llnbiirt withdrew the battalion from the Malacca expedition, 
and applied to us for one from here. 

I had little hope of getting a whole battalion to ftttbarx a ha at 
fully, particularly at this boutdrouf season of the year; but trie 
zeal and popularity of Captain l.ndowick Grant 1 of the Ultfl 
battalion orenMBM prejudices and dilliculties which liave never 
before been surmounted in the same handsome manner i;< 
whole OOlpa, to I man, iuue expressed their readxtMBB to fUHJtti 
by sf.'ii (0 any part of India WMH their services may be r.-qiiin-d. 
ml Hi. v will embark in a few days. The transport* are to ren- 
dezvous at I'ritice of Wales's Island. 

1 V«f*ao, iturmiit Lt«it.-i.'«l«a«l. U4ow»-» (hart, k t;*fl, J. lum 


I have mentioned the circumstance of the 15th battalion, as I 
thought it would not be impleading to your Lordship to hear this 
of Captain Grant, who, though a junior Captain, had been selected 
by you for the command of a battalion. 

His highly meritorious conduct proves him worthy of. the con- 
fidence your Lordship placed in him. 

I am ever, with the warmest attachment, &c., 


Mahqdis Corswallis to Earl Spencer. 
Mr dear Lord, Cuifbrf, M»rd. 22, me. 

1 am convinced that you will make allowance for my feel- 
ings on the present distressing occasion, and forgive my endea- 
vouring, if the thing should be possible, to avert the evils of a 
Court Martial. If any concession on my brother's part could pro- 
duce that desirable object, I would go down to him, and, from a 
communication which I have received, I should not despair of 
obtaining it. 

I propose being in town to-morrow about four o'clock, and if 
there is no Cabinet dinner, 1 would wait on you for five minutes 
between four and six o'clock. 

If you should think that there are any hopes that this affair 
can lie terminated without a Court Martial, by such means as I 
may devise and liave influence to eifect, I flatter myself, if the 
order is not already issued, that you might contrive a delay of a 
day or two in that business, without appearing to depart from your 
purpose. Believe me, &c, 


Marquis Cornwai.lis to Major-General Ross. 
Dear Ross, Cuifiirf, March 22, 1:96. 

A person has just been with me from the Admiral, and 
although I must confess that my hopes of any adequate concessions 
are not great, yet the object of avoiding a Court Martial is so great, 
that everything is to be attempted. 

I inclose a copy of my letter to Lord Spencer, and if you could 
contrive to see liim to-morrow morning pretty early, yon may per- 
haps afford some assistance, especially in regard to the delay. 
Yours ever, 



DRAIt ROSS, Whitehall. April 15, 17*6. 

I have nothing; material to communicate by my of Bo* 
ropean news; Mr. Pitt thinks that he sliall soon got dtb the 
Ajstran occaatoned by the scarcity of mosey, which h !it pronnni h 
great that the subsistence of the army is in [iart bulled in 8*> 
chequer Bills. 

I cannot however help entertaining the most gloomy thoughts 
on the prospect of our campaign. How are we to enable the 
Austrians to act ? and what figure shall we nmU>- if (hi 
act? 1 Tou will see by the papers that the Nonsuch is arrived 
with rice from Bengal. Robinson who was employed to pnrehaae 
tile rice informs me that 8 or 10 more ships will follow imme- 
diately, and that they shall send in all from 14,000 to 16,000' tons. 

R. says that 5Ir. Dundos's speech 8 has had no effect »n tlif 
Bengal officers, who are growing erery day man bstempanta, 
lie poapecta that the Bengal Government think Lord Hut mil's 
prooeediBga with tlie Nabob strong, 1 and not altogether directed 
by justice, or consonant to former t* 

Mrs. Ross dined with us yesterday, and appeared irrv m i 
Tours, &c„ 





Marquis to the Nabob of Aaaor. 

Whitehall. April 37, 17W. 

I received a short time ago your Sigbneat'a letter dajtaj 

on the * conveying information of the melancholy 6*601 of tin- 

1 The respective onni™ ht I 
tncDcH operation*, but BonijKite wa* on 
the m el ontering a (ran his Italian mmpiiitn. 
To enabl* !lie baplHf "f AiiiIiu |a meet 
fall en alma, England guaranteed i I™ in 
Um of 4,*0O 1 l.KKJ(. The WWlrfW M wtii. h 
Uh bill for tin. object w»> founded ww 
earned. Wiy 28, by 77 to -1 
poionl through Dm other flage* with untilitr 

mJm ■'» 

* Th» Urirn of corn in it Ihi. time ei- 
titni.h high. K. Hi. Si ■ quarter, noil frora 

..Jul* IB, I 
ll> iSpOT i.l'!! 

allowances; 3rd, a"" '•»*• of ahaeooe m 

medical ground); Bl4 4lh, alloir fmloDghl 
tn Barnnr in rotation. 

..f AU.Ort.13, 

i7,i"i, Sir Ma Short mm ■!■■ - 

* mpnaMgaj bm bf ■ 

171';, hf uh,..h the entire re.enne of tl> 

..■led H the Compear, is 

■hould defraj all Uh r.j. ■— , civil a. wall 

u militarr. llobart *.h>]rttd ■ lUweftal 

I I ltd the mokm of ■ conakhtr- 

i lerniun of which um 

moiii.ip^l to the brlriah Government, nod 

l.i if cot»|iliiuwe wti> iIb. 

illnej. The tkw Nabob without braluliea 

1796. THE NABOB OF AROOT. 303 

death of His Highness, your father ; and I participate as a friend 
ought to do of the feelings of sorrow which your Highness must 
experience on the loss of a beloved parent 

During my stay in India it was my constant study and en- 
deavour to promote that harmony and good understanding between 
your Highness's family and the Government of the Company, 
which alone con secure their mutual prosperity ; and in proportion 
to my anxiety for that desirable object, do I experience disappoint- 
ment and regret that any cause of misunderstanding should have 
arisen between your Highness and Lord Hobart 

From his Lordsliip's character in this country, I can bat be 
persuaded of his good intentions, and assured as I am of the favour- 
able disposition towards you, both of the King of England and 
His Majesty's Ministers, I trust that by friendly explanations all 
cause of dissatisfaction may be removed. 

I have received the rice and coffee which your Highness's late 
father had the kindness to send to me by the ship General 
Goddard, and I have also been favoured with a further quantity, 
which as a token of remembrance and friendship you were pleased 
to dispatch for me in the ships named the Queen and the Mary. 
The young elephant, notwithstanding that I believe every care and 
attention was given to it by Captain Craig, died on the voyage to 
England, but I must be equally sensible of your Highness's friendly 
intention as if it had arrived in safety. 

With every wish for the prosperity of your country, and your 
Highness's health and happiness, I remain, 

Your sincere friend, 


Mabquis Cornwallis to George Goldiso, 1 Esq. 
SlR, ■ Whitehall, M.j 12, 1796. 

The very friendly and open manner in which you have 
behaved towards myself and my son on the subject of the ensuing 
election, induces mo to trouble you with a few lines to explain to 
you and the gentlemen connected with yon in the county, the cir- 
cumstances in which I at present stand respecting that business, 
and my feelings on the occasion. 

When upon Mr. Broke's ' refusing to stand I acquiesced in my 

1 George fiolding of Poslingford, b. 1723, beth, dau. mil sole heir of the Kev. Charles 

d. Dec. 21, 1803 ; m. Jan. 17, 1762, Anne, Beaumont of Witnesham. Sir Philip Broke, 

il.m. or Alexander Brace, Kaq. the captor of the Cheeapeake, ™ hit eldeat 

1 Philip Broke of Nacton, b. Maj 18,1749, cod. 
d. Aug. 22, IS<Jl ; m. Not. IS, 1771, Eliza- 



son's becoming a candidate, I thought that I was doing what would 
be agreeable to that particular description of gentlemen, who, by 
acting together, have maintained the great country interest against 
any attempt which money or influence could make to subvert it. 

I have however since found that, although some very respect- 
able gentlemen of the old country interest warmly encourage Lord 
Brome to stand, others, from the opinion that a Peer's son should 
not represent the county, have started serious objections. 

I therefore, as a sincere friend to the independence of the 
county, most earnestly recommend to the gentlemen of the old 
country interest, not to hazard the loss of their weight and con- 
sequence by manifesting a difference of opinion on a point of so 
much importance, but to use every argument in their power to 
prevail on Mr. Broke, or some other respectable gentleman of that 
description, to come forward, and prevent the county from falling 
into the hands of persons of whose political principles they do not 
approve ; and wherever their nomination falls, they may be assured 
of my most active and zealous support 

As the contents of this letter will be communicated only to 
your friends, I think it necessary to state, that Lord Brome will 
find himself under the necessity of declining before the day of the 
nomination, unless (after your attempt to procure another can- 
didate shall have failed) he is assured that he shall be proposed at 
the county meeting by Mr. Broke, and some other respectable gen- 
tleman of the country interest, and that the general voice of the 
gentlemen of that interest will be decidedly in his favour. 

I have, &c, 


Marquis Cornwallis to Major-General Ross. 

DEAR ROSS, Whitehall, June 4, 8 A.if., 1796. 

Brome was chosen yesterday most triumphantly, never was 
there a greater or more respectable show of freeholders than ap- 
peared in his favour. 

I received a letter from George Robinson l this day, dated the 
25th of January, containing the most alarming accounts respecting 
the state of the Bengal army, and saying that Government, having 
come to the knowledge of a regular plan for superseding their 
powers, had determined at last to resist it, and that he feels no 
apprehension that they would not do it effectually, provided their 

1 This letter does not exist among Lord Cornwall is's papers, nor has the draft been found 
among Sir George Robinson's. 

1796. COLONEL WESLEY. 305 

measures are vigorous, strong, and decisive ; bat if they discover 
any symptom of concession, of wavering, or of weakness, the stake, 
in his opinion, will be lost for ever. He speaks of Popham ' and 
Forbes* as deeply implicated, and thinks there are very few who 
have not at some time or in some degree given into it, although 
some- now see the folly of it and would be glad to withdraw. And 
he thinks if a junction of these latter with the few who always 
opposed these measures, would rally round the Commander-in-Chief 
(Abercromby), who is gone to the upper stations, all may be settled 
without any bad consequence. . . . 

God send that the additional calamity of losing Bengal may not 
fell upon us. Yours ever, most sincerely, 


Marquis Cornwallis to Major-General Ross. 
Dear Rosa, WHtehall, Jam 4, me. 

I have just received another letter from Robinson dated fonr 
days later, giving an account of a complete triumph of the moderate 
party at a meeting at Cawnpore, by which all further meetings and 
appointments of delegates are put an end to. This second letter is 
written in much better spirits. Yours sincerely 


Marquis Cornwallis to Sir J. Shore. 
Dear Sir, whihWL juni io, me. 

I beg leave to introduce to you Colonel Wesley,' who is 
Lieutenant-Colonel of my regiment. He is a sensible man and a 
good officer, and will, I have no doubt, conduct himself in a manner 
to merit your approbation. j am & C- 


Marqcis Cornwallis to Lord Hobart. 
MY DEAR LORD, Vfulty Camp, June 2ti, 1796. 

I have so long deferred answering the letters which I have 
received from you on the subject of the measures which have been 
adopted since the death of the Nabob Walaw J ah, in the hopes of 
having an opportunity of talking the matter fully over with Mr. 

1 Major William Popham, aflarwanla a 
Lirat.-Genanl, d. F«b. 20, 1821. 
1 Li*ut. -Colond, aftmtardi Wajoi^Geneial, 



Ihmdas, which would have rendered what I could say more Mdmao- 
tory to ynu. 

But the business of Parliament, the conduct of this difficult and 
disastrous war, and lastly the dissolution of 1 'a rl lament, have bo 
totally engrossed his time, that I have never had more than two nr 
three minutes' conversation with him on Indian affairs, which was 
always suddenly broken up by Kane unexpected interruption, and 
the further explanation adjourned to some future period, which has 
not yet occurred ; I can now therefore only speak for myself, and to 
past transactions which cannot be of much avail, and which I had 
rather let alone, if I was not apprehensive that my silence might 
offend you more than anything which my great esteem for your 
character, and my approbation of your general conduct b India, 
conld possibly permit mo to say. 

The folly and weakness (to say no more) of Omdut. the villuny 
of his counsellors, the ruinous and most inhuman management et" 
the Camatic and Taujore country, are evils wluch have bSM 
since known to me, even to the most minute detail of them, and la 
which it was the most, earnest wish of my heart to apply an ellieieut 
remedy. It may at first sight appear to betray a want of fee!- 
talk coolly of a distant remedy, whilst the wretched inhabit;'' 
actually suffering; but if the voice of humanity alone i- I 
heard, and the policy of the measure, and the effect of il 09 ftt 
other Princes and Powers of the East is to be entirely put 
the question, why not fake the Province of Chide? The Nabob'* 
Government of the Caruatic, with all its vices and horrors, is at leant 
as good as that of the Vizier. When the Nizam deputed Mwr 
Allum to Calcutta, he mentioned in his letter that he had 
before sent a Vakeel to Bengal, but that he was now inilut ■ 
it by our bonoovable treatment of the tfebob Yurie?. 

To have waited patiently till the Nabob of Arcot forfeited the 
management of hi* ennui ry by the failure of his payments, which 
umild not have happened until the country was utterly exhausted 
and rained, would have lieen a most melancholy and shocking con- 
■ i :■ «ii, but perhajis if the first strong line to l>e token on his 
accession, had been to press him to keep bis promise of going to 
Ureal A rent, other points might at thai distance trom 1 
c.irrupii'iTi have been mure easily carried, and I am sure yon will 

forglre i-i laying that 1 think it would have h 

deal not bo have attempted anything farther, unless yon had first 
I the support of the i meni, 

I now. my dear Lord, as you in some i rare called upon me 

timonts fairly and bom itl] 


I have given them nowhere else either as a public man, or in 
private conversation, and I am by no means sure, if I had been 
on the spot at the time that I might not have seen cause to alter 

The coolness which has unfortunately taken place between Sir 
John Shore and yourself gives me the greatest concern ; as I 
cannot accommodate matters, and am not officially called upon to 
interfere, I wish to decline entering on the subject. I know not 
whether Mr. Dundas has taken any, or what steps he may mean 
to take, but I think I may safely affirm that you may rely upon 
his friendship and justice. 

Nothing can in my opinion be more gloomy than the prospect 
of things here, we have neither army, nor specie, and can barely 
say that we have an Ally ; whilst the plunder of Italy will furnish 
the enemy with the means of carrying on the war. 

I am with the most sincere good wishes for your health and 
prosperity, &c, 


Marquis Giiiswalus to Loitn Hon.utr. 

MY DEAR LORD, Warley Camp, Aug. 1, 179(1. 

Since I had last the honour of writing to your Lordship, I 
received your letter, in which you declare your intention of returning 
to England in January next, if you find that Sir John is to continue 
for another year Governor-General, and you intimate that you shall 
not think yourself well treated by Sir. Dundas. 

It is a delicate point for me to give an opinion where your 
personal feelings are concerned, but as you have put it a little 
strongly to me and seem to expect my concurrence, I think it my 
duty, from my personal esteem for your Lordship and my earnest 
concern for the public welfare, not to be perfectly silent. 

It really then api>ears to me that in forming your resolution 
you have fully considered all the disagreeable circumstances of your 
own situation, without paying the smallest attention to the difficul- 
ties under which you wished to place Mr. Dundas. 

I know not what answer he means to make to you, or what step 
he intends to take, but I am very certain that in his place I should 
feel exceedingly embarrassed. He must either abruptly and. 
consequently disgracefully, recal a man from a station which he 
has himself forced upon him, and whose conduct in his Government 
has undoubtedly, on this side of the globe at least, appeared 

x 'I/ 



ilcscrviiit; of praise than of censure, only because he wishes to pnt 
another, ami in his opinion, a l>etter man in his room, and to justify 
this step ho can only plead a predilection, but cannot excuse 
himself by having given any positive engagement ; or he must 
entirely lose the services of another man to whom he baa confi- 
dently looked forward for an able, upright, and permanent Urootion 
of the British affairs in India. 

I f you would consider the situation of all parties dispassionately. 
and reflect how much your own honour and character, and the 
essential interests of your country are concented a \"ur retaiuing 
your station, and if you would examine without pnfflH 1 OB |"'"|u- 
dice the acts of Sir John Shore, who to my knowledge has many 
amiable qualities and virtues, I am much mistaken in yam im- 
position and goodness of heart, if you was to hesitate a moment 
in forming your decision. 

I may jwrhaps have written to you too freely, but I have given 
you the sentiments of a real friend, and I assure you upon my 
honour, that I have done it without com inn ligation with Mr. 
Inindas or any other person in this country. 

I am, A 



His Hhiunkss mi KiBQa 01 nut <' w:\atk' to the Ma ny I is Cokxwalus. 

i have jnst sent hy Mr. Porcher seven horses, two of which 
he will deliver to Mr. Pitt and Mr. Dundns. The other In I 
beg your Lordship will have the goodness (<■ pTCMBd with my 
humble respects, three to His Majesty, and two to the PtxBM of 

\\ 11 1 M 

Itii.fir Hon. Hmi Him 

iiii KabqjI ■ ' 


.... Anj. 19, in*. 

. . . As to the Nabob's horses, I am really as much 
embarrassed as your Lordship, what it is rigfal to do. The sending 
the presents is perfectly tbeard, and none of ue can nasi 
them, but Uw QflUctej I feel about it is DOW far we ran *wBif 

tln-iu, without indirectly throw iug a blame in a quarter when*, 
as you POMMae, I think it i> likely they may I"- accepted. 1 I shall 
i itt to-day, and mention the iBbjeot to him. 

• In >ni Italy are yery l<ad indeed.' Vou ask DM how 




it is to end ? I answer — by a universal peace on the Continent, 
and us at war with France and Spain, and an attempt to invade 
Great Britain and Ireland. You say you must have peace, I ask 
—how are you to get it y our8 very gjncerely, 

Henby Dundas. 

Sir Robert Abercromby to the Marquis Cokswallib. 

[Received Aug. 1786.] 
My LORD, Calcutta, March 10, 1796- 

. . . Your Lordship will have heard that there is a good 
deal of dissatisfaction among the officers of the Bengal army, and 
that they have appointed some of their number agents to repre- 
sent them in England. The slowness of promotion is their principal 

They have, without a shadow of reason, taken the alarm at 
the queries ' which your Lordship wisely put (confidentially) to the 
best informed officers of the army ; one of whom has shamefully 
betrayed the trust reposed in him and has published the queries: 
who he is I know not. But surely the queries would not give 
any just cause of alarm ; for good and not evil is intended by 
them. The most sensible part of the army think so, and wait the 
result with patience, being convinced that the plan will be well di- 
gested and calculated so as to give satisfaction to all reasonable men. 

The Malabar Commissioners have finished their report, and their 
conduct has been highly approved of by Government. 

Mr. Duncan returned a few days ago to Benares, quite happy at 
having got such a load well off his shoulders. 

I shall now and then trouble your Lordship with a letter, being 
ever, with the warmest attachment, &c., 

Robert Abercromby. 

G. A. Robinson, Esy., to the M*i«iuis Corxwalus. 

[Rewired Aug. 1796.] 
My LORD, Calcutta, April 7, 1796 

Several ships have sailed from hence since I last wrote to 
you, but as I forwarded to yon by the Frince William Henry, a 

1 These were queriea submitted by Lord Bruce, Colonel Hartli 

uce, Colonel Hartley, Colonel Collins, and 
r Barry Clone, nuii their opinions in general 
iniided so cloaely with those of Lord Corn- 

fCiiuhed ofliters in India ( almost nil in the coiniided so dwely with those of Lord C 

I '"Tn|wny'» service), whn*e opinion* he re- wnllis, that he hai every reawn to believe hie 

i|iie-lnl on the poinla afterward! diacuaaed in scheme would have satisKcd the whole of the 

his report of Not. 7, 1794. Among theao Indian army. 
uilii-era were Sir John Brathwaite, Colonel 


letter from Scott, whose information no doubt would be fall, and to 
whose opinions I am willing to allow more weight than to my own, 
the omission is of less consequence. Perhaps if I were to look for 
other motives for my silence, I should find them in part, in a dis- 
satisfaction with the general measures pursued here — for when I 
look to the course the contest between Government and the army 
has taken, I see on one side the most daring avowals of mutinous 
combinations, not only made but defended ; a Government re- 
quired to assume to itself the power of new regulating the army, 
while a superior authority is known to be occupied on the very 
subject, and, in some instances, a period even named when it is 
expected this power shall be assumed ; and, on the other side, I 
have seen the Government setting out with a positive declaration 
that they should not be justified in making new regulations, and 
this hardly had time to circulate through the army before that 
principle is abandoned, before their other demands and declara- 
tions are answered by an unqualified promise of oblivion of all 
past irregular proceedings (some of which comprised a plan for the 
subversion of the Government), and a pledge and promise given to 
comply with the demands of men who had threatened to extort 
that compliance. In short the only point of concession in which 
Government has not been committed, is with respect to the time 
when the new arrangement is to be undertaken, and that I believe 
they are on the eve of fixing at no very distant date ; thus you will 
find that unless the expected arrangements shall arrive imme- 
diately they will come to no purpose, for it is hardly to be expected 
that a Government, whose weakness has been so evident, will either 
attempt, or succeed in enforcing them, when they do so apparently 
in preference to those*, which will in all likelihood be so much more 
acceptable to the army in general. 

I am, &c, 

G. A. Robinson. 

M.Yitgias Cou'xwALiJs to Maj or- General Ross. 

DEAR ROSS, Friday morning, Oct. 28, 179(5. 

You see that the Spaniards have declared war, the Nea- 
politans made peace, 1 and that .Morcau has effected his retreat 
in a manner that would have done honour to the greatest 
General that ever lived. 2 Several of our friends, besides Lord L., 

1 Spain declared war Oct. ft, and a peace 2 The retreat of Moreaa through the Hel- 

between Naples and France was ngned at lenthal. Jean Victor Moreau, son of an 
I'aris, Oct. 10. avocat at Morlaix, t>. 1763, d. Sept. 2, 1813, 


agreed on Wednesday night that tliis retreat was absolutely 

All accounts from France seem to consider the intention of in- 
vading the country as absolutely certain, but our intelligence 
resecting the local preparations is unfortunately exceedingly 

I have not decided on the mode of defeating most effectually 
the nonsensical requests of Sir W. P., for nonsense, especially in 
military matters, is too powerful to be despised. I have thought of 
sending a Committee of Engineers, and have desired Twiss 1 to moke 
some observations on what Sir W. proposes, from which I could 
frame such instructions for the committee as might drive them to 
make an explicit statement of the absurdity of the business, and 
the expense with which it would be attended. Brome is doing 
well, but it will be some time before he can recover his strength 
and former health. I attribute the foundation of his illness to a 
foolish ride which he and Singleton took on last Sunday fortnight, 
from the Bold Stag on Epping Forest to Cavenham (60 miles), on 
ouc of the worst and wettest days that I remember. 

Most sincerely yours, 


I settled everything with the Duke of Y. in the most satis- 
factory manner, and in talking of the disposition of the Generals, 
he mentioned you as precluded from your situation in the Ordnance 
from taking a ]>art of the winter duty. . 

Maewls Cobs w alus to Major-General Ross. 
J >EAR ROSS, Whitehall, Nor. 1. 179fi. 

Advices have been received from Calais that the troops and 
gun-lxiats in readiness at and near Dunkirk, are intended to make 
a descent on the coast of Essex ut Fillingham Marshes, nenr 
Itradwel, Mersey Island, and St. Osyth Bay. 

At all events the public declaration of the intention to invado 
this country, and the preparations for carrying it into execution, 
make it necessary for us to be serious on our pnrt I propose 
going to Colchester on Thursday nest, and I think it will be 
bettor that you should return to town. The business of the iicgo- 

it tin! battle of IWI,.n 

A lie. 2'i inventing ; in. ISO], Mile. Ilulot, ' Colonel, n 

mi ivhimi Lotiii XVlll., after llw reiteration, Twiss, K.E., b. 

onrrwanls Genera], William 

.,<!. March M, 1SH7. 


tiation l has gone on as well as I expected, although I confess, I 
am not yet sanguine on that score. 

Dundas has been very ill, I have not yet seen him. 

Yours very sincerely, 


David Scott, Esq, to the Marquis Cornwallis. 

My LORD, London, Nov. 7, 1796. 

I take the liberty of enclosing to your Lordship the sub- 
stance of the proposed Charters of Justice for Madras and Bombay, 
and have to beg as a particular favour that you will be so kind as 
to oblige me with your remarks upon it, which shall of course be 
private if you so desire it. I wish to bring it before the Court 
on Thursday, and therefore if your Lordship could give me an 
audience before that day, or your remarks, it would be very con- 
venient. I j lave fa e honour, &c, 

D. Scott. 

Marquis Cornwallis to David Soott, Esq. 

DEAR SlR, Whitehall, Nov. 9, 1796. 

The severe illness of my son has prevented my giving all 
the attention I could have wished, to the paper which you trans- 
mitted to me. I have, however, made some remarks upon the 
points which appeared to me to be most essential, and I have 
dwelt upon the circumstance of the natives not being by any means 
made amenable to the King's Courts, in order to strengthen your 
hands, in case you should find it at any time expedient to try a 
question which is of so much importance to the security and hap-. 
pine8s of our Asiatic possessions. 

I wish much to prevent appeals from the Court of Requests to 
the Supreme Court, which would open a noble door of plunder for 
the attornies, and to my knowledge, the continuation of the same 
deputy sheriff from year to year, and the payment of money to the 
attornies for permission to practise in their names, have been 
attended with great abuse. I g^ & a 


1 Lord Malmesbory had been sent to Paris to negotiate peace. He sailed for Calais Oct. 18. 


Native Courts to be appointed by tbe respective Governments on 
the model of those in Bengal. 

Granting Letters of Marque. Whether tbe power ought not to be 
confined to the Governor-General 

Respecting the> jurisdiction of the Court 

From having been a witness of the very great abuses and cruel 
oppressions to which the natives of India have Jbeen subjected, 
by their having been made amenable to laws which they do not 
understand, and which are administered in a language of which 
they are ignorant, I must ever give my decided opinion, that 
no native should be rendered amenable to the King's Courts of 
Justice either with or without their own consent. 

There can be no objection to such witnesses being compelled to 
attend the Kiug's Courts, as would be liable (consistent with the 
religion and customs of the natives) to be obliged to attend the 
native Courts. N.B. Women in certain stations of life ought 
not to be called upon to quit their own apartments. 

The Courts of Bequest at the different Presidencies should be con- 
stituted by the resjiective Governments, and no suit from thence 
should be removeable to the King's Courts. N.B. I consider this 
as a most material point 

I cannot help most earnestly recommending that you should 
take the opportunity of this application to Parliament, to propose 
that the 41st Article of the Judicial Regulations of Bengal of 1793, 
should be part of this Act 



Piscoiittnt of the Officcf* of the Heti^-al Army — Dislike of Lord Com wall U'» 

el .iiiiiil^iiiiiition — Olijccls and prutoi-ilin^a v>1~ the Discmii'imtixl — Al»rm of 
iIil- Indian Guverumeut — Dihv in (be i»-iii. nabbing KiiyUud — Tim Mr* 
EttgnbtioTU l.i:il 1'iiruivnllia Hworn in ait Governor fli-ueral — CotiomBioiin 
L> llie lkaigal linkers — Thev return to their duty — Lord CornwuUis 
lii.-> :i|«inpiiilniL-u( — Uftil effect of the 

b plan 

In several preceding letters, allusion has been mads to the 
limn nt i-xisting among tin' officers of the Bungid army- The 
suggested bj I-onl Cornwalli> fur amalgamating all the EmuBfl 
troops in India, 1 hod not met with approbation, cither from the 
Court of Directors or the Company's officers. The latter held 
meetings, named Delegates to confer with the QofWiUUentj Mil 
urged their pretensions with great pertinacity and much intem- 
perance. But it was not till the close of L7B5, that tin:' full extent 
of their machiual ions became kuown to Sir John Shun-. \ m (anag 
of the Supreme CoQBCtl was suddenly Called OS ' 'hris-tiiius-day, nd 
the Governor^ J eiieral laid before them most important informa- 
tion, whieli had reached him, and the Command. i-in-' lo<t, tfcad 
day, and the day before, 8 It was a communication from an officer, 
wines name, though known to them, they would not mention in 
the Minutes, nor is it given in Sir John Shore's doo pa t I 
Secret Committee. He detailed the steps taken bj I 
banted officers, and disclosed the names of those moat deeply ta* 
volvrd. It appeared thai the officers had formed the Del 
an Kxirutivi' i«>urd. I '■ ■ i ■ 1 J i . inviolability of whose persons the whole 
army became responsible, and pecuniary losses, if any. were 

ta be made g I bj ■ general mbsariptun. Tin". Ehwcntrra Board 

mu authorised to tnal ml the name of the whole army with tlw 

I li'M iminiit, ami nut only were their own pi 

• livnigr.l, I i, .| ;iuy 1 1 1 . ■ i ■ t i : i ■ ■ 

ana of Delegah or ka Ihn trnniau tifiw of an] other business, wa» 
bound to profound secrecy. I'm- determination the IWrd 

BTCjf tTOWed— thai ii' the u.-w liquidations did hot sjtoedfly 

fan Europe, the) were resolved to judge for tin 1 1 
Ibrce their own dvi'i-ivui at a in hazard, 

' S» A ]n ™li.. ■■<•-• io H» ."wn» C*»- 


The principal points npon which the Executive Board insisted 
were : — 

1st. That the Company's regiments should not be reduced in 
number, by consolidating two or three battalions into one regiment. 

2nd. That the King's troops in India should, by law, be fixed 
at a small number. 

3rd. That all promotions should go by seniority, and that no 
General officer should be selected for a command. 

■4th, That no King's Generals should have staff appointments, 

5th. That no distinction should be made between the European 
and native corps in the Company's service, as regarded employ- 
ment, pay, or emoluments. 

6th. That all allowances, at any time granted, including double 
batta, should be continued. 

7th. That a brevet, retrospective to 1783, should be issued. 

Alarmed at this state of affairs, it was settled that Sir Bobert 
Abercromby should proceed to the Upper Provinces, and try what 
liis personal influence could effect. Accordingly he went with hardly 
a day's delay to Cawnpore, and to other of the large cantonments, 
where his unexpected presence produced some impression, but did 
not put an end to the conspiracy. So great were the apprehensions 
of the Gove rnmenl, tliat Sir Jolui Shore requested General Craig at 
the Cape of Good Hope, and Lord Hobart at Madras, to hold 
troops in readiness to send to Bengal, and he called npon Sir 
George Elphinstone ' (Ix>rd Keith), to bring, if required, his whole 
squadron to Calcutta. He even accepted from M. de Boigne,* who 
was in the service of Sindia, an offer of cavalry commanded by 
European officers. 

A great length of time elapsed before the knowledge of these 
events reached England, and with them came the intelligence that 
the exertions of the Moderates, as the loyal officers were called, 
had checked, though not stemmed, the torrent of sedition. Hopes . 
were also entertained that the new ltegulations, already sent out, 

■ Hon. fieorge Elphinstone, K.H., voimger 

place; m. Anne Eliiabeth Rose Jowphiiw, 

•on of Charles, 10th Lord Elpbiustoiic,' created 

dau. ofCharlea Euxtacbe, Marquis d'Osmond, 

Lord Keith in Ireland 11 arch 7, 17S7. in 

and widow of the I'omte d'Argout. He bail 

England I«?c. ].">, 1 801, and Viscount Ki-i(l, 

(erred in several European annlei, and last 

June 1, 1814 ; b. Jan. 12, 1746, d. March 10, 

on the Madrai establishment, which hequitted 

1B3.9 ; m. Ill, Aug. 9, 1787, June, dau. and 

for Sirnlia'a service, under whom he organ- 

sole heir of William Mercer, of Aldie; 2nd, 

iced a well-diad (dined army (with man; 

Jan. 10, 18uti, Hester Maria, dau. of Henry 

European officers) of nearly 5u,0u0 men and 

Tbmli-, fciq., of Strcalhani. M.I', for the 

5"0 guim, but was nlwnys attached to the 

county of DuinUrton from Oct. 1 780 to June 

English interest. He return*] h.-me with 

I7W>," and for the count; of Stilling from 

a very large fortune earl; in thin century, 
and settled near his native town, at Villa 

Sept. 1798 till he wan made a British Peer. 
* L'omU de Boigne, b. March 8, 1741, 

Kiibaon, where the Editor once dined with 

at Ommln-ry. d. June '21, 183", al tbe wnt 




would prove satisfactory, and the home Govern meiit thenfcra 
delayed taking any active steps. These regulations fixed the 
European regiments in Bengal at three, with 5 field officers, 
8 captains, 29 subalterns, and 950 rank and file in each, besides 
3 battalions of artillery. The native regiments were to be conso- 
lidated into 12, 1800 strong each, with one subaltern more per regi- 
ment than in the European regiments ; and there were also to tie, 
for the first time, 4 regiments of native cavalry. Ten colonels were 
to be made major-generals : half batta in all cases, whole batta in 
some, was to be given, but all Iwzaar allowances to l>e done away 
with. Some new advantages as to furlough were granted. Tin m 
orders, which did not reach Calcutta till nearly the close of 179(i, 
though in some respects they gratified the officers, did not meet 
with approbation, from the Indian Government. On the contrary, 
in a minute dated December 1, 1790, the Governor-General in 
Council states, that they do not consider them "founded on solid 
principles, or framed with any knowledge of the country." As an 
instance of the delay in the transmission of despatches, ii may !»• 
mentioned that this minute mi Dot received in England till De- 
cember 15, 1797. 

Meantime Sir John Shore had found Ms fliffiwiltfe 
Early in 17!"i. n Brevet which had been made in England reached 
Calcutta, with directions to put it in Orders. By Qua Bereral KttgUi 
ollicrs would have been promoted over the heads of Company*! 
officers of older standing, and so afraid was tin- Bengal Govatn- 
nu'iit of doing anything which might offend tile olhYers, ihat they 
protested, January 19, against this Brevet being made public, and 
Sir It. Abercromby agreed to suppress it. On February I. 'I> 
Governor-General wrote to say, that if the Regulations did noi 
entire nob, he must frame some himself. Some portion of these 
deepatchea reached England overland, A.ugnst L8i but the whole 
did not arrive till December 5. Five days later, another h'tt'T. 
dated June 30, came to hand. In it Sir J. Shore said that the 
pressure upon him was so great, that he must, partially at least, 
gin way, and in ■ minnte (which he had made public), forwarded 
by the same drip, he i zpreeaed a hope that the General Oznan 
tin ii I . i t ■ 1 \ 1--11-I would be acceptable to the officers. 
bah Qoveroment npoa the n ceipl of this intelli ■■ 
alarmed both at wli.n the Bengal officers had done, ladalwhat 
the Bengal Qovernmenl seemed inclined to do. Thej ■ 
ihut Sir John Shore bad not shown sufficient Si 
and they determined to replace him by Lord CornwaUut, who wal 
■won into office on the 1st of February. But tor the i 
I in bin letters, bis departure was poet] 


The Board of Control and the Court of Directors were in the 
mean time discussing the matter with a committee of Bengal officers 
sitting in London, aud though they did not accede to all the de- 
mands made, they, contrary to the opinion of Lord Cornwallis, 
made such concessions, 1 that he considered it unnecessary to 
proceed on his voyage, and accordingly resigned his appointment 
on the 2nd of August, 1797. 

These concessions were so far successful, that the officers of the 
Bengal army returned to their duty, but there can be no doubt that 
the encouragement thus given to mutinous proceedings was the 
primary cause of the Madras disturbances in 1809. 

Right Hox. Henry Dundas to the Marquis Cornwallis. 

Ml DEAR LORD, Somerset Home, Jan. 19, 1797. 

Oar meeting with the Chairman and Deputy Chairman at 
Mr. Pitt's I have fixed for to-morrow at 12 o'clock. I hope you 
have attentively considered Sir R. Abercromby's Minute upon the 
arrangements, in order to decide whether there is any substantial 
objection, such as he states, to any part of it As I am totally 
adverse to any concessions, or any other than a decided line of 
conduct, it is necessary to be satisfied tliat there is nothing 
objectionable, for when one is to be firm we must be so on solid 
grounds. Indeed, my dear Lord, for want of proper instruments to 
conduct the government of India during the next twelve months, 
it is impossible not to be very uneasy upon the whole subject; and 
yet with a firm, and at the same time a conciliatory, man at the 
different settlements, all the difficulties that exist would vanish in 
a moment. If the army arrangement was carried into execution 
in Bengal, and something done to prevent matters getting into a 
wrong train at Oude, all would be well there, and if the unfor- 
tunate jumble which the two Governments have got into respecting 
the Nabob of Arcot and the Rajah of Tanjore, 1 was arranged upon 
an equitable footing and in a conciliatory manner, and if the 
judicial and land-revenue system of Bengal were put into the 
proper train at Madras, I could iben look to the future state of 

1 On* of the m^t prominent am 

ong these 

the Caruatic has already been mentioned. 

appointed t 

Lord Hobart bad pursued a ainiilar line with 

nmfJdeotliJ post in the 1 

ndia House 

the Rajah of Tanjore, and had by threats 

• The Government of 

in a moat 

eitortetl from him a coniideiable tract of 

dborznuifced state. As 
totally incapable of ruli 

>ph ul Do 

ul.ih «» 

country. In thia instance the difficulties 

were much inrreated by its having been oi- 

recti! v Hk 

i eiiating 

certained that Seribjee, and not Ameer Sing, 

evil*. The dispute betvri 

*n the Got 

wai the rightful mler. 

of Calcutta nad Jladnu 

about the 

Nabob of 


C.iAi-. XVIII. 

India with comfort and confidence ; but at present I realty *.*<■ not 
tin- means of jmtfiiifr in motion, far less of concluding! I 
uiiriiip'mcnt.s. Allow rue to say to your Lordship, thai il' JOS 
could bring yourself to forego the comforts of btntte ii>r MM mat 
nun i- of yuur life, and to spend thne months at Bengal ana H 
much at Madras, you would do the greatest service to ymn eomb] 
that ..v. r oaj man had it in his power to do. I can assure your 
Lordship I would not have allowed myself to have ever ante* 
tained any wish of breaking in upon your well-earned repose, if 1 
could have found a remedy in any juarsonol exertion of my own. 
I have endeavoured to satisfy Mr. Pitt and Lord Spencer 
two Ministers I have talked to 011 the subject) that there is no 
■tdid objection to my going; that any service I may ha 
capable of doing at home is of real insi^iiinVanee 'omp&red with 
what I might have it in my power to accomplish at this CBtfaal 
moment in India. I certainly have not been successful in tlmse 
endeavours, and if they remain in that opinion. I have no right to 
form any decision upon a subject where either my anxiety or my 
ambition may be disposed to mislead me. I therefore can onh 
entreat ymir I.nrdsliip either to alter their opinions, or to POBr lo ca 
yourself that the real interests of your country call (or am, Hut 
year's exertion from yourself. Take out your successors with you. 
teach them the road they should pursue, and. having doM iLut 
duty, and settled all India by your presence and authority, vmi 
may return, after six montlis, in the same ship of war (hat would 
carry ymi oat. And you will have the satisfaction of reflecting 
(and of transmitting the sentiment to your posterity) that you 
■are twice been the Enatnunent in the hands of Providence to aavc 
to tin' British Empire in India that stake, in which no rational man 
can ilmbl thai its permanent prosperity and stability do 
Others, Indy rest. i unii tVr 

Ili:si:\ DtnrttM. 



■ Ho: 


Dun Bib, 

I shall s;ii nothing "M the inbjecl of the nilitarj arrnage- 
iu"nt- till imr naetiug takes place, which will 1 ■ i 

peel eleven. 

I ihfadi on erorj Account that yon would ■ 
tn\-!-ii'. especially at great paina havi an thai 


of my leaving India, to impress on the minds of the Bengal officers 
that my sentiments were not favourable towards them, and that I 
was partial to the King's troops. 

If however you cannot go yourself, which I shall think very 
unfortunate for our Indian possessions, and if you and Mr. Pitt 
should be of opinion, that by once more doubling the Cape of 
Good Hope, I can render essential service to my country, I shall 
not depart from the line of conduct which I have invariably pur- 
sued through life, of sacrificing all private considerations of comfort 
and happiness to the service of the public. j am & e _ 


Right Hos. Hesrv Ddnoas to the Marquis Cornwallis. 

My DEAR LORD, Souwrart Place, Jan. SO, 1797. 

I have this instant received your Lordship's answer to my 
letter of yesterday. In an age when so few are disposed to con- 
sider anything but their own accommodation and self-interest, it is 
impossible for me to postpone a moment to express the heartfelt 
satisfaction your letter gives to me. It relieves me from an oppres- 
sion of mind which has hung upon me for some time past beyond 
what I can express to you. The particular difficulty you mention, 
I do not feel ; I am positive that, and every other, will instanta- 
neously die away the moment your name is announced. Allow 
me again to assure your Lordship that I did not address you on 
this subject without great reluctance, and if Mr. Pitt can still be 
persuaded to feel that lie greatly overrates the necessity of my 
remaining at home, I will with infinite pleasure come forward to 
relieve your Lordship from the necessity of executing the task 
which, with so much beuefit to the public, and infinite honour to 
yourself, you are otherwise ready to undertake. 

Believe me, &a, 

Henry Dundas. 

Marquis Cornwallis to Major-Gkseral Ross. 

Dear Ross, Whitehall, j»n. ai, 1797. 

The die is cast, and I am to go to India : how sorry I feel 
that your domestic circumstances put it out of my power to ask 
you to accompany me ! Yours in the greatest haste, 

Most sincerely, 


[lirfravisl Jan. 1 
My LORD, CslcuiU, July 5. tv 

I hare been obliged, contrary to my intention, to rw 
anotber year in this country. The state of the Bengal army has 
been so critical that I could not, consistently with my duty, rjuit 
my post without being relieved. The Kegulati.m*. with nme BbOr 
difications thought advisable, have been carried into effect) ud 
the minds of the officers appear to have been quieted, lint ■ 
transfer of the whole army to the King's service is the only measure 
that can radically cure the evil. To this, I believe, the Company's 
officers would now have no objection ; for they loudly blame their 
masters, whom they accuse of coldness and indifference to fb a 
interests. I have recommended to Mr. Duud&s that the Company's 
European regiments should lie immediately taken into His Majesty's 
service, as a preparatory step to the general transfer. 
I am, At, 


Marquis Corkwallis to Ross. 

Dear Ross, Whitehall, j™. m, i 

By your letter of yesterday's date, which I received 
morning, it does not appeal that lb" letter which I wrote kO JT01 OK 
Saturday night has ever reached you. 

Ion will know however by the letter which I sent last night, 
tluit my fvil Btan hare destined that J should again doable the 

* ':i| ( Good Dope. Would to God you could be of the paitg ; 

but Mrs. Hosts, your rank in the army, and your official Situation, 
all oppose insuperable barriers. Colonel Duncan 1 ga 
me, and I have written to Ke&naway to propose that he dtoald be 
of the party. Apsley's delicate liealth makes him (and 1 think 
very wisely) decline it. I feel that I shall lie called it fool tn ifl 
tha aelfeh part of mankind, but the dictate* of my own mind t.-ll 
me tlmt I inn acting an honourable and a grateful |>art. 

Then is no Cabinet dinner to-morrow, but I hliall probably MM 
both the Duke of Portland and Lord Qrenville at ~ 
wbon l nael rtaj Borne boon to oarrj in retnma and oo 

Yon an- to imderatand, if you have not received i 
letter, that 1 retain my situation in the Ordn ■ 

I an. 


< UmL-CW, William Duncaii. b. 17*7, H Maul, 4. 1830. 



George Abeeckombie Robinsou, Esq., to thk Marquis ■Corbwaixir. 
[Recdved F«b. 1797.] 

Mr Lord, o»1com». Sept, 3, 1798. 

Since my last letters to you I have had the satisfaction to 
receive two letters from your Lordship, and feel much gratified by 
these proofs of your remembrance and regard. My last closed, I 
believe, with the intelligence of the heads of the intended Military 
Regulations having been received from the Committee in England, 
and shortly after an overland despatch brought an official copy of 
them to Government. Although the propositions originally given 
in by you might seem to be the basis of them, it was obvious to 
every military man that the superstructure, which others had 
raised upon it, had no connexion with your plan. In short it 
proved to be an imperfect, undigested code, worthy of its parents, 
and such as might have been expected from the joint efforts of 
Mr. Dundas, the Committee of Officers, and the Court of Directors, 
all of whom appear to have liad different objects, and neither of 
them understanding the subject. The Directors, jealous of their 
own patronage, but ready to grant rauk, provided they could get it 
accepted without the pay usually attached to it. The Officers 
driving to extort rank with the pay annexed, and Mr. Dundas 
trimming between the two parties. 

The promulgation of the Regidations no sooner took place in 
Bengal, than remonstrances poured in from every station. Of the 
style, as well as of the grounds of them, you will be able to judge 
from the enclosed specimen, which I assure you, compared with 
one from Dinapore, is a pattern of moderation and submission, 
and the upshot of the business has been exactly of a piece with 
the weakness which the Government has shown throughout. In 
short they have surrendered everything up to a factious army, and 
by the mode in which the arrangements have been carried into 
effect here, I see no feature of the Regulations preserved, except as 
to the number and strength of the corps, which I am afraid will be 
found too unwieldy for service, and are certainly of an incon- 
venient establishment for the ordinary duties of detachment in 
Bengal, unless the battalions are again divided. The arreart of 
batta, of brevet rank, which came, I believe, as unthought of by 
the Officers, as they will be matters of surprise to the Court of 
Directors, proved a sop of such powerful influence, and so extensive 
in its operations, that the ferment in all ranks from the Captains 
upwards seemed all at once to subside, and this being followed up 
by the extra allowances to the Colonels, superior batta to Com- 


manding Officers, full pay and allowances to the second Lieutenant- 
Colonels and Majors, batta to be drawn according to brevet for 
all ranks, and a determination to suspend the operation of regi- 
mental rank, with many other deviations too tedious to mention, 
the discontent which before prevailed seems generally dispelled, 
and I question whether Sir Robert Abercromby will not believe he 
has restored discipline and subordination to this army, though in 
my opinion he lias only, at the expense of seven lacs of rupees paid 
in arrears of batta, and a permanent annual increase of six or 
seven lacs additional allowances, purchased a temporary submission, 
wliich, from the encouragement and success a conduct approaching 
to mutiny has now met with, will break out again into threatening 
and dangerous combinations in this or the other armies. • . • 

That your Lordship may judge of the correspondence between 
the Regulations as sent out, and as carried into effect, I shall enclose 
a copy of all the resolutions of Government that have yet passed on 
them. I shall ever regret, that one resolution did not take the 
place of the whole of them, namely, to carry the Regulations literally 
into effect, referring and recommending to Government at home 
such alterations as they appeared to require, but showing in the 
first instance to the army, what they appear to have forgot, that 
their superiors were to regulate, while they were to obey. 

I am, &c, 

G. A. Robinson. 

His Highness the Nabob Omdat ul Omrah, of the Carnatic, to 

the Marquis Cornwallis. 

[Received Feb. 1797.] 

Chephauck House, Feb. 26, 1796. 

My most noble and worthy Friend, 

Mr. Hall, who is perfectly acquainted with my affairs, now 
proceeds to England, and I trust will arrive there in safety. I have 
charged him with copies of all my correspondence, which contain a 
circumstantial detail of occurrences, and which he will have the 
honour of laying before your Lordship, and at the same time of 
representing the particulars more fully in person. 

The uneasiness, vexation, and troubles which I have suffered 
from the unprovoked and unjust enmity of Lord Hobart, have been 
such that nothing less than the Divine favour could have supported 
me under them ; Sir John Shore has manifested towards me the 
same sentiments of liberality and candour which I experienced from 


your Lordship, and he has continued to do justice to me in all my 
lawful affairs. In the payment of the Khists, and in all other matters, 
I liave made your Lordship's treaty my guide, and shall continue to 
do so, but the disinclination of Lord Hobart towards me is to the 
present moment unabated. I trust however in your Lordship's 
kindness for my security against every evil, and for the daily in- 
crease of my happiness and prosperity. The present situation of 
affairs gives me much reason for uneasiness and alarm, hut by the 
blessing of God, I trust in the constant protection of the King of 
Great Britain, in the generous and humane disposition of the Prince 
of Wales, and in your Lordship's friendship, for my security and 
safety. I therefore beg leave to request your Lordship's inter- 
cession with His most gracious Majesty and with His Ministers Mr. 
Pitt and Mr. Dundas, that orders may be issued that the Company's 
representatives shall not on any account whatever interfere in my 
hereditary Government and dominions. 

May your Lordship's days be long and happy ! 

What can I say more ? 

Minute of Council, Feb. 20, 1797, 

I.iiRD Chancellor. Marquis Cornwallis. Lord Gbenville. 

Loud ['rebiuext. Earl Spkkcbb. Tub Chancellor of 

Duke of Portland. Earl of Liverpool, tub Exchequer. 

Upon the n ^presentation of the Chancellor of the Exchequer, 
stating that from the result of the information ho had received, and 
of the iuqniries which it has been his duty to make respecting the 
effect of the unusual demands for specie tliat have been mode upon 
tlie metropolis, in consequence of ill-founded or exaggerated alarms 
in different parts of the country, it appears that unless some 
measure i,s immediately taken, there may be reason to apprehend a 
want of a sufficient supply of cash to answer the exigencies of the 
public service : it is the unanimous opinion of the Board, that it is 
indispensably necessary that the Directors of the Bank of England 
should forbear issuing any cash in payment, until the sense of Par- 
liament can be taken on that subject, and the proper measures 
adopted thereupon, for maintaining the means of circulation, and 
supporting the public and commercial credit of the kingdom at this 
important conjuncture. And it is ordered that a copy of this 
Minute be transmitted to the Directors of the Bank of England, and 
they are hereby required on the grounds of the exigency of the 



Chap. XVIII. 

case, to conform thereto until the sense of Parliament can be taken 
as aforesaid 

DEAR BOSS, Wimbledon, April 23, 1797. 

I find from Mr. Dundas that there are no hopes of the 
discretionary power to reduce the European regiments passing the 
Court of Directors, without a reference and a consequent debate 
and ballot in the Court of Proprietors. Mr. D. is sanguine about 
carrying the question, but says if that should not be the case, 
tliat the Board of Controul have an undoubted right to authorize 
the measure. The great and insurmountable objection to the 
debate in the Court of Proprietors is the mischief that it will do in 
India. To obviate this difficulty, Mr. D. proposes that I should go 
out with the first milk-and-water order, under the assurance that 
due authority for the execution of the measure shall be sent out 
in. a few weeks after my departure. 

I have desired till Tuesday to consider this matter, premising 
that I could not possibly leave England till the mutiny of the 
fleet was quelled. 1 

I mean to be in town to-morrow morning pretty early, and I 
wish you would call and talk it over with me, between eleven and 
twelve o'clock. You will take into consideration that whatever my 
orders may be, it is not likely that I should take any decided step 
within a month after my arrival in India. 

I am in agonies till I hear from Portsmouth. 

Yours ever, most sincerely, 


Marquis Cornwallis to Major-General Ross. 

DEAll BOSS, Culford, May 9, 1797. 

I last night received an express from Mr. Dundas, desiring 
to see me on the subject of moving for a Bill to authorize me to 

1 The mutiny in the fleet began at Ports- 
mouth, April 1 5. The demands of the sailors 
were not very unreasonable, and some of 
them being conceded they returned to their 
duty on the 23rd. Doubts having arisen 
among them whether the promises made to 
them would be fulfilled, they again broke 
out May 7. But Lord Howe having been 
sent down, the disputes were Anally arranged 
on the 15th. The fleet at the Nore, however, 
on May 22, took much more serious steps. 
All their officers were sent on shore, and 

delegates were chosen to whom the command 
of the fleet was intrusted. On the 6th of 
June a large portion of Lord Duncan's 
squadron joined them. They blockaded the 
Thames, and threatened to starve London. 
But they quailed before the energetic mea- 
sures pursued by Government, and began to 
give way on the 9th. The whole terminated 
on the 15th. Parker, the ringleader, was 
arrested, tried on the 22nd, and executed 
June 30. 


execute the proposed instructions, and at the same time communi- - 
eating to me the most al armin g and distressing accounts of the 
mutiny having again broke out at Portsmouth. I promised to be 
in town by four o'clock to-morrow, and told him that there could be 
no hurry about the Bill, as it was impossible that under the present 
calamitous circumstances of this country, I could embark for India. 
Unless the business of the fleet can be speedily adjusted, a few 
days must place a French army in Ireland : is this a time to be 
occupied about speculative . arrangements of the Indian army? I 
wish you would either coll, or send to my house by the time of my 
arrival, the most authentic accounts that you can procure of affaire 
at Portsmouth. 

Your Saturday's letter sufficiently depressed my spirits, and my 
thoughts are now so gloomy, that the sight of my family and of 
Culford are painful to me. 

Yours ever, most sincerely, 


Earl Camden to thk Makhuis Cokxwallis. 

MY LORD, Dublin C»tle, Ma; 23, 1767. 

I have received a letter from the Duke of Portland, in which 
I am informed that it is uot impossible your Lordship may be pre- 
vailed upon to accept the command of the army in Ireland, "pro- 
vided I see no objection" to its being proposed to your Lordship. 

I ean hardly forgive the Duke of Portland for even expressing 
the possibility that I could entertain auy objection to a measure 
which, if it is practicable, must be so eminently advantageous 
to the King's service. Since however I am placed under circum- 
stances in which I am called upon to deliver an opinion, that ready 
and thankful assent which I give, being called for as a duty, 
precludes what my own judgment would otherwise construe into an 
impertinence towards a person of your most distinguished station. 

I must ever consider your Lordship's inclination to act with me 
in this country as the most flattering circumstance of my life, and 
I should ill deserve that good opinion I should ever hope to retain 
from you, if I did not candidly and openly express all my feeling 
upon it. 

I think in the first place most truly and most sincerely, that 

• although your Lordship has shown a patriotism peculiar to yourself 

in not being unwilling to undertake the command of the army in 

Ireland, that that patriotism would be still more extended if you 

could be prevailed upon to accept the Lord Lieutenancy of this 


kingdom, I should feel I did my duty in imploring the measure, 
and that your Lordship would deserve, if possible, still better of 
your country by accepting it ; but since I understand your Lord- 
ship has said that no consideration should induce you to accept the 
Government of Ireland, I should be trespassing on your time and 
urging that which I am informed is impossible, were I to continue 
to address you upon that part of the subject If therefore His 
Majesty continues to require my services in Ireland, I can only say 
that no measure could inspire so much confidence, or be so useful 
to the King's service in this kingdom, as your Lordship's under- 
taking the command of his army within it. 

The extent of our force and the danger of attack makes it a 
command of the utmost importance, and not unworthy even of your 
Lordship's military character. The commission which I hold 
renders my name and assent necessary to the official forms of 
business. If I knew in what manner consistent with that com- 
mission to divest myself of that part of my duty, I should 
immediately adopt it, but if J am constrained to keep it, I beg to 
deliver over to your Lordship every military regulation, and to put 
that part of my office into your hands. As I flatter myself I may 
be permitted to say that we are both actuated by the same motive, 
our duty to the King and to our country, I cannot conceive it to be 
possible, your Lordship and I can have any difference of opinion upon 
any of the subjects upon which we shall have to confer, and very 
improbable we shall ever have it upon any others. I have ex- 
plained to the Duke of Portland how desirous I am of Lord 
Carhampton retiring with satisfaction to his own feelings, and I 
should do him great injustice if I did not express his opinion of the 
advantage of your Lordship's appointment to be as decided as that 
of any one to whom it has been communicated. 

I have the honour, &c, 


The Duke of Portland to the Marquis Cornwallis. 

My DEAR LORD, Sunday mora, May 28, 1797. 

I should do great injustice to my own feelings as well as to 
my own opinion, was I to withhold the enclosed because I happen to 
be represented not exactly as I could wish, or as I think I ought to 
have been. But as I am convinced of the motives and impression 
under which the Lord Lieutenant wrote to you, and certainly do 
not feel less anxiety than he does for your fulfilling the expectation 


I have encouraged liim to entertain, I should not shun the risk of 
incurring any blaino even from you, that did not obstruct your 
compliance with those wishes, which I believe in my conscience 
are common to every friend to the Empire in general, as well as to 
Ireland. When you give me leave to wait upon you, you will 
permit mo to explain the passage in the Lord Lieutenant's letter to 
which I allude, and if ten o'clock to-morrow does not suit you, you 
will be so good as to let ine know when I may call upon you. 
I am, &c, 


Marquis Coknwallis to Major-Gkkkral Ross. 
Dear Ross, cword, Aug. so, 1797. 

I should hope that the Portuguese peace will not do us 
much harm, even it' the war should go on, and that it may rather 
facilitate our negotiations. It is however mortifying to our pride 
to see how much more afraid all nations are of the French than of 
tins country. 

The comfort of the country which I proposed to myself, has suffered 
considerable abatement by the house having been completely full of 
young ladies in the lu'ghest spirits since Tuesday last. Thank God 
the Cadognns ' leave us to-morrow, and the Townshends* on Tues- 
day. I should think it likely that I may come to town about the 
time of your return from Portsmouth, but it may possibly liapi>en 
much sooner ; your proposed distribution of the Engineers will, I 
believe, do very well. 

Lord Urenvillc must feel very much descauvre, now we have 
lost all our Allies, I wish it would give him a distaste to the office 
of Secretary for Foreign Affairs, I am, dear Iioss, 

Moat truly yours, 


Maiwjulj ConswALLis ro MaJuK-Uenekal Ross. 

Dear ltoss, cWoid, d«. 15, 1797. 

The contents of the letter which you was so good as to write 
on Wednesday, did not send me out a-shooting in good spirits 

1 I.Hily Emily, b. ilav 26, 177S, d. l>ec. liam, lit Marquis of Anglewy, 

■SI, ISiiS; tn. Jul* 2, 1802, Hun. and Iter. » Hon. Caroline, b. Sept. 30,1778. Hon. 

■ if mid Wtllwlej. Lad> Charlotte, b. July Emily, b. OecemWr 31, 1779. Hon. Anna- 

II. 17BI,d. July H, IdiS; m. let, Sept. ill, bella, b. Dec. 12, 1783, <L Jan. «, 1854. Hon. 

ISO;), Hun. lltury WellcJey, afterwards l<t Anne, b. Jan. 1789, d. Feb. 14, ISM. 

Lurd Cowley; and 2nd, 1810, Heiiry Wil- Daughter! of Charlus, lit Lord Bayniug. 



Chap. XVIII. 

yesterday morning. Torn as we are by faction, without an army, 
without money, trusting entirely to a navy whom we may not be 
able to pay, and on whose loyalty, even if we can, no firm reliance 
is to be placed, how are we to get out of this cursed war without a 
revolution ? I envy for the moment the feelings of the sanguine 
part of Administration, but I am afraid the pleasing delusion will 
not last I propose to sleep at Hockerell on Sunday night, and 
shall be in town about one o'clock on Monday. 

Yours, &c., 


Marquis Cornwallis to Major-General Ross. 

Dear Boss, Cuiford, Dec. n, 1797. 

I cannot wait till I see you to-morrow to say how glad I am 
that you have got the 89th regiment, and how much I feel the 
Duke of York's kindness on this occasion. If he had not a good 
heart, he must hate me, and he has uniformly given me the 
strongest proofs to the contrary. 

Singleton will come up with me, but he must to-morrow attend 
the Committee on the Assessed Taxes. I have not forced Brome to 
come up, but he promises to follow if he is wanted. The measure, 
however, cannot be carried by the authority of Parliament alone, 
unless it is made more palatable to the country. 1 I am still very 
low indeed on the state of public affairs. 

Yours ever, most sincerely, 


Marquis Cornwallis to Major-General Ross. 

Dear Boss, Cuiford, Jan. 3, 179s. 

I enclose a letter which I have received from Dundas re- 
specting the appointment of to be a member of the Council 

at Madras. 

The statement from is in the common Tndmn cant, ajid 

the letter from D. Scott presses the matter very strongly, and 
speaks of it as a measure that would be acceptable to the Court 

1 The bill for trebling the assessed taxes 
had excited some opposition in the country, 
though the first stage, Dec. 4, had been 
carried by #14 to 15. Mr. Fox availed him- 
self of having a petition from his Westmin- 
ster constituents entrusted to him, to re- 
appear in the House, from which he and 
uiu*i of the Whig party had seceded some 

time before. On the 14th he divided against 
the second reading — ayes 175, noes 50. Some 
slight alterations were made in Committee, 
and Jan. 4 it passed, after two divisions — 
202 to 75, and 196 to 71. In the Lords 
there was one division, Jan. 9, 73 to 6, and 
on this * occasion the late Lord Holland made 
his maiden speech. 

1797. LORD MOIRA. 329 

It is not prudent to venture positively to charge him with 
having taken money from the Nabob, unless I was sure of being 
supported in it ; I well remember that we had reason to believe it, 
from a conversation with the present Nabob, but I have doubts 
whether the transaction was mentioned in direct terms, and I 
believe that notliing but my committing myself pretty decidedly 
on this point, will induce him to put his negative on . 

I wish you would let me know by the return of the post what 
passed with the Omdah, to the best of your recollection, and whe- 
ther you do not think it will be right to let Dundas take his own 
course, unless I feel confident that I could support a charge of cor- 
ruption. Yours ever, &c, 


Marquis Cornwallis to Major-General Ross. 

Dear Ross, Cuifoid, Jan. *, i7fls. 

1 have just received your letter, and think you hare done 
as well as possible about the arms ; it will take some time to get 
over 15,000 stand, and before that can be done, we shall be able 
to judge whether it will be advisable to engage any further. 

It is surety impossible that Lord Moira's letter 1 can be genuine, 
if it is, excess of vanity and self-importance must have extin- 
guished every spark of understanding, and I am sure there was a 
time when he had sense. Yours ever, most sincerely, 



Dear Sir, Cuiford, Jan. 7, ms. 

. . . It occurs to me, however, that you may wish before 
I come to town for the birth-day, to make up your mind on the 

subject of Mr. , and I feel both the difficulty of your resisting 

the wishes of the Court of Directors, without being able to give any 

1 The letter alluded to nl one written by Minuter, to tlie eidusion of both Mr. Pitt 
Lord Moira fruni Dunning ton, June 25, 1797, and Mr. Poi. That he wu quite ready to 
b) (oloii'l M'Mahon. It n of great length, accept the office if the King wished it) but 

i] — which had little tioned, he matt say that he would not tit 

n the same Cabinet with the greater part 

if Mr. Pitt's colleagues, especially the Duke 
>f Portland, and that he would ooly admit 
i few of Mr. Foi'a followers. Sir James 
J ulteney waa to be hit Chancellor of the 1 


i, under 

date JnD. 

1798, , 


..I' the snnic 

date. 1 



hud been ; 



of the ind. 



of I'.iHdmien 

t, wlui had 

with Gov 


that he should be 



Chap. XVIII. 

just or satisfactory reasons, and the delicacy on my part of sug- 
gesting charges, of which I certainly can bring no proo£ The 
natives of India never speak out, and it is always doubtful whether 
their hints and half-expressions are founded in truth. It is certainly 
impressed on my mind, from conversations with the Nabob, that 

Mr. has been, and is likely to be, an intriguer at the Durbar, 

but I can speak with no certainty, nor have I sufficient authority 
for those impressions, to advise you to take a strong measure, and 
still less an unjust one, in consequence of them. 

From the radical defects which have, till very lately, pervaded 
the whole system at Madras, there is scarcely a junior Company's 
servant, who is not highly objectionable. If, on running through 
the list with me to look for members of Council, you had stopped 

at name, I should have said No ; but as circumstances now 

stand, I do not feel myself warranted in* advising you to put a 
negative on the wishes of the Court, and yet after all I shall have 
great doubts of the merit of the appointment 

Yours, very sincerely, 


Marquis Cornwallis to Major-General Ross. 

DEAR ROSS, Whitehall, Feb. 19, 1798. 

I carried the statement of the small arms this morning to 
Dundas, to whom the Duke of Portland has now given up the 
entire management of the military defence of the country, and he 
is clearly of opinion that we should take the additional ten thousand 
stand of Prussian arms. Will you manage the business through 
Crew, or shall I send for him on the subject ? 

D. says they have good intelligence, and particularly in the 
Admiralty department, and he seems to have no doubt that the 
French will make the attempt. He told me that if anything hap- 
pened I should certainly go to the field. 

They say that the poor Duke of Northumberland 1 has peti- 
tioned for a reduction of ten per cent on his assessed taxes, because 
he has seven children to maintain. 

Yours ever, most sincerely, 


1 The fact was true, and it was noticed in the parody of Chevy Chase in the Anti-Jacobin : — 

Although full sixty thousand pounds 

My vassals pay u» mc, 
From Cornwall to Northumberland, 

Through many a fair countric ; 

Yet at St. Martin's Vestry Board 

To swear 1 am content, 
That 1 have children eight, and claim 

Deductions— ten per cent 


Marquis Cornwallis to the Hon, Colonel Wesley. 
Dear Sir, wMtdu.u, Feb. 23, ivae. 

I have received your letters dated February 20 and March 8, 
1797, which were a long time on their passage. There is nothing 
in them wlu'ch requires an answer, except that part which relates 
to Mr. Dormer.' Lady Elizabeth,* on whose account solely I ever 
took any concern about him, has been constantly tormenting me 
to let him come home, and on my representing to her that the 
inevitable consequence of his doing so, must be his being put into 
prison, she answers that they have made up their mind to it, and 
that as they should both feel happier in that event than in their 
present state of separation, she thinks that no other persons have a 
right to object to it, and she adds, that, as he purchased his lieu- 
tenancy in his former regiment, he considers himself as having a 
claim to dispose of his present commission in the 33rd. 

On these considerations I think it would be advisable for you to 
let him come home, and get Sir A. Clarke to recommend the suc- 
cession, and I think the 33rd will be very unlucky not to get as 
creditable a recruit os Dormer. 

I have been for a long time kept in the utmost anxiety for fear 
the expedition to Manilla* should take place, ^ond was happily 
relieved from my npprehensions by the last arrivals from India ; I 
am sure your brother ' will heartily concur with me in these senti- 
ments, although I am not sure that they will be well received by 
one of the intended captors. 1 

We are now brought to the state' to which I have long since 
looked forward, deserted by all our Allies, and in daily expectation 
of invasion, for which the French are making the most sertous pre- 
parations. I have no doubt of the courage or fidelity of our militia, 
but the system of David Dundas, and the total want of light in- 
fantry, sit heavy on my mind, and point out the advantages which 
the activity of the French will have in a country which is for the 
most part inclosed. 

1 Hod. John Evelyn l*ier*|>ont Dormer, cited by the intelligence of the Treaty of 

h. March, 1771, d. l>cc. 9, 182H ; m. Not. Canipu Formic, and die suspicion! which had 

0, 1795, Eluabelh, dau. of William John, been aroused by tho conduct of Tiupoo and 

5 ill )liu\jiii.4 of Lothian. Became 10th Lord Ihe Marnthaa, induced Lord Hobart, who 

Dormor on the death of his half-brother, had authority to that effect, to atop it* fur- 

Clim Iiw, '.iili llanui, April 2, 1819. ther progress. Sea a memorandum by Colonel 

* Lady KJiaitwth, b. Sept. 2, 1765, d. Wesley on this lubject in the Appeudii to 

An*. IS, 1822. Vol. 1. of Lord TeignmouUi'i Life by hit 

1 .Sir John Shore had prepared an eipe- Son. 

ditiuii u;;ai[i»t Manilla, which sailed in August, * Lord Moniington. 

1797, under the lommand of Colonel Wesley, * Hear- Admiral Rainer i 

Hut when it reached I'enang, the alarm ei- iquadron in the Eaat Ii " " 


Give my kindest compliments to Lord Mornington, and believe 
me to be with very sincere regard, &c., 


Marquis of Cornwallis to Major-General Ross. 

DEAR EOSS, Office of Ordnance, March 20, 1798. 

I am just come from the Duke, who has I find rejected Lord 
B.'s 1 plan on the reasonable and fair grounds that there must be a 
general rule for the whole. I have obtained a promise from him 
that he will never allow a heavier piece of ordnance than a six- 
pounder to be attached to any battalion. We had afterwards a 
general conversation about howitzers and the multiplicity of artillery 
used in the field, which was very friendly, although we did not 
perfectly agree. 

If Lord B. had been the only wrongheaded, absurd, Colonel of 
militia, I think the Duke might have consented, but as the brother- 
hood are numerous, he was right to check these follies in the bud. 
I write in great haste. Yours ever, most sincerely, 


Marquis Cornwallis to Sir William Howe. 

Dear Sir, March 26, 1798. 

I have read with attention your report on the several points 
submitted to you by H. E. H. the Duke of York, and perfectly 
agree with you with respect to the distribution of the troops at Ips- 
wich, Colchester, and Chelmsford ; and as the numbers which the 
barracks at those places can contain, will not be sufficient to defend 
the county of Essex, if the enemy should land in force, it will 
perhaps be thought necessary to encamp some troops at Danbury 
and Warley, and especially at the latter place, as the situation is so 
convenient for reinforcing the southern district 

According to your request, I will make such observations as 
occur to me on the positions which you describe in Essex, which is 
a most difficult country to defend with inexperienced troops, un- 
accustomed to move against a most active enemy, who have derived 
confidence from their extraordinary success against the most 
powerful and warlike countries in Europe. 

When the army is stationed defensively behind the river Colne 
at Colchester, it does not appear to me that it would be safe to 
place a considerable corps on Bexted Heath. 

1 Lord Buckingham. 


I have no idea of a position for 30,000 men that could be 
tenable behind the Chekner, with a corps upon Banbury and 
another at Writtle (even with the help of any field-works that can 
be constructed) against a superior and enterprising enemy ; and I 
confess that the measure of throwing up works and making 
redoubts in various parts, would, in my opinion, greatly intimidate 
the country, and occasion an enormous expense, without affording 
any efficient security, unless the idea was confined to some spot 
advantageously situated for protecting the capital, the natural 
strength of which would render it, with the help of such works, 
a kind of citadel which could hardly be carried by a coup-de-main. 

It is impossible to foresee the circumstances on which it would 
be necessary to act, on the supposition of the invasion of Essex, by 
an army which it would be imprudent to meet in the field ; but 
if a very resectable force was concentrated on the heights of 
Dtmbury, it can scarcely be supposed that an enemy would 
venture with an army in their rear to advance to the capital 

A large body of infantry, with a considerable corps of light 
infantry, are, I think, essentially necessary for the defence of Essex ; 
but cavalry, especially of the heavy kind, could render very little 
service, and in that fiat, inclosed country, an army should not be 
incumbered by a very numerous artillery. 

As you are in possession of a copy of the paper which I 
delivered to the Duke of York in 1796, on the defence of the 
eastern district, it does not occur to me, that I have anytliing 
further to say that is material on that subject. 

I have the honour to be, &c., 


Marquis Cornwallis to Ma job-General Ross. 
DEAR ROSS, Whitehall, March 30, 1798. 

For your private ear, Abercromby is coming from Ireland. 
He has been exceedingly wTonghoaded, I expect to be most 
violently attacked, what shall I, what can I do? 1 I intend to 
postpone my expedition till Tuesday, that I may see you when yon 
come to town on Monday. Yours, most sincerely, 


1 Sir Ralph Abercromlijr and Lord Cam- Comwallii anticipated what did occur— 

den, then Lord-Lieutenant, had diugrwd namely, that he would be pressed to gn orer 

upon ao man; anbieeti us to render it very to that country in the double capacity of 

unjulTimble that the former should remain Lord - Lie a tenant and Commander- in-Chief. 
aa t'ommanuet- in- Chief in Ireland. Lord 


Marqihs Cornwallis to Major-General Ross. 

DEAR ROSS, Whitehall, March 31, 1798. 

I have neither seen nor heard from any person belonging to 
Administration since I wrote to you yesterday, which affords me some 
hopes that I shall escape the attack which I apprehended. 

The Lord Lieutenant said in his letter to the Duke of P., that 
unless some officer of high rank and estimation, and popular cha- 
racter, was immediately sent, he considered the country to be in 
the most imminent danger. Lord Spencer said to me, after reading 
the letter, You must go as Lord Lieutenant, and Commander-in- 
Chief ; I said, You are too good to me, to wish to place me in so easy 
a situation. Our Cabinet on the defence of the country, which was 
to have met to-day, is postponed till Monday. That is a subject on 
which I never have been in the smallest degree consulted by 
Dundas ; he thinks his namesake David a much better officer and a 
clever fellow. Yours ever, most sincerely, 


Marquis Cornwallis to Major-General Ross. 

DEAR EOSS, Whitehall, April 14, 1798. " 

I have just received your letter, but I am so much occupied 
this morning that I cannot enter into any detailed account of our 
expedition. On the whole I have only to say that Dover Castle is 
in a better state than I expected, and a very little more work will 
undoubtedly put it out of danger of an assault. I am sorry to say 
in other respects, that I have great doubts of the possibility of 
effectually driving the country, or of making inundations, and that 
I saw no position that could not be turned. 

I have heard nothing further about light infantry, I wish they 
would tliink more about them, and less about four-and-twenty- 

Lady Spencer has got a fine boy. 

Yours ever, most sincerely, 


Marquis Cornwallis to Major-General Ross. 

DEAR BOSS, Office of Onlnance, April 24, 1798. 

I was much pleased to learn from the Duke of York this 
morning, that it was not the intention to fortify any positions until 


the country was actually invaded, and that his wish at present was, 
that every piece of ground tliat resembled a position should be 
thorouglily examined, and that a report should be made how for it 
could bo strengthened with field-works, in order to assist the 
decision of the General when the season for action should arrive. 
Tins plan I most perfectly approve. 

You will fix at least one day to dine with us whilst you stay in 
town, but the more days you and Mrs. Boss can give us, the more 
we shall he obliged to you. Wednesday will he a good day, as 
there is no opera. I am in great haste, 

Yours, most sincerely, 


Marquis Cobswalus to Major-General Boss. 

Dear Boss, wwwwli, M« y 19, 179a. 

I confess that I have not sent you much information since 
you last went out of town, but there have been few subjects on 
which I could write with any degree of certainty, and even those 
were of so secret a nature that I did not quite like to trnst them to 
the post 

* If I hear anything of the expedition ' before the port goes out I 
will add a line to give you what information I may receive. You 
kuow I was not sanguine under any circumstances, and the blowing 
weather has kept me in agonies. 

There can, in my opinion, be no doubt that the Toulon arma- 
ment is destined either against Portugal or Ireland, and I should 
rather think the latter. Government has, I think, taken the best 
measures to counteract them, but in all naval matters there mart 
be great uncertainty. 

You will have seen by the papers that I did the honours of the 
Tower on Wednesday to the Queen, Princesses, and the Duke of 

The only means by which the innumerable local corps in all 
jMirts of the country can be armed, is by providing balls for fowling- 
piecos. I am, most affectionately yours, 


r Eyre Cootc, 



Chap. XVIII. 

Marquis Cornwallis to Major-General Ross. 

DEAR BOSS, Whitehall, May 25, 1798. 

It is the fashion hardly to consider the late expedition as a 
failure or a misfortune ; l I cannot quite agree in those sentiments, 
but it will be fortunate if it should in general be considered in that 
light through the country. I have heard no accounts from the 
Continent, and conclude therefore that there is nothing good from 
thence. Dundas has been, and I am afraid still continues, much 
indisposed. I have not seen him since Monday. As we are to 
meet so soon, I will not enter upon the extensive chapter of arms. 
The Welshmen will not part with those taken in Pembrokeshire 
from the French invaders, 2 and there has been a warm contest 
between Lords Milford 3 and Cawdor * about the place where they 
are to be kept. Believe me to be, most truly yours, 


Marquis Cornwallis to Major-General Ross. 

DEAR ROSS, Whitehall, May 28, 1798. 

I was much disappointed when I called at your door yesterday at 
five o'clock, to find that you did not intend to come to town, although 
the reasons you give for deferring your journey are perfectly just. 

You will have been surprised to hear of the duel,* thank God it 
terminated so well. 

Lady S. told rae this morning that the accounts from Ireland 
were of the most alarming nature. Actual hostilities have been 
committed, and much blood spilt in and about Dublin. The Lord 
Lieutenant writes for troops, but from whence are they to come ? 

* I am, in great haste, &c, 


1 The troops landed May 18, and com- 
pletely destroyed the sluices, &c. But owing 
to had weather they could not re-embark, 
although they were 16 hours on the beach 
before the enemy appeared in any force, and 
were compelled to surrender on the 20th. 
The loss was 1 off., 43 r. and f., k. ; 5 off., 
65 r. and f., w. ; 62 off., 1123 r. and f., taken 
and missing. 

2 A small body of French — about 1400 — 
landed in Fishguard Bay, Feb. 22, 1797. 
The four ships which brought them there 
sailed away immediately, and left them to 
their fate. They were surrounded by Lord 
Cawdor, with what militia he could collect, 
and the peasantry of the neighbourhood, and 
surrendered on the 24th, without firing a shot. 

3 Richard, Lord Milford of Ireland, so cre- 
ated July 13, 1776, b. 1738, d. Nor. 28, 
1823; m. June 2, 1764, a dau. of James 
Philips, Esq., of Pontipark. 

4 John, Lord Cawdor, so created May 31, 
1796, b. April 24, 1755, d. June 1, 1821; 
m. July 27, 1789, Isabella Caroline, dau. of 
Frederick, 5th Earl of Carlisle. 

6 Between Mr. Pitt and Mr. Tierney. It 
arose out of some strong expressions used by 
Mr. Pitt in a debate on the affairs of the 
Navy, May 25. They met on Putney Heath, 
on Sunday, May 27, with Mr. Ryder, after- 
wards Lord Harrowby, and the Hon. George 
Walpole, as their respective seconds. Two 
shots were exchanged, but without injury to 
either party. 



Alarming state of Ireland — Formation of the Volunteer Corps — The Con- 
vention — Society of United Irishmen — Their negociations with the French 
Directory — Attempt of the French to invade Ireland — The Rebel news- 
l«pers — Vigorous measure* of the Government — Contests with the Rebels 

— Extent of the insurrection — Necessity of uniting the civil and military 
command — Lord Comwallis appointed Lord-Lieutenant and Commander- 
in-Chief — Proceedings of Irish Parliament — Proclamations of pardon 
— Decline of the Rebellion — Proposals of the Rebel leaders to surrender — 
Special Commission for trial of State-prisoners — General Humbert's expe- 
dition — Affair at Castlebar — Disposal of State-prisoners — Another French 
armament — Court-martial on Whollagan — Union question brought forward 

— Opinions on the measure — Lord Lougueville's jobbing — The "Lawyers' 
Infantry Corps " — Clamour against the Union — Alterations by Government 
in the proposed measure. 

A few days after the date of the last letter, Lord Comwallis 
accepted, at the earnest request of Mr. Pitt, the offices of Lord- 
Lieutenant of Ireland and Commander-in-Chief. The state of that 
country had become most alarming, and the Government wore com- 
pelled to place at the head of affairs some person of undoubted 
firmness and acknowledged judgment, who could unite both the 
civil and military authority. 

A long course of neglect and misgovemmerit had brought 
Ireland into this dangerous position. Formerly the Irish Parlia- 
ment met but once in two years, and was only necessarily dissolved 
by the death of the Sovereign. The grossest corruption prevailed, 
and Ministers, almost always able to carry any question about 
which they were really anxious, were very indifferent to the real 
interests of the country. A perpetual Mutiny Bill relieved them 
from all difficulty on that subject. Little by little some points were 
gained by the popular party. An Octennial Bill was passed, and 
when, owing to the difficulties of England, the regular troops were 
nearly all withdrawn from Ireland, a general flame burst forth 
which led in 1778 to the formation of the Volunteer corps. Forty- 
two thousand men were gradually enrolled — the officers, rejecting 
royal commissions, were chosen by the members of each corps, by 
whom also Lord Charlemont ' was nominated the General. For a 
time they were most assiduous in discharging their military duties, 

i. July 2. 


but politics soon engaged their attention, and Delegates l from each 
corps, calling themselves a Convention, assembled in Dublin, where, 
while aping the forms of Parliament, they endeavoured to establish 
an hostile authority. They were principally guided by two men, 
very dissimilar in character, but both actuated by inordinate vanity 
and great ambition — the Bishop of Deny* and Mr. Flood." Re- 
form in Parliament was their nominal object, and their avowed 
means, military intimidation. Mr. Flood came down to the House 
of Commons in full uniform, November 29, 1783, to propose a 
scheme framed by the Convention, which had declared its sitting 
permanent till the fate of the motion should be known : the House 
had however sufficient firmness to reject this motion by a majority 
of 158 to 49. 

Though after this the Convention gradually sank into insignifi- 
cance, the spirit of resistance to Government was not extinguished, 
and the [most ardent of the Delegates persevered in encouraging 
agitation. In 1791 they succeeded in forming at Belfast the 
" Society of United Irishmen," nominally to obtain Parliamentary 
Reform, but really to promote the separation of Ireland from Great 
Britain, and to establish a republic in the former country. 

An Executive Council managed their affairs. To that body was 
intrusted the charge of gaining to their cause men of influence and 
talent — of preparing the lower classes to pay obedience to their 
appointed leaders — and of working upon the passions of the multi- 
tude by the distribution of seditious publications. As early as 1792, 
emissaries were sent to different regiments to try to seduce the non- 
commissioned officers and privates. Itinerant Committees travelled 
through the country, to provide prisoners with pecuniary means for 
their defence — to endeavour to bribe or intimidate witnesses — to 
induce Under-Sheriffs to return disloyal panels, and to terrify any 
well-disposed juryman who might happen to be sworn. Many of 
the Presbyterian clergy in Belfast ardently promoted these schemes, 
and some were rash enough to display their hostility to England, 
by praying in their pulpits for the success of the Republican armies. 

1 Among the delegates were the Hon. road. He was attended by an officer and 

Robert Stewart, afterwards Marquis of Lon- twenty men, volunteers ; he had two sentries 

dondeny, and Mr. Corry, afterwards Irish at his door wherever he stopped." 

Chancellor of the Exchequer. » Right Hon. Henry Flood, b. 1732, d. 

8 Hon. Frederick Augustus Harvey, conse- Dec. 2, 1791; m. April 13, 1762, Frances 

crated Bishop of Cloyne Feb. 1767, Bishop Maria, dau. of Marcus, 1st Earl of Tyrone, 

of Deny Jan. 1768. Became 4th Earl of M.P. for Kilkenny 1759, Callan 1762 to 

Bristol Dec. 22, 1779; b. Aug. 1, 1730, 1776, Enniskiilen from 1777 to 1783, and 

d. July 8, 1803; m. Elizabeth, dau. of Sir then Kilbeggan to 1790. In England— for 

Jermyn Davers, Bart. Captain, afterwards Winchester from Oct 1783 to March, 1784, 

General, Eustace, in a letter to General Ross and for Seaford from 1785 to Jane, 1790. 

from Dublin in Nov. 1783, says, " The Vice-Treasurer in Ireland from Oct. 1775 to 

Bishop of Deny was jnst before me on the Dec. 1781. 

1798. STATE OF IRELAND. 339 

The leaders, however, conscious that many of their adherents 
were timid, withheld from them the knowledge of their ultimate 
plans. But a document, containing a detailed account of the 
state of Ireland, was drawn up for the information of the French 
Directory, by Mr. Hamilton Rowan" and Mr. Theobald Wolfe 
Tone a (the latter of whom had framed the constitution of the United 
Irishmen), and transmitted to Paris. By the summer of 1796 large 
numbers were sworn in as United Irish, the test oath baring been 
altered the year before, to induce the moderate reformers to unite 
more cordially with the real republicans. Encouraged by this 
accession of strength, the leaders more openly avowed their inten- 
tions, and they eagerly embraced an offer of the French Directory 
to place a sufficient force at their disposal, to enable Ireland to cast 
off her dependence on England. Lord Edward Fitzgerald* and 
Mr. Arthur O'Connor* were despatched to make the necessary 

In the same summer, a lawless banditti, calling themselves 
Defenders, and acting with the knowledge, if not under the direction, 
of the Executive Committee, committed the grossest outrages, 
principally in the counties of Roscommon, Lei trim, Longford, Meath, 
Westmeath, and Kildare. This outbreak, and the religions feuds 
raging in Armagh, produced the Insurrection Act, under which the 
Lord-Lieutenant in Council might proclaim the whole or any part 

1 Archibald Hamilton 


in, ■ 


of pom) family and some i 


the north 

of Ireland, b. May 12, 

1, d 

. Not. 6, 

1(534; m. 17(51. S.urihi ,\ 

of Walter 

Dawson, Esq. of Carricl 

He was 

convicted of publishing 

a seditious libel in 

5 7S-I, iinwl 7>Wt., and in 



in Dublin. 

While in New^te he i 



himself in 

treasonable practices, and 

he i 

,ot escaped 

from prison, would have 



1792, Pamela, n, 
of Madi 

f Egalito, Duke of 

■' Theobald Wolfe Tone, b. June 20, 1762 
d. Nov. 19, 179S; m. July, 1785, Matilda, 
dau. of William Witherington, Esq. (he] 
sister married Thomas Reynolds). He wat 

ml, he a 

tided e: 

the dangers 
and iihow a r 

United Irish, 

h give a frightful account of 
o which Ireland was exposed, 
infill disregard of all principles 

humanity on the part of the 
The American edition it the 

M.P. for All 
then for county Kildare to 1797. He was 
arrested May 21, 179S, in the house of 
Nicholas Murphy, a feather-dealer in Thomas 
Street. The man who gave the information 
which led to hii arrest received lOOOf., bat 
his name baa never transpired. 

* Arthur O'Connor, b. July 4, 1765, d. 
April 35, 1852; m. 1807 the only dau. of 
Condoroet. M.P. for Philipstown from 1780 
to 1795. Hia mother was sister to Lord 
Longueville, who brought hi* nephew into 
Parliament, but renounced all conneiion with 
him when his revolutionary principles became 
public O'Connor was tried for high treason 
at Maidstone in 1798, and acquitted, but 
was immediately arrested again. After some 
months' confinement, on confession of his 
guilt, he was allowed to go to France, and, 


I of Lit! 

implored after lSi 
which year Its was to ha" 

is said by Mr. Grattan (i 

his father) to have been in deacon' 

z 2 


. of Ireland. 


of a county. Increased powers were vested in the Magistrates : 
and shortly after, yeomanry corps were formed, and the Habeas 
Corpus Act suspended. Meantime an accredited agent from the 
French Directory visited Ireland, and promised a great supply of 
arms, of ammunition, and an army of 15,000 men. These pledges 
seem to have brought about a formal alliance between France and 
the Executive Committee, who then devoted all their energies to 
the military organization of the country. 

Late in the year General Hoche l sailed from Brest, in com- 
mand of a very considerable army, but the fleet was dispersed by 
bad weather, and only a portion of it reached Bantry Bay December 
22, the vessel in which Hoche himself was, being one of the missing 
ships. Grouchy, 2 who was next in command, was much discouraged 
to find that, during the week he remained at anchor, none of the 
Irish seemed inclined to join, and he accordingly returned to France 
without having disembarked his men. 

During the winter the United Irishmen repeatedly urged the 
French to repeat their attempt, and thinking the Directory were very 
dilatory, they sent Mr. Lewins 3 about the end of May to France, 
with renewed and urgent solicitations. The eagerness of some of 
the Executive Committee would brook no delay, and they pressed 
for an immediate rising, without waiting for foreign assistance, but 
the plan was abandoned on the opposition of the Leinster delegates. 

The measures hitherto adopted for the repression of outrages 
having proved insufficient, General Lake, who commanded in the 
north, issued, March 13, under the authority of the Lord-Lieutenant, 
another proclamation, directing a general search for arms. But 
tliis search was not very successful — the quantity seized bore but a 
small proportion to that retained, for, if the rebel returns were 
correct, there were in April, in Ulster alone, upwards of 100,000 
men ready to take the field, well provided with muskets or pikes, 
and to a great extent disciplined and regimented. An endeavour 
to restore tranquillity by clemency was equally a failure. By 
another proclamation, May 17, pardon was promised, with certain 

1 Lazare Hoche, b. Feb. 24, 1763, d. Sept. Hua. A Marshal. Originally an officer in 
15, 1797, not without suspicion of having the Gardes du Corps, he soon joined the 
been poisoned. Originally a groom in the revolutionary armies, and served with great 
royal stables, afterwards a private in the distinction. His military career ended with 
Gardes Francaises. Of violent democratic Waterloo, where his conduct gave rise to 
principles, and always connected with tliat much discussion. 

party, but, except in the affair of Quiberon, a Edward John Lewins, an attorney in 

generally moderate in his conduct. Dublin. He was early obliged to fly the 

2 Emanuel Comte de Grouchy, of a noble country, and settled at Paris, where he d. 
family, b. Oct. 23, 1766, d. May 29, 1847 ; Dec. 1827. He was agent to the United 
m. 1st, 1785, Cecile Felicite Celeste, dan. Irish, and was included in the list of persons 
of M. Le Donlcet de Pontecoulant ; 2nd, banished by Act of Parliament. 

June 27, 1827, Mdlle. Josephine Fanny 

1798. STATE OP IRELAND. 341 

exceptions, to all who should within a month surrender and giro 
security for their future conduct. Very few accepted the offer, and 
a partial outbreak took place in Ulster, which was easily put down, 
and the leaders fled to France. 

The Rebels hod by this time added largely to their numbers in 
the metropolis and some of the adjoining counties. To excite the 
Roman Catholics to join, the most unfounded reports were circu- 
lated, and the old tithe grievances revived. The midland and 
southern counties were thus thrown into a state of ferment, and the 
same scenes of violence which had previously disgraced Ulster were 
enacted there. All who incurred the resentment of the United 
Irish were either murdered, or punished by the burning of their 
stacks and buildings, or by the houghing of their cattle, and 
wherever arras could be found they were unhesitatingly seized. 

Notwithstanding this accession to their strength, the Executive 
were afraid that their hopes would be destroyed if a premature 
rising took place before the arrival of the French, and they there- 
fore despatched their Secretary to urge the Directory to immediate 
action. Dr. M'Niven ' proceeded first to Hamburgh; and from 
thence transmitted one memorial to Paris, and afterwards pre- 
sented a second in person. These documents avowed the most 
desperate purposes ; exaggerated the resources of the United Irish ; 
und entreated the Directory at once to send their promised aid ; 
representing tliat not only would delay enable Government to 
frustrate their projects, but that it might also check the favourable 
disposition of the Irish people, and thus render the establishment 
of a republic infinitely less easy. 

While endeavouring to promote rebellion and treason, the 
Executive Committee did not overlook the advantage of having a 
portion at least of the public press under their direct control. 
Early iu 171*7 the ■' Northern Star ' commenced its career of 
sedition at Belfast, but it was soon put down in a manner more 
summary than legal. A party of men, some military, some 
civilians, attacked and gutted the house in which it was printed, 
aud destroyed the types and presses. The shareholders, who were 
few in number, and far from wealthy, were unable to meet this 

1 Willi™ .lames M'Niven, son of a Roman who, in 1798, ngretd to dis-lnse the secret* 

March 21, 17ii:i, d. Jul)- 12, 18+1 ; m'. in the Lords' Committee, stated that one 1'rivy 

America » Mrs. June Tone, dnu. of a Mr. Councillor and one General on the Stiff, 

Kicker. He was •Incited in Austria, and besides others of lower rank, were privy to 

in 1791 established himself as a physician their treasonable schemes. When released 

in Dublin, where his son joined the United from Fort Geoige, he went to Prance, wher* 

Irishmen. On his return from thii mission he sened for a short time with the rank of 

to the Continent he became a member of the Captain, and then proceeded to Mew York, 

Eiecnthm Directory. He was one of those where be spent the remainder of his lit*. 



Chap. XIX. 

loss, and the paper expired. It was succeeded by the ' Onion 
Star,' published in Dublin. This atrocious paper was print > ■■■'■ 
on one- side, so that it might be pasted on walls. It not only 
recommended, generally, deeds of violence, bat ]>ointed out by 
name the magistrates or other persons whose conscientious dis- 
charge of their duty had rendered thein obnoxious to the Hcbels, 
as tit objects for vengeance. Later in the year the ' Press* was 
commenced, which was conducted with more talent, and, if possible, 
with more malignity, than its predecessors. The original editors, 
among whom was Peter Finnerty, 1 an often-convicted libeller, were 
soon obliged to leave the country, and they were replaced by 
Arthur O'Connor, who seems to have been always willing to stand 
forward as the champion of treason. 

The battle of Camperdown, October 11, put a stop to the 
intended invasion of Ireland. It is well known that Admiral 
I to Winter 1 was very reluctant to put to sea, as he anticipated his 
defeat, wluch was a very severe blow to the Irish Rebels, and pro- 
duced a most salutary effect in the country. Numbers who hail 
b. .11 misled were now, perhaps because they thought their cause 
was failing, anxious to avail themselves of the offers of pardon 
which had been held out ; flagrant acts of violence became leas 
tauuent, the meetings of the inferior classes of the United Irish 
were generally discontinued, the people resumed their ismn\ pur- 
miiK and the well-disposed were no longer afraid to display their 

The civil power was therefore found sufficient for the adminis- 
tration of justice during the circuit of July and August This 
■tofte of nfian was far from satisfactory to the rebel Itmtuil, for, 
although the principal BOtattfttOOO still sat in Ulster, many of the 
counties refused to Bead delegates, and the ptoria 
very little t<> th- funds of the Society. Another cause fee this 
lukewannnuas in tli.j north HTOM from rahgiooi rKIWnumi ■ The 
iuliabitants of Ulster "ere mostly Presbyterians, mid though |h<* 
republican nature of their tenets bjqUWod rliein eageilv b> join the 
Doited Irish, they hefted the lloiuau Oilhoti a I advo* 

rates for their emancipation. As long m the BoBUa Catholic 
PManbon of the Boofet; remained in a minority, end the doctrine 
of etntuiei|i,iii[ui was k . ■ | ■ i in the beckgnnmd by the 1 

1 IVtUi 1 inn-fit", i inAii of oWuta liirth. In Kaglanil he aflinwdi punuhl the mat 

"uiK.ami with thrum. 

lit ira* and nominal propaMor of thr i JuM ; # 

'IW and In that lapaatj «a wnTkUd ItlS, talk*! ta till n>nk nl Uonlial ki L«i- 

laMtfM ' wo (ollUout liMj. i ■rlirnri.^ 

ilii.ii." -i r(„. I, r ill* I.',, ii v. m i ™ ,if Un HakWi. 

1798. STATE OK IRELAND. 343 

Presbyterians joined heartily in the conspiracy ; but when the popu- 
lation of the east and 3011th enrolled themselves, and emancipation 
became an open and leading object, the hatred of Popery dimi- 
nished the zeal of the Ulster peasantry. The Executive Committee 
laboured energetically to ro-excite the spirit of disaffection in the 
north ; but as some months passed before their efforts were in any 
degree successful, their position at the close of 1797 was one of 
great perplexity. 

The United Irish now began to propagate their doctrines in 
England, where societies were formed to advocate parliamentary 
reform, annual parliaments, and universal suffrage; but even 
these points soon ceased to be mentioned, and meetings were held 
to contrive means for procuring arms with the avowed object of 
forming a republic by the assistance of France. 

In January, 1798, Arthur O'Connor went to London in order 
to carry on a regular correspondence between the United Irish and 
the " London Corresponding Society," the leading members of which 
were in the habit of meeting in a cellar in Furnival's Inn to discuss 
projects considered too dangerous to be brought forward at the 
more public meetings. O'Connor and an Irish priest named 
O'Coigley ' were constant attendants at these assemblies, where, 
amongst other schemes, a general rising in the metropolis and 
throughout the country was contemplated, involving the murder of 
the King, the ltoyal Family, and of many members of both Houses 
of Parliament. 

Meantime the system of violence and ontrage "revived, and 
though several counties in Leinster and Ulster wore proclaimed, 
the intimidation continued. So daring were the Rebels, that, in 
open day, a body of 200 took possession of Cahir, while a search 
for arms and ammunition was regularly carried on from house to 

The crisis was now approaching, and the Government having 
got accurate information of their proceedings, arrested, March 12, 
the Leinster Provincial Committee, and some other leading mem- 
bers of the society, in the house of Oliver Bond.' Lord Edward 

1 ilex. James O'Coigley, son of a farmer, woollen-draper in Dublin, one of the very few 

b. ITttt, ciccuted June 7, 1798. He woe of that class who joined the Kebels, of whom 

educated at Paris aud constantly employed he became an influential leader. As early as 

as an agent between Francs and England. 1793 he had mode himself conspicuous by 

He disguised himself as an officer, and went affiiing his name to a seditious address, at- 

b) the name of Jones; Fivey wasanother alias. tacking the House of Lords. For this he was 

• Oliver Bond, of a respectable family in fined SOOf., and imprisoned for sii months 

the north of Ireland, b. Ui'.I, d. c^ept. 6, in Newgate. Tried for high treason, and 

17"8; m. Eleanor, dan. of Henry Jackson, an convicted July 23, 1798, but bis life was 

ironfounder, nod afterwards implicated in Oie spared on certain terms. He died, however, 

rebellion. He was .in opulent wholesale before he could be removed from prison. 


Fitzgerald was accidentally absent from that meetiug, and he was 
therefore still able to carry on his plans for a general insurrection. 
But the energy of the Government, and the hopes of pardon held 
out, materially interfered with his schemes, and before the end of 
April it was evident (hat there was no alternative between imme- 
diate- insurrection and the ntfnqnfahment of those guilty designs. 
Lord Edward and lus associates determined to follow the first 
course, and as most of the members of the old Directory were in 
prison, a new one was formed, aod the plan of a general rising was 
drawn up by the Military Committee. The various ban 
posts of the garrison of Dublin, the camp at Laughlinstown. and 
the artillery station at Chapelizod, were to be simultnm.'usly 
attacked; the signal for the provinces to rise, was to 1"- tin 
stoppage of the mail-coaches, and the 2I.trd of May was fixed uj>on 
for the attempt- The Government were, however, aware of their 
designs, and on the 19th seized several of the leaden, among wlmm 
was Lord Edward Fitzgerald. He made a desperate resistance, 
and mortally wounded Captain Ryan, 1 who had tried to arrest him. 
but he received several wounds himself, of which he died in prison 
a few days later. The Sheares* and some others were captured OQ 
the 21st. That evening a letter from the l.nrd-l.ituti-nant warned 
the Lord Mayor of the approaching outbreak, and a message to thu 
same effect was sent to Parliament next day. 

The projected rising nevertheless took place. The disaffected 
within the metropolis made every effort to eo-operate with tho*v 
"iit-ij'l", but the Government were too well prepared, and tin- 
tranquillity of Dublin was scarcely disturbed. The mad-coache*, 

' Captain liyan hid been in the 103rd 
Kegt., mut ku now ed.tor of Falaner*a 
Journal. Hi volunteered hia wrTicet on 
thla occaaion. He died Mat 30. Ii« widow 
. :. nf 'Jn'il., iml Krmc further 
J-r.ii i.imi ku nuvh< for lui family. 

' Henry and John Shecirea, tuna of in emi- 
nent merchant And ijanLer in Cork, At on* 
Unit Ml', far tUujilionUllv. Henry, li. 
17&S, wu fix al»ul three jean in the'lllh 
Foul, hut. m well a> John, b. 1787, w» 
•lUrwudt tilled lO the lav. They vlaited 
I'aria early 10 the Revolution, and wiluaoed 
I i ik' Uaetille and the eieentinn 
: probably that 
John imbibed hit leepilcal oplniona, and that 
both became deeply Imboed with ICTn lo 
Uaoarv piiniipbi. Ol i|„-i, mum 1.. Ire- 
land their HMMt and language eitited the 
Md they would 

future from itmilar procatdln^a. Thai T/irigt 
they tmninliulelt bioke. and an toon, then- 
fore, »• mlticleiit evidence of thrir rrnrwnl 
guilt could be obtained, they wen am*t«l. 
Henry wai takeu Way 21. lu hi. Ml kMt 

' md in bl> room waa found 
the draft of ■ proclamation to the |awpt< of 

M th. in to gl<e M iguaiUr 
to till treopi or the l.oyaliaU. John waa 
■mated the aame day in the hoax «f Mr. 
Ijiwlew, ■ •itrgnn, nl» one of the emula- 
tor*, hut who eaoaprd, The two bnalhan 
I'. and Mmail July U, 
17:14. Joan m. unmarried. Henry mac, ITH'J), « mnaidksnbU hvircaa, dan of 
Mr. Swate, a nan I 

Sarah, .Uu. of Oarott Neville, Ken- af 

rtrtdMn. ~ 

1708. STATE OP IBELAND. 345 

however, on the northern and southern roads were stopped, and the 
provincial leaders, obedient to the signal, brought their forces into 
the field, and much violence and some bloodshed ensued. But the 
only considerable success of the Rebels was at Prosperous, a town 
iu Kildare. Led by Dr. Esraonde, 1 a yeomanry officer, they toot 
the place on the 24th of May, and murdered almost to a man the 
few soldiers who defended it Martial law was then proclaimed, 
but liberal offers of pardon were also made, in the hope of yet 
inducing the people to return to their allegiance, and thus prevent- 
ing further mischief. 

Unfortunately a body of 600 men, assembled as they declared 
for the purpose of laying down their arms, were met by a detach- 
ment under Sir James Duff," who was ignorant of their intention. 
Which party first fired is a matter of doubt, but a conflict toot 
place, which put an end to all hopes of pacification. The Roman 
Catholics of Wexford, hitherto considered loyal, now showed them- 
selves deeply imbued with revolutionary principles. On the 27th 
of May, 5000 men, led by John Murphy, 1 curate of Bouvalogue, 
encountered at Oulart about 110 of the North Cork Militia, of 
whom the commanding officer and four privates alone survived. 
Enniscorthy was taken ; Wexford was next attacked, and occupied 
on the 30th, the garrison having abandoned it. New leaders were 
then brought forward, some of them men of importance, as Cor- 
nelius Grogan* of Johnstown, Bagenal Beauchamp Harvey* of 

1 John Eamoude, a physician, younger ion nerable, and used to show them bulled which 
of Sir Thomas Esmonde, tith Burt., of an old he said he had caught in hil hinds. 
liuiiiiiTi Catholic family. He was Lieutenant * Cornelius Grugsn, of Johnstown, b. 
ofthe Clare Corps of \>ouianrj, from which 1726, eiecuted June 28, 1793. A Pro- 
be deserted to lend the attack on Prosperous, testant gentlemsn of large property, aid 
Laving dined at mes. that evening. The n«t to be worth 81)00/. a-year. He was an 
morning he rejoined his enrpsns if nothing had old and timid man, and on his trial before 
ocourri5, hut was immediately arrested, tried the Court Martial endeavoured to show that 
bv n Court Martini, convicted, and eiecuted he was compelled to take a nominal lead, but 
June 14th, near Carlisle Bridge. He had been had abstained from any overt act The de- 
chosen to fill the vacancy in the Leinster fence was unfounded, as it was clearly proved 
directory, vice llevnolds. Dr. Esmonde mar. that he had joined, what he believed would 
ried Helen, dau. aiid coheir of Bartholomew be, the winning fide. M.P. for Enniscorthy 
Culbn, Esq., of Oberstown. who remarried 1783 to 1790, in which year he contested 
Harvey Jim res, a rebel leader (although a the county of Wexford, but was beaten by a 
near illation of Lord Frankfort), and alter- small majority. His two brothers were l.oy- 
wnids a General in the French service. alists, and in the Yeomanry; one, Thomas, 

1 .Major-General, afterwards General, Sir fell at the battle of Arklow. 

Jnmis l>uff, Colonel 30th llegt ,o natural son • Bagenal Beauchamp Harvey, b. 1762, 

of James, 2nd Earl of r'ifc.b. 1752, d. Dec. executed, in virtue of the sentence of * Court 

5, 1*19, then the senior General in the Martial, June 27, 1798} m. 1796, Mill 

service. M.I 1 , for Banff from March, 1784, .Stephens, niece of an innkeeper at Arklow, 

to 1788. A Protestant gentleman, of good family, with 

1 Father John Murphy, b. aboul 1765, a an estate of 3000t «-year. Before the re- 
thorough ruffian; (lie worst possible speci- bellion broke out, his language at his own 
men of a reckless demagogue. He persuaded table, if Sir Jonah Barrington ii to be be- 
lli* infatuated follower! that he was invul- lieted, was of such a nature that his arrest 



Chap. XIX. 

Bagenulstown, Jolm Henry Colchough 1 of lialfyteifr, and Edward 
Fit/L'iTPiliI ' of Xewpark : the three last had bean prtmousl} 
on suspicion of treason. The evidence however failing, they mm 
set ut liberty, but were soon found at the hand of (bi insur- 
gents. The troops were generally victorious, but in one 
they sustained a severe losa, through the obstinacy and 
of Colonel Walpole,' who, neglecting proper precautions, was at- 
tacked on his morel], and fell with upwards of one hundred BH 
at Tiibberneering. Gorey and Carlow also fell into the hands of 
the Rebels, but they were repulsed with immense slaughter at New 
Ross, after a conflict of ten hours; the loss of the King's troops 
did not exceed 250 men, but Lord Moinitjuy,' Colonel of the 
rmmfy of Dublin Militia, was among the slain. On the following 
day about 2i>0 Protestants of both sexes and of all ages were 
Duttdared in cold blood at BcalUbogne io revenge for thin debtfc 

On the 9th of June a body of nearly 30,000 men made a* 
attack upon Arklow; but General Needham' had coll' 
1000 men, and, after a contest which lasted the whole day. th.- 
Rebels were defeated with great loss. This repulse guve a fatal 
blow to the insurrection in the south. 

In the north the Bebals attacked Antrim on the 8th of June, 
and Lord O'Neil,* who resided in the immediate vicinity, m 

cniisil do lurpru*. He wiu confined in Wci- 
f«nl, ,in il tlra Ihut town wal taken by Ilia 
Keb«l.,M«y3l), ho wm nominated their leader. 
Ou the re-capture of Weiford, he nnd Wr. 
Col dough took refuge in tbe Ores! Sill**, nn 
inland two mill* from the cnut. They were 
diicoremt tlwr* by • party of Uie>, 
and taken nrinonen. 

' J.ilin ll.lirv C,,l,],„|,;h, .C.thollc gm- 

11," t 

i active lender of tin 

17 ■<".. 

' Edwin] Fitigemld, or New-park, 
of cnmidenble property, lie renniijed 
mm some time, and did not (nrradW 
July 12, 17!>9. when hi. life «■ sptird 

1 Colonel Lambert Theodora Wilpole, 
D.A.Ii. in Ireland, paadm 
L..rtl Wnlpole of Woltert.ipi, ! 

killed June 4, lTBS; in. A] !. 1786. 

Marnrtt, 4*u. oi BaMA, Id Lard CHr* 

:. I. nk,' linrdiner, enstad Lord 
Motintjoj Del. IS, !7Hfl. and mad. ■ Via- 

I?'.-;., i. r.-i.. 7, Kir,, i;i|..i 

.,.. lit, far} I!, 1773. EUm- 
I- th. d.u. of Sir WlllUm Hoolpi.M-iy, Rut, j 
J ,i.i\t. M), 1798, M,i;i.i<-t,.|.ii. M II.. t... 

Wallia, Km,. Hi. tint w.fe WW niter to th* 
Marchioness Towmhond, nnd to Mr*. ftnaw. 

Them three Udi» were celebrated for their 

bmuty.indwttoSir .loJuia ttcinotd. for ihr 

Lord Mounljoy held the tu.-vaine j 
office of SurTejor-flemral of Customs. M.P. 
fcr the County of Dublin from Oct, 1TT3 
till he wu ™t«l i Peer. Hi. .on w a. 

h.m. b. April :., 174M, d. Vt. II. lfcM I 
m. Feb. M, ITCT. ktm, d.„. of Thoan*. 
r'i.h.r, E«i„ of Art,.n. N.l'. for Newrry 
from Doe. 1806 till, on the death of ha 
brother Mil. VImooM Kilm»r*y. 
' . tUSJ h. 1-va.n. 1.1th VimuiL 
Mode of Kilmurt-y Jan. 1^. I 

Qcam] aud CoImmI or the a-ith K*ct- lit 

wat captured at Vulk Town with I. I 


' John, i am of Dm 

very lew Jri-li IVrt of Milmiao ntnciien 
.!... .....l.| iru* their dowal ftvin lb* Kin,.-. 

I, .Ltd of hi. -.undo 
Jul. 17. IT»«! ». 



dragged from his horse and murdered On the 9th one skirmish 
took place at Saintsfield, and another, of a more serious nature, in 
the demesne of Lord Moira,' but in both the troops were victorious, 
and many of the rebel leaders were seized and executed. Though 
hitherto the royal arms had been almost uniformly successful, the 
extent of the insurrection occasioned general alarm, which was not 
diminished by the departure of Lady Camden 1 and many other 
ladies for England. Uuder these circumstances Ministers saw the 
necessity of uniting the civil and military authority in Ireland, and 
Lord Cornwallis was accordingly nominated to discharge the 
double duty. He reached Dublin June 20," and immediately 
entered upon his office ; but the capture of Wexford by General 
Moore,' on the 21st, and the total overthrow of the insurgents 
at Vinegar Hill relieved hiin from much of his anxiety. These 
events indeed more properly belong to Lord Camden's viceroyalty, 
as all the arrangements were made during his administration. 

Lord Cornwallis had been armed with most extensive powers, 
and was authorised to grant an amnesty, almost upon any terms 

Nov. 3D, 178:1, nnd mad* a Viscount Oct. 6, 

17y5. M.l*. lor Kandalstown, March, I7t>4, 

to 178:1, and then for the County of Antrim 

lilj he tvits made a Peer. As n Commoner 

he took a very active part in Irish politic*, 

wd was one of the deputation who in 1769 "9. 1 

was commissioned to offer the unrestricted drink mi 

liegeney to the Prince of Wales. Hit resi- after sue 

lenee, Shanes Castle, was always celebrated 

for its hospitality, and especially for private 

theatricals, in which Mrs. Siddous often took 

a part. Lord Mounfjoy. whose death has 

1 been 

: of rules ior 

Uoiut.1, di 

nipany, » 

'• Rcsulutions formed to promote regularity 
at Shimcs Castle, at tin meeting for the 
repratntatim of Cyn&dmc, San. 20, 1785. 

" 1. That no 

noise be made 

during the 

forenoon, fe 

i feu 

of wakening thi 

! company. 

e shall be no bre 

akfast made 

alter four 


t in the atUmo 


'• 3. To 


n any stranger 

who may 

come in at 

breakfast, that we 

'• 4. Tha 

person be permitted to go 


breakihet till th, 

• moon gets 

u,, ft-r f fil r 

of be 

ing overturned i 

a the dark. 

■' :.. Tha 


respective groo, 
after four bout 

up their h 


V parading 


That all the company must assemble 
er before the cloth is removed. 

That supper may not be galled for 
' minutes after the last glass of claret. 

That DO gentleman be permitted to 
ree bottles of hock at or 

" 10. That all M.P.'s shall assemble on 
post-days in the coffee-room at four o'clock 
to frank letters." 

1 This skirmish at BsJIrnahinch is com- 
memorated in the' ' Anti- Jacobin,' July 9, 

whom all of OS know. 

is Beuvnahlnch." 

1 Frances, dau. and sole heir of William 
Molesworth, Esq., of rVembury, brother of Sir 
John Molesworth, of Pencarrow, 5th Bart., 
b. 1759, d. July 7, 1829; m. Dec. 31, 1785. 

1 The insurgents had on the day previous 
murdered the Protestants in Weiford. 
, * MajoMjeneral, afterwards Lieu (.-General, 
Sir John Moore, K.B., Colonel 52nd Kegt., 
son of Dr. Moore, the author of ■ Zeluoo," 
b. No. 

. 10, 1SU9, u- 


with much distinct! 

M.P. for the Selkirk Boroughs from May, 

1784, to June, 1790. 


he chose, nnd es]>ecially lie was to endeavour to repress, hs fiir as 
possible, the spirit "f vengeance, so generally engendered I<y ■■tvil 
war. The following coErespondsnee will show how anxious In; was 
to carry out instructions so much in consonance with his own 

Some idea of the ruin and desolation spread over the country 
may be formed from the fact that 1 ,'230,000?. (al>out oiu-half from 
the county of Wexford) was claimed as compensation for the pro- 
perty of loyalists destroyed, find u large proportion nf llii* sum wj* 
paid by a vote of the Irish Parliament. 

"The following anonymous letter, one of several pi 
Dublin Castle from the same individual, was addressed in Febru- 
ary, 1798, to the Irish Government. The writer was evidently a 
spy upon those with whom he must have been 
communication, and it is here inserted as it gives 
particulars about the Rebel*, It has nut been found possJbh 
obtain information about several .of the persons an 
to explain all the allusions. 

Tur^Uf, F. 

The Committee of Anecdote are collecting piles of 
Carlow has furnished two hanging-matohea, of which affidavit! an 
made. Portarlington gives another act of torture bj I 
magistrate who half strangled two— and on this fact an n 
is to be moved for in the King's Bench immediately. 

A copy of Bird's 1 letter to the Lord Lieutenant is m preparation 
for the press. Others from the same hand will follow, be is di-ter- 

mined (to adopt his own expression)" to let tl :ii out oftbe Ihi^t." 

The gainiug over this mau is undoubtedly a great acquisition, fill 
lodgingB are changed almost daily, and Dowtiog 1 the attorney only 
knows the places of his confinement 

The •■ Doited Englishmen " increase rapidly — th.-y bare deter- 
mined la beep op a communication with the "United Irishman* 1 

by delegates. I beard within this hour that two had arrived from 
London in thai capacity. 

Father Qtugley* of Duudalk, after whom you cn-pilr.- I. 

nun, ■ Matthew fowling, an attorni b 

iia more infnroia- ,.n In tJ tints imiratv »u.i political film! nf 

Don* agaiul vniout jmioiu, uid ilitn do WkIi. . kionlly mpfirf 

I'luidl to ir|aat lii> imiieiiw no ttt* Inali, for liim nd In- . onf«l- i »t/«. Ha >■ out- 

lie thn> wrot.. i= U>. Osaka, Ihmttttai Is law I fa 

JIicIdh ill l>c kiww. uid wit hit li «..r i» ■ }M>rt ij<iij[I«-t, Um Hint u CCaintrf, 

Iho 'Fi-~.' He MB KM 4fftl 13, I7!4. who ww UBlfetsd ,t Mairl.loM. Wh™ 

tur ■ (owpinvr to licit* inaumction, hihI -in-d at Margate, he want !« th* an „f 

>t tha cloat <•( 1708 >n aujiwlwiulad I'm <"a|rl»iu Juw, 
Ugh uwn. 



returned from France, in dress a la militaire, and passes as Captain 
Jones. He sent a long message from N. Tandy ' to his boh ; but 
the latter cautiously avoided giving him an interview. 

Wright, the surgeon of Great Sheep Street, has had a long 
conversation with J. Tandy, in which he urged him to send a paper 
from Wright to his father ; and this he did in such a manner as has 
created in Wright's mind very strong doubts of his sincerity, indeed 
be conceives him to be a spy, and has resolved to avoid all future 
conversation with him. . . . 

The resolution unanimously adopted by the Whig Club will 
probably vanish. Eight Members only attended the last meeting, 
and they adjourned without proceeding on any business for want of 

Of M'Dermot, who shot the woman in Thomas Street, it is said 
that ho is the principal witness against the artillery soldiers who 
conspired to blow up Athlone — against him there will be a very 
serious prosecution. 

There will also be an immediate prosecution, by information, 
against Casey the magistrate of Portarlington. The two men whom 
lie hung up and cut down have made affidavits. 

Nothing has come from the Great Nation for some time back ; 
but the last communication from that quarter contained repeated 
assurances that " invasion should follow invasion, though defeat 
succeeded defeat, until Ireland was completely free." 

Monday 3 1 expect will make me acquainted with much material 
matter. You shall have it most minutely. 

As to the system, the Societies are increasing rapidly and the 
upper classes are coming in ; but this will be subject, in part, for 


1 James Sapper Tandy, b. 1740, d. a 

in 1795, to America, add thence to France. 

Central of Brigade Id till French terries 

Having gone a second lime to Hamburgh, he 

Aug. 24, 1803, a Protestant gentleman of 

was there arrested at Sir James Crawford's 

small property, who forced himself into noto- 

demand, and sent as a prisoner to Ireland. 

riety by incessant agitation in Dublin. Sir 

Tone's assertion in his Memoirs, that Tandy's 

Jonah liarrington n;i that he was ungracious 

life was spared for fear of retaliation, ts 

in bis person, neither eloquent nor argumen- 

utterly unfounded. He was arraigned at 

tative, generally riolent, and often erroneous. 

Lifford Assizes, 1801, pleaded guilty, and 

th'it he possessed influence without rank or 

was allowed to leave the country soon after. 

capacity, and acquired cekbrity without any 

Subsequent letters will show how contempt- 

accountable reason. He was one of the early 

ible Lord Cornwallis thought him, and how 
ready he was to allow him to quit the 

founders of the United Irish Society, where 

he became acquainted w 'th Wolfe Tone. 


* If he did give further information on 

&x>n after, his treasonable practices became 

known to the (ioverntnent, and he thought 

that Monday, the documents are lost. 

it advisable to fly, first to Hamburgh, then, 


Right Hon. \V. Pitt to Marquis Cohswallis. 

Mr DEAR LORD, House of Commons, Thursday, 1 pawl s - 

I have not liad a moment since I received yonr Lordship's 
most welcome letter this morning, or I should sooner have expressed 
how much pleasure it gave me, I will not presume to say how 
much I feel myself obliged to you for such a mark of ymir con- 
fidence in the present Government, You have in my opinion 
conferred the most essential uUiL'atkm on the public, which it can 
perhaps ever receive from the services of any individual. 

I shall be happy to Iw honoured with your Lordship's commands 
as soon as you return from Suffolk, 

You will, I trust, excuse the haste in winch I am obligt-d lo 
write this note. I could not delay till a more convenient time 
expressing what I feel ou a subject so interesting to me. 

I am, Ac. 

W. ft 

Maibjuis Coknwau.19 to Major-Gexeral Ross. 


Dear Ross, Whitehall, j. 

There are accounts to-day of an insurrection in Antrim. 
and Lord Camden seems to have no doubt that, the evil will spread. 
I shall set out for Ireland on Saturday, at least I see nothing at 
present to prevent it, and should be glad to see you, if yon ou 
possibly come up. Felham ' will go if Ins health will permit, mid 
Brownrigg* has promised me to ask the Duke of York to let my 
have Captain Taylor,' with whom lie is very sorry to part, but 

1 Right Ban-TfaoHM Fclhsm, afterward*, 
Jan. 8, 1805, 2nd cat) of Chichester, h. 
April 2. 1758, d. July t, 1826; m. Jaat 
14, 1*01, Henrietta Juliana, dan. nf Fnncii, 
5th Duke of Leeds. Surreror-Gwieral of 
the Ordnance, April, 1789] Chief Seerttarj 
in Ireland under Lord Norlhington in 1782, 
nod again under Lord QaN 
Sffrrtary of State JuW 30, mil, lo Aug. 
IKnfl, and Chaiw-llor "f it..- tkukj <>' LasV 
nuter to June, ISO*. Pi ■■■:■ 
r>r, m April. IKiiT, til! hi. >I !". in 
Inland for Carrick 17S2, Armagh 170r>; 
• iid in kngteml for Si!—'! fan) Oct. 17S0 
till (nrnmancd to tlw llonae of Lord- at Lord 
Pelham, Jiiw, 1801. for aome time pre- 
vioun to the arrinl of Lord Comwallli in 
Inland, Lord CaiUrrfajfh had been dlacliarg- 
Hi(j the doliea of Chief Ircretarr, during the 
abaence of Mr. IVIhain from ill-health. It 
was now thought nilriuble to Ix prepared 

being uuable lo r 

r; ,'..!,', 

"f Mr. IMham 

Hi Mr. Thoraa. 
.Ille; but before Mr. Pelluun artuajlj 
resigned I Nuv. 2) Lord Caatlerragh had 
prond himself au efficient that th* Chlrf 
SecMajJship sraa Mwfsrred upm hltn. Mr. 
I'rlhani on bi> mignatlon retained i.V nlu- 
abl. offlu. of Sserrta.y of State for Ireland. 
See lha Letter, of Nov. 7 and Dee, 8 of the* 

» Colon.1. afterward. Ow-ral, Sir Robert 
Brownrigg, Bart, fan natal Mtrrh C, I81«\, 
>!i Baft* b. I75A, d. April 
27. 18.13; m. Li. h 

Klisabalh Catheriu", dan. of William Lewis. 
Kan,., of thai intend, and 2nd, Jum 27, 
1810, N>phla, dau. of lie*. IT IWlt of 

■ Oafjbfaj, afterward. I i«n.-Ceneral, Sir 

Herbert Tajisr, >-.<:.H., OWI 85th K«fu 


who will, ho says, be a treasure to me. Hacleod begs hard to go 
for a month or six weeks, and assures me the business will be so 
conducted as not to Buffer by his absence. I have told him that 
he must obtain the consent of the Duke of York and Sir William 
Howe. I should certainly be very glad to have him. The Guards 
embarked last night, 1 and have, I hope. Bailed this day. 
lam, &&, 


Marquis Cornwall", to Lieut.-Colosel Macltod. 

DEAK MACLEOD, Whitii.ll, Juno 18, 1788. 

I am just returned from the King's Closet, and hare stated 
to him your earnest wish to be allowed to accompany me to Ire- 
land, for a certain time at least, and the desire which I felt of 
availing myself of your services. His Majesty expressed himself to 
be highly pleased with your zealous offer, and to be much disposed 
to gratify both you and me, by complying with your request, but 
he added, that he was apprehensive the service here must greatly 
suffer by the absence of the public officer,* and he desired me to tell 
him fairly, whether that would not be the case. 

Called upon in this manner for my opinion, I could not help 
admitting that the service here must be liable to some inconvenience 
from your absence, upon which His Majesty desired me not to press 
him further on the subject. * 

I am sincerely sorry for this disappointment, on your account 
as well as my own, but on reflecting coolly on the business, I must 
confess I think the King is in the right. 

Believe me, Ac, 


and Firat and Principal A.D.C. to the King, reading, fnery piper, bowerer went, paated. 

b. Sept. 29, 1779, d. at Rain. April 20, through Sir Herbert's henda. He igiin occu- 

1839; m. Oct. 5, 1810, Charlotte Albinia, pied the aunt, poet under William IV. Sir 

dan. of Edward Diabrowe, Esq., many yeare Herbert wu Muter of St. Ctlherine*e from 

Vice-ChusterUin to the Queen. Sir Her- Feb. 1819 till hb) death, and H.P. for 

belt wu A.D.C. to the Duke of York la hit Windeor from March, 1830, to Feb. 1823. 
campaign), commanded ■ brigade in Holland > The 3rd Battaltoa of the let, the Lut 

in 1813, mid wu succeeju.ely Military Secre- Battalion of the Culditreaiu, and the lit 

i 10th, nude 
□oral Stauwi 

S (the Duke 
of York). Surreyor-Qeueral of the Ordnance, 
and Adjutant-General. In addition to than 

military office* he occupied from 1805 to embarked in 1 85* for the Crimea. 
1811 the anomaloua but moat confidential * Colonel Madeod wu Deputy 

poet of Private Secretary to George HI., General of Artillery, 
wboe* blindneu rendering him incapable of 

Limn rriRNWALLia 

Marquis Cornwalus to the Duke at Portland. 

My deah Lord, Dublin c«tfc, j un * 21, itss. 

I arrived yesterday m tin? afternoon, ami found General Lake's 
arrangements were made Tor attacking (lie Rebels at Wexford this 
morning at daybreak, which rendered it unnecessary for mo to 
think of proceeding immediately to join the army. 

From the very opportune arrival of tho troops from England 
at Waterford, I trust there can be no doubt of General Luke's 
complete success. 

There has been an inconsiderable rising Ijetween Itandon and 
Cloghnakilty, but the Rebels were soon routed and dwperaed; I 
have heard that the object was only (.0 rescue some prisoners, which 
is a practice not unusual in this country. 



erbVQ ; 1 

DEAR RlR, Dublin Cutle, June M, ITM. 

I have this instant received your letter from Enniseorthy. 1 
which has afforded me the gmittst satisfaction, and I ;■■ 
you will assure the officers and soldiers under your command, 
that I am fully sensible of their meritorious and gallant conduct on 
this occasion. 

I trust that before this letter reaches you, the town of Witt* 
ford * will have surrendered to you on the terms winch yon have an 
justly anil properly demanded, and which it is so necessary W the 
future p.-iin- ni id safety of this fount ry that ynii should obtain, 

I beg that, you will accept my sincere congratulation 
success, and am, arc., 


1 Ennin-nrtlir !..i.l bmn in the baiub nf 

th* BjtMi >i'i« il>" emi at 11 \*. Op VImbb 

Uin> maMd 10 mpc thronch th* pu> vUch 

li- 1 West »'.uhl MTM elOMO. Allimift. ik< 

Hill, *llid. fflfbltl llM I..WIL. (Il.-T lll.<] 

k M hiiuti, Um Iom at tb* 

tlin.mii up (mMMUi work*, uceiipi»J \ij 

Kinc'. Uuiip> ni ttiy (1111111: unlj m 
MM kill™!, um! four ■i.ui.ln!. Ttn li-u 

Uewin! Likn uttaduil 

III. Ill, .Iiimi' BI, urilli nla.lll 1.1,000 DM fat 

nf il.- R-Uli ««• -ni Uifr, «nd lUr 

lour ■alOaM, wlmli mm in limr waailnl 

•Waal f.Ul t» tlirlr .».■»•. 

III- piwili'ili niiiiutliiiKiutly ; bat flawnl 
Nealliun «« Mxidnnttl lj' tlrUvwl, and the 

' Wnfu,,! ... ,,-tj.k™ BJ Ihr K-£, 

ln»|>Jiiiii 21. Il L*l 1— u in i nwiiiii 

Rrbtk. who m*lc * f«U* mbUnot, int 

tow M.t 30. 


Viscount Castlereagh to Lieut.-General Sib James Steoakt, 1 Bart. 
Silt, Dublin Castle, June 25, 1798. 

. . . His Excellency the Lord Lieutenant highly ap- 
proves of your issuing the most positive orders against the infliction 
of punishment under any pretence whatever, not authorized by the 
orders of a General Officer, in pursuance of the sentence of a general 
Court Martial. 1 . . . I have the honour to be, &c, 


Marquis Cornwallis to the Duke of Portland. 

My Lord, Dublin CMtle, June 27, 1798. 

I have the honour of inclosing to your Grace the copies of a 
message* which I have this day sent to both Houses of Parliament, 
also of the addresses which in consequence thereof, and of my 
arrival here, have been unanimously passed by the Lords and 
Commons, and I am to request you will lay the same before His 

The address to H. M. was moved in the House of Lords by the 
Lord Chancellor,* and in the House of Commons by the Chancellor 
of the Exchequer,* seconded by the Honourable Mr. Trench.* The 

1 Liout.-Ccncml, afterwards General, Sir 
James Stuart, of Coltness, 4th Bart., Colonel 
of 2ml Dragoons, b. Aug., 1744, J. Aug. 
12, 18.19; m. 1772, Alicia, dau. of William 
Blacker, Esq., of Carrlck. M.P. for the 
count; of Lanark from 1784 to 1802. He 
died the senior General in the service. His 
it Culloden, and obliged to eipa- 

1783, and for Kilmallock from 1783 till be 
waa created a Peer. 

' Right Hon. Sir John Paraell, Bart., d. 
Dec. 5, 1801 ; m. 1774, Letitia, dan. of the 
Right Hon. Sir Arthur Brooke, Bart,, 


■ of Here 

t Dec. 

riute himself. 


i had occurred in which 
jferior rank, mostly in the 
lanry, had, without Brut 

ie 27. 

1 John, 1st Lord Fitzgibbon, so created 
June '.M, 1789, and made Karl of Clare June 
10, 1795, and Lord Fitzgibbon ia England 
Sept. 24, 1799, b. 1749, d. Jan. 28, 1802; 
m. July 1, 1786, Anne, dau. of Richard 
Chapel Wbaley, Esq, of Whaler Abbey. 
Made Attorney-General Not. 29, 1783, and 
Chancellor June 20, 1789. M.P. for the 
University of Dublin from March, 1778, to 

5, 1780; Chancellor of Exchequer Sept. 15, 
1785, and dismissed Jan. 27, f799. M.P. 
for the Queen's County from 1783 till his 
death. He was great-nephew to Paraell the 
poet. His eldest son was a cripple of imbe- 
cile mind, and his estates were by Art of 
Parliament settled upun his second son Henry, 
afterwards Lord Congleton. 

* Richard, eldest son of William, Lord 
Kilconnell (who was made Earl of Clancarty 
Feb. 11, 1803), b. May 19, 1767, d. Nor. 
24, 1837; m. Feb. 9, 1796, Henrietta Mar- 
garet, dau. of the Right Hon. Thomas Staples. 
Commissioner of the Board of Control from 
May 31, 1804, to Feb. 12, 1806. After- 
wards employed in various diplomatic mis- 
and made O.C.B. Created an Eng- 

lish r 

i Aug. 

1815, and a 

Nov. 17, 1824. M.P. for 
vady from April, 1796, to 1797, ai 
fialway County till he succeeded t 
Peerage, April 27, 1805. 

354 IX>RD CORWA.I.US. Cii.u*. XIX. 

addresses to myself were moved in the House of I.nrds by Qw 
Marquis of Watorford,' and in the Commons by Sir. Parnell," who 
was seconded by Mr. Biisho. 3 The utmost warmth was ectjtti 
by the Chancellor, and the Chancellor of the Exchequer, as well of 
gratitude for the effectual exertions of Gnat Britain, as of > 
nation against these few persons who in the British Parliament 
have endeavoured ti> justify the present rebellion, and to impute it 
to the conduct of the Irish Parliament and Government, and the 
Cliancellor intimated that he should further notice this conduct on 
a future day.* 

A resolution was unanimously passed in the Committi 
and Means, to enable His Majesty to afford relief to loyalists n]„, 
have suffered by the rebels. The amount of the lean »;is LOO/MMX 
The vote for regulating the English militia while serving in Ireland 
passed both Houses, and is transmitted by the messenger who 
carries this desputeh. j [m Ve fa e honour, &c., 



My DEAR LORD, Dublin Ci»(Lo, June 38, I TBS. 

From the number of days which have passed since my land- 
tag in this country, your Grace might naturally expect some 
cmiiiili'titiul communication of my thoughts on the present state of 
affairs. But as you will have received the most ample 
of every kind from Lord Camden, with whose general sentiments I 
("H, .-ih n r. fiinl who from )ii* experienre is more abb* t<> pve 

April. (MB, IB bo «B avM • I'ur. 
Secretary »l War liwit Apiil 1. 
I. tBSt, 

■ Mr., afterward* Right Boo. Chart— 

KnuJal Hiuhe, I,, .la, 13, IM7, i, Jul; 

- IV. 11,1798, Aw, 

jf Morion t 

1 George, 2r.l Karl of Tyrone, <n.| mule, 

!-tl., wily dau. of Henry 
Monck, Eri„ of ' 

;. I7M, Mr «m 
the head of tun fter»ford family, whoM 
influence in Ireland «u for men; yewi pre- 

* Henry t'anwll, 2tul "■■■ 
I'.inif II. create! Lord Congleton Aug. 2u, 
ItUt, b. July ;l, 177';, i 
n. Feb. », I Bn| , Caroline Ehwabwlb, dan. si 
John, lit Karl of forUrlington, LP. for 
Maryborough from 17D7 to the Unnui ; for 
Portarllojrton in lSK'i, hut ranted the eeat 
la Dumber following | for the Qunn'i 
Count; from Jan. I80G t.ll Da* 1* <-', 

. M%q of MfiTton 1*yrar 

.Made rienrnukt i- 

•flea he held ti 

Kn>|- ■ Itecn-h i reafgn 
M.P. for I'dUn 179h, n*al i 

ml ■ itrurole. he nre way to a 
Li*iii.-d Ijiior ; for Dundee fiimi 


a detailed account of the situation of Ireland than myself, I shall 
not enter into a discussion of the subject until I am better prepared. 

The accounts that you see of the numbers of the enemy 
destroyed in every action, are, I conclude, greatly exaggerated ; from 
my own knowledge of military affairs, I am sure that a very small 
proportion of them only could be killed in battle, and I am much 
afraid that any man in a brown coat who is found within several 
miles of the field of action, is butchered without discrimination. 

It shall be one of my first objects to soften the ferocity of our 
troops, which I am afraid, in the Irish corps at least, is not confined 
to the private soldiers. 

I shall immediately authorize the General Officers in the different 
districts which have been the seat of warfare, to offer (with certain 
exceptions) to the deluded wretches who are still wandering about 
in considerable bodies, and are committing still greater cruelties 
than they themselves suffer, the permission of returning quietly to 
their homes, on their delivering up their arms, and taking the oath 
of allegiance, and I shall use my utmost exertious to suppress the 
folly which has been too prevalent in this quarter, of substituting 
the word Catholicism instead of Jacobinism, as the foundation of the 
present rebellion. j h&ve &c 

Marquis Cornwallis to Major-General Ross. 
Dear Boss, Dublin c»«tu, jnij i, 1793. 

You see that our success has hitherto been almost uninter- 
rupted, and if we can defeat or disperse a party of the vagabonds 
who are assembled in the Wicklow Mountains, I think our civil war 
will, for the present, be nearly at an end, but we shall have made 
no progress towards permanent peace. 

I am not prepared to say anything satisfactory either about 
measures or people. Lord Buckingham dined with me yesterday, 
and is all goodness and friendship. He talks most affectionately 
of you and Mrs. Ross. Dundas wrote to me to know whether we 
wanted all the regiments they were sending to us, and I have in 
answer assured him that in my opinion we had not the least oc- 
casion for them, and that the Bucks and Warwickshire were 
perfectly sufficient, unless a French force should invade us. The 
violence of our friends, and their folly in endeavouring to make it 
a religious war, added to the ferocity of our troops who delight 
in murder, most powerfully counteract all plans of conciliation, 

2 i?2 ' 


The life of a Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland conies up to my i 
of perfect misery, liut if I can accomplish tho great > il>j* ■ 
consolidating the British Empire, I shall l>e sufficiently repaid. 

I am interrupted. God bless you. 

Believe me, &c, 

i loom i 

Marquis Cornwalmb to the DpD ov Portlami. 

[Prinrte ami ConJiiifntid.] 

My Lord, PuWin c^ti*. July 8, its 

I not only wish to take the earliest opportunity of givi 
every light to Ilia Majesty's confidential servants on the present 
state of our affairs, but to put them in [wssession of the U -t 
wliich I have yet been able to form for extricating this country 
from the immediate danger with which it is fliWHnVjnnrl, 

No actual force at tbis moment exists inarms against OS, 9XQI pt 
ill the county of Wick low and the northern boundary of Wexf-ml. 
and in the county of Kildare, and borders of the counties of K ml !> 
and Dublin. 

In the former the Rebels act sometimes in small parties, hut 
often in a considerable body, amounting. I believe (after din- 
allowance for exaggeration) to at least five thousand inn 
greater part of whom are armed only with pike*: the difficulty of 
coming up with an army of this kind without artillery and baggage, 
in that wild and mountainous country, has hitherto previ m. .) 
our striking any serious blow, and the ignorance of our officers 
who have commanded small detachments, lias afforded* the B 
some encouraging advantages ; I am however at present arranging 
a plan of attacking them, which I hope will succeed so far as to 
disperse them, and to intimidate them so much as to prevent 
their assembling again in great numbers, which will to a certain 
di-gn-o have its effect in encouraging our friends and dubMl | 
our enemies throughout the whole country ; but I am nut so 
sanguine as to hope to reduce the county of Wicklow to a peace- 
able state in a short time by force of arms. 

!Ebl "nrfaro in Kildare and the adjoining bolder ol 
conducted mi tin.- pari of the enemy entirely by small parties, 
which attack wmilM Bad dHarliiiii-tiK hum houses, murder tin*-- 

■bo win not jam them, tui retire to tha bog*. 

■ "f Ireland may, I am afraid, be rather said to '-• in ■ 


state of present inactivity than of any friendly or even peaceable 
intentions towards us. 

The Irish militia are totally without discipline, contemptible 
before the enemy when any serious resistance is made to them, but 
ferocious and cruel in the extreme when any poor wretches either 
with or without arms come within their power ; in short murder 
appears to be their favourite pastime. 

Under these circumstances I conceive it to be of the utmost 
advantage that we should put an end to hostilities, provided that 
measure can be effected by the submission, delivery of arms, and 
apparent penitence of the Rebels, who have been defeated in every 
action of consequence, who have lost many leaders by the hands of 
the executioner, and who, from all accounts, are in general heartily 
tired of the business in which they are engaged. 

The proclamation ' circulated by the Generals commanding in 
those districts which either are or have been in a state of insur- 
rection, lias, by the reports which I have received, been attended 
with considerable effect, but it has been represented to me that the 
greater number dare not desert their leaders, who have it in their 
power to destroy them if they should return to their houses, and 
these leaders are rendered desperate, by not having a hope held out 
to them that even their lives would be spared. 

The term leader is indefinite, and it would not be easy to 
substitute any other denomination of persons for proscription, that 
would not, at least to the feelings of a guilty conscience, include 
every factious agitator of the present times. 

In the proclamation of general pardon throughout the country, 
which I have now asked leave from His Majesty to issue (with the 
full approbation and concurrence of the Chancellor) I propose to 
exclude from security of life, only those who have been guilty of 
cool and deliberate murder, and to leave the leaders liable to 
banishment for such term as the safety of the state may require, to 
be extended in some instances to banishment for life ; and it is pro- 
posed, after the report of a Secret Committee shall have been 
received, to require the surrender of three or four of the most 

1 Thii proclamation set forth, that il- still assembled to surrender themselves and 

though His Majesty's Generals had it in their arms, and to mbuidon their leaders 

thtir power entirely to destroy all who had within fourteen days. To all who would 

risen iu rebellion, it was the wish of Govern- thus acknowledge their guilt, and abjure for 

panlon all such persons as had been seduced their oath of allegiance, certificates for their 

by traitorous machinations, or forced from protection would be given. These certificates 

their allegiance by acts of intimidation. The were, by the lower classes, commonly called 

(ieneral commanding in each district wu "Corny*." 
therefore authorised to invite those who were 



Crap. XIX. 

dangerous persons, who are now supposed to be out of the country, 
within a reasonably limited time under pain of an Act of Attainder. 

The process in Parliament will not* as I am assured, require 
above a fortnight's time, and I then propose to prorogue, for 
although it is the wish of everyone here to continue sitting and to 
pass Acts of Attainder, I am very sure, even if they could get a 
reasonable attendance, which the military duty of the Members 
renders impossible, that they are not at present in a temper to con- 
duct a business of that nature with credit to themselves or utility to 
the state. 

The principal persons of this country, and the Members of both 
Houses of Parliament, are, in general, averse to all acts of clemency, 
and although they do not express, and perhaps are too much heated 
to see the ultimate effects which their violence must produce, would 
pursue measures that could only terminate in the extirpation of the 
greater number of the inhabitants, and in the utter destruction of 
the country. The words Papists and Priests are for ever in their 
mouths, and by their unaccountable policy they would drive four- 
fifths of the community into irreconcilable rebellion ; and in their 
warmth they lose sight of the real cause of the present mischief of 
that deep-laid conspiracy to revolutionize Ireland on the principles 
of France, which was originally formed, and by wonderful assiduity 
brought nearly to maturity, by men who had no thought of religion 
but to destroy it, and who knew how to turn the passions and 
prejudices of the different sects to the* advancement of their horrible 
plot for the introduction of that most dreadful of all evils, a Jacobin 

I had written thus far, when I received the honour of your 
Grace's private and confidential letter dated the 4th instant, and am 
happy to find the sentiments of His Majesty's confidential servants 
so much in unison with those which I have above expressed, and I 
shall immediately consider the means of carrying the measures 
which they propose into effect, with as little deviation as local cir- 
cumstances and the temper of the times will admit 

I should be very ungrateful if I did not acknowledge the 
obligations which I owe to Lord Castlereagh, 1 whose abilities, temper, 

1 Robert, Viscount Castlereagh, K.G., after- 
wards, April 8, 1821, 2nd Marquis of Lon- 
donderry, b. July IS, 1769, d. Aug. 12, 
1822; "in. Jan. 9, 179*4, Emily, dau. and 
coheir of John, 2nd Carl of Buckinghamshire. 
K tv i*r of the Signet in Ireland, July 25, 
1797. Chief Secretary from 1798 to May 
2 1 , 1801. President of the Board of Control 
from July, 1802, to July, 1805. Secretary 

tor the Colonial Department to Jan. 1806 ; 
and again from March, 1807, to Sept. 1809. 
Secretary for the Foreign Department from 
March, 1812, till hi* death. M.P. in Eng- 
land for Tregony and Orford from May, 1794, 
to July, 1797: and in Ireland for the county 
of Down from 1790 to the Union. He sat 
in the Imperial Parliament for the county of 
Down from the Union to July, 1805; for 




and judgment, have been of the greatest use to me, and who has on 
every occasion shown his sincere and unprejudiced attachment to 
the general interests of the British Empire. 

I have, &c, 


The Duke of Portland had written on the 4th of July, "I 
submit to your Excellency's better judgment, the propriety of 
passing an act of grace, extending to all seditions, &c, committed 
previous to a day to be named, with many exceptions." 

The second proclamation of general pardon, referred to in the 
foregoing letter, does not appear to have been issued ; but for it, 
was substituted a Bill of pardon, less favourable to the Rebels than 
the proclamation would probably have been. A message was sent 
by Lord Cornwallis to the House of Commons on the 17th, and to 
the House of Lords on the 19th of July, stating that a Bill with the 
royal sign manual, would shortly be presented, granting, with cer- 
tain exceptions, a general pardon to the Rebels. The details of the 
conspiracies were also to be laid upon the table, 1 and the Lord 
Lieutenant expressed his conviction that Parliament would adopt 
such measures as circumstances appeared to render necessary. He 
further recommended that the loyalists should receive compensation* 
for their losses, and declared that the military authorities had 
orders to proceed with vigour. 

All Bills reversing attainders or granting pardon must receive 
the royal signature before they are submitted to Parliament, and as 
no subsequent alterations can be made, every detail must previously 
be most carefully considered. So many objections and difficulties 
were raised in England, that much time was occupied in their 
discussion, and the Bill did not receive the royal assent until 
October 6, the last day of the session. One peculiarity attending 
this act of grace was, that it was granted pending the rebellion. 

The exceptions 3 in this act of pardon were so numerous, that 

boroughbridge and Plympton to 1812 ; again 
tor Down till his accession to the Peerage; 
and forOrford from that time until his death. 
The only other members of the House of 
Commons who, during a period of 150 years, 
have lieen Knights of the Garter are — Sir 
Robert Walpole, Lord North, and Lord Pal- 
merston. Lord Castlereagh's first contest 
for Down in 1790 lasted 42 days, and cost 
60,oou/. The poll was— 
Hon. Arthur Hill (Lord Downshire) 3534 
Hun. U. Stewart (Lord Castlereagh) 3114 

Hon. luiwaid Ward 2958 

George Matthews 2223 

1 These papers were referred to the Secret 

1 According to Gordon, in his History of 
the Rebellion, the demands for compensation 
sent in, amounted to 1,033,000/. Provision 
was ultimately made for the payment, after 
a close examination, of each claim, from 
which a graduated deduction, in the highest 
class of 40 per cent., was made. 

s The principal exceptions were — all per- 
sons in custody on Jan. 1, 1795, or who had 
since been arrested on a charge or a suspi- 
cion of treason ; all charged with deliberate 
murder, or conspiracy to murder ; all volun- 



Chap. XEL 

few of those who had taken any active part in the rebellion, were 
benefited by its operation, bnt were compelled to apply individually 
for conditional pardon, which was seldom refused. Notwithstanding 
the exclusion of so many classes of persons, this act was considered 
a great boon, as it relieved from the terror of the law most of the 
inferior rebels, who, had they been driven to despair, might have 
become formidable as banditti. 1 

Marquis Cornwallis to Major-General Ross. 

DEAR ROSS, Dublin Castle, July 9, 1798. 

Although there is no enemy here to oppose a large body of 
our troops in the field, we are still engaged in a war of plunder and 
massacre, but I am in great hopes that partly by force, and partly 
by conciliation, we shall bring it to a speedy termination. The 
minds of the principal people here are much heated, and I must 
confess not without reason, but the Chancellor and the Speaker 1 
have agreed to everything that I proposed, and I have no doubt 
that the Members of Parliament will easily be persuaded to do what 

teers or yeomen who administered illegal 
oaths, or who had deserted to the enemy ; all 
who had promoted the invasion, or conspired 
with the enemy ; all members of executive, 
national, provincial, or county committees; 
all rebel officers, down to captains, inclusive ; 
all who should not surrender their arms 
within a time to be tixed by the Lord-Lieu- 
tenant; all attainted, or to be during the 
session attainted, for high treason; all who, 
since Nov. 1797, had offended against the 
Mutiny Act, or who had, since May 24, 1798, 
been convicted by court-martial of rebellious 
conduct; and, lastly, 31 persons excepted by 

1 Four other Bills connected with the re- 
bellion also received the royal assent Oct. 6 ; 
Chap. 74, "An Act of Indemnity ;" Chap. 77, 
"An Act for attainting Lord Edward Fitz- 
gerald, Mr. Grogan, and Mr. Harvey;" Chap. 
78, *' An Act forbidding, under severe penal- 
ties, all communication between any persons 
residing in Ireland and those who had been 
banished ; and making the return to Ireland 
after sentence of transportation by a court- 
martial a transportable felony;" and Chap. 
80, *' An Act to oompel certain persons therein 
named, 51 in number, to surrender on or be- 
fore Dec. 1, 1798, or to be subject to the 
penalties of high treason." Among these 51 
the most prominent were, Tandy, Lew ins, 
Wolfe Tone, Duckett President for the 
United Irish at Hamburgh, Deane Swift, Major 
IMunkett, Harvey Morres, and Anthony 

Maccan. The latter established himself at 
Altona, where several years later he met 
Thomas Campbell, who made him the sub- 
ject of his poem the * Exile of Erin :' — 

44 There came to the beach a poor exile of Erin, 
The dew on his thin robe hung heavy and chill, 
For his country he sighed when at twilight re- 
To wauder atone by the wind-beaten hllL 
But the day-star attracted his eyes' sad devotion, 
For It rose o'er his own native Isle of the ocean. 
Where once In the pride of his youthful emotion 
He sang the bold anthem of Erin go Bragh." 

3 Right Hon. John Foster, b. Sept. 28, 
1740, d. Aug. 22, 1828; m. Dec. 14, 1764, 
Margaretta Amelia, dau. of Thomas Burgh, 
Esq., of Bert, M.P. (she was created Baroness 
Oriel, May 31, 1790, and made Viscountess 
Ferrard Nov. 7, 1797, Irish honours). Mr. 
Foster held the patent place of Customer and 
Collector of the Port of Dublin from 1778 
till May 4, 1784, when he was made Chan- 
cellor of the Exchequer in Ireland, which 
office he resigned in Sept. 1785, upon being 
chosen Sjxaker of the House of 'Commons. 
As the Union extinguished the Speakership, 
Mr. Foster received as compensation an an- 
nuity of 5038/. 8s. 4d. He was again Chan- 
cellor of the Irish Exchequer from July 12, 
1804, to Feb. 24, 1806 ; and a third time 
from April 30, 1807, to Aug. 3. 1812. He 
sat for the county of Louth in the Irish and 
English parliaments from 1769 till July 17, 
1821, when he was created Lord Oriel in 


in proper. I am heartily vexed at the state of things in the Medi- 
terranean, 1 and do not see how we are to extricate ourselves. Of 
all the (situation* which I ever held, the present is, by far, the most 
intolerable to me, and I have often within this last fortnight wished 
myself back in BongaL But having got into the scrape, I am 
semtible that it is foolish to complain, and that it is now my business 
to get through it with as much credit as I can. 

1 liave every reason to be highly satisfied with Lord Castlereagh, 
who its really a very uncommon young man, and possesses talents, 
tnnjRT, and judgment suited to the highest stations, without preju- 
dices or any views tliat are not directed to the general benefit of 
the Britudi Empire. lteliey - me> &Cf 


Marquis Corxwalus to Majoi-Gendul Boss. 

1 >KAIC HUSH, Dublin Cartle, July IS, 179S. 

I shall send you a few lines whenever I have five minutes 
to H\mrt\ without having anything particular to communicate, as is 
at present the raao. Our war is reduced to a predatory system in 
tin* mountain** of Wicklow * and the bogs of Kildare, in the latter 
of which counties, under the fostering hand of Lord Edward Fita* 
p»ruM, and the countenance which it received from his weak bro- 
ther of Shutter, 3 rebellion lias taken the deepest root. The nunt- 
Uth in each quarter are, from the best accounts that I receive, 
very Hinall ; they have very few arms, and, except as a band of 
cruel rol»U»r», house-burners, and murderers, are very contemptible. 
Their iui|Mirtaiiee, however, in purposely exaggerated by those who 
wi*h to urge Government to the continuance of violent measures, 
or, according to a fashionable phrase of some men of great ooosfcv 
<|ticiice here, to keep Government up to their trow. I apprehend 
that I am suspected of not being disposed to set my neck stoutly 
to the <*i»llar. 

I have bwn perfectly circumspect in every word that I have 
uttered, hut I liave been under the necessity of acting from a con- 
viction that, aM far as it concerns the great mass of the deluded 
|»eople, amnesty is more likely to succeed than extirpation; and 

1 Main had bora taken by Bonaparte oa Tbty call th* body *■ U» iWHintaias «Tha 

the I Jih of June. Iriah and Catholic Amy/ " 

» In a Irttrr u> Mr. Wickhiiin, dated July • William Robort, ted Duko of Utaolor, 

«.*, Mr. i\™kt «a JS •• 1 r..uld aot cuoorivo to K.P., b. March 15, 1749, d. Oct. 20, 1S04| 

mi. h otntmarv. The nwn republicans wb- m. Nov. 4, 1774, Eaiilia Olivia, tola dan. of 

nnttnl «t omir in the north. Tha paph* M. Utorge, oftljr Lord SI. Gcorgt of tho Ml 
t4it4tt«« ait IiapIIv l»» be subdued at all. 



Chap. XIX. 

even in respect to the leaders of small note, to suggest that banish-" 
ment for seven or ten years would answer all the purposes to the 
State of banishment for life or hanging, which latter is the most 
favourite kind of punishment. 

My sentiments have coincided with those of the British Cabinet 
and with those of the Chancellor, whose character has been much 
misrepresented in England. Almost all the other principal political 
characters here are absurdly violent Lord Castlereagh is a very 
able and good young man, and is of great use to me ; I doubt 
much, from what I have heard, whether I should not go on full as 
well with him as with Pelham. I shall, however, give no public 
opinion on that head, and let the business take its chance. 
Excuse my leaving off abruptly. Believe me, &c, 


Right Hon. Lodge Morres 1 to tue Duke op Portland. 

My Lord, July u, 179s. 

I have the honour to acknowledge your Grace's favour of 
the 4th instant. 

I have always looked up to you for every virtue that could 
adorn the most exalted character, and have ever found them in 
your }K)ssession ; and to be esteemed the attached and unalterable 
friend of your Grace is the highest satisfaction of my heart; in 
tliat light I offered my services to Lord Camden, and relinquished 
my party and broke them up ; I showed the Opposition of Ireland 
when and where to stop, and I succeeded ; the value of my friend- 
ship was so far estimated that I was desired to name my objects, 
which I did ; they were a Commissionersliip of the Treasury and a 
Peerage, and they were acceded to. 

When a vacancy happened I was pressed by his Excellency to 
accept the latter, which having declined, he was then for the first 
time pleased to think they wore incompatible ; but Mr. Pelham 
encouraged me to believe that objection would be got over with 
your Grace's assistance; I am therefore obliged most reluctantly 

1 Right lion. Lodge Morres, b. Jan. 26, 
1747, d. Sept. 21, 1822; m. 1st., Jan. 
1771, Mary, dau. and heir of Joseph Fade, 
Esq., of Dublin; 2nd, Aug. 6, 1804, Cathe- 
rine, dau. of George White, Esq., of Castle 
Bulliiigham. Receiver-General of the Post- 
Oifice from 1784 to 1793. Master of the 
Permit Office, which he resigned in 1789. 
Under-Secretary from Feb. 7 to May 15, 
1795. Commissioner of the Treasury from 
1796 to 1800. He came into Parliament in 

1768, and, except for a short time in 1796, 
sat without intermission for Innistiogue, 
Bandon, Ennis, and Dingle Ioooch, until the 
Union. He took a Terr active part in poli- 
tics, and, till near the close of his parliamen- 
tary career, generally supported the Whig 

The application made in this letter was 
not immediately racorssfhl, but he was, 
July 30, 1800, created Baron, and Jan. 22, 
1816, made Viscount Frankfort. 




to renew my application for your interference. In order to do 
away the precedent, if it should be instated on, I am ready to agree 
to any reasonable exchange of office whenever it can be procured. 
I plead 28 yean* services in the House of Commons, the engage* 
inenttf of the Duke of Rutland and Lord Fitxwilliam, 1 your Grace's 
and Mr. Pelham's partiality. I am prepared to bring a friend into 
the Hoiwe of Commons to supply my place, but still something 
inure is demanded, which I am not at liberty to mention,* but 
which when you shall bo informed of, I entreat to be allowed to 
reply to before I have the misfortune to lose my rank in the 
pr«*ent promotion. I am to observe no other person brings in a 
friend to supply his place but myseUL 

I have the honour, &c, 

Lodge Morru, 

Maiuji'is Cornwalus to trk Dun or Poanjum. 

M Y Lnitl), Dublin Catfle, July 1ft, 1798. 

... I inclose to your (trace a copy of the message which 
I pro|M«e to send to both Houses of Parliament on. Tuesday next, 
and which will, I trust, apjiear to you to be written in perfect con- 
formity with the spirit (if your private and confidential letter of the 
•lth instant The Chancellor entirely approves of the message, and 
although the feeling of some of the most violent may at first revolt 
npiinst any measure of amnesty to rebels, I can entertain no doubt 
tliat it will Ik* received without much opposition, and perhaps H 
will Im> rather desirable to have some debate. 

It would greatly strengthen our cause if we could venture to 
allow the whole or any part of the correspondence with France to 

1 William, 4th Earl FiUwilliam in Inland 
ami 2nd in England, h. Mar 2*1, 1748, 4. 
Krb. H, 1MH; m. Irt, July 11. 1770, 
«harl<>tte. <t»u. of William 2nd Karl of rfaea- 
»->rvu k 'h, ami 2ml, Julr 21, 1823, Louiea, 
•Itu. el Kit hard .'Ird \ iniHint Molrt worth, 
mi wid>»w of William M L«»rd I*nna<ttby. 
\|.|-'tutrj I .ord-Lkii tenant ot Ireland Dec. 
1", 1794, hut remored in Um following 
M.mli •#* raxltaim-uUry lhrbate* of 1795). 
I...H Fitiwilliam xleabfal himeelf with Mr. 
<fr»tUii ami hi« fruiida, ami In gratify them 
di«mia«*l, or threatened to dtuDwa, many 
W4nii |«>liti«al »upp»rtrr» of Mr. l*itt from 
. tli«m tln-y had long hrM. (hiring hk nd» 
miiiMtiaUftn ha eodtwvniired to remove Mr. 
|lrrr*funi fr«*n thr vOicea ho held. The 
mafim-r wm m> odenaive, and thr Iwn|pi0f0 
IjopI KitiwtlluiD ueed in writing to Lard 

Carliole oa the mhjeot ot etna* that Mr. 
Bereafbrd called him oat toon after the if 
torn of the former to England. They met, 
June 36, near Tyburn turnpike, hot taw 
police interfered. In 1798, when the Doha 
of Norfolk wae diamlamd from the Lord- 
Lieutenancy of the Wert Kidiaf, and alea 
from hie Colonelcy of Mllttm, for gii 
•edition knot. Lord FlUwtlllam 
him in the firet office, and It hi 
•Jugular that he hlmeelf abonld hate bats 
removed hi 1819 for preakUng at a muting 
called to eim em eympathy with aa diU oaa 
ilomegngnw. PreaUont of the Cowadl ftaal 
July 11 to lac 17, 1794, and again from 
Feb. 19 to Oct. R, ISM. 

» Thle allonioa « nowhere examined. Mr. 
Morrm warmly eupportod the union. 


be produced in the report of the Secret Committee, but I would 
not authorise it without the previous sanction of your Grace. 

Your Grace will of course be aware that no account will be 
given, even to the Secret Committee, of the means by which those 
papers, including Dr. 31'Xevin's memoir, came into the hands of 
Government. ... j have &c 


In another letter, written on the following day, Lord CornwaDis 
suggests to the Duke of Portland that the amnesty should be pro- 
claimed with as little delay as possible, and requests that a Bill 
with the royal sign manual may be sent over at once for that pur- 
pose, which on July 17th the Duke of Portland announces would 
forthwith be done. 

The Duke of Portland to the Marquis Corxwallis. 

[Received July 16.] 
MY LORD, Whitehall, July 13, 179S. 

. . . The manner in which your Excellency describes the 
state of Ireland so exactly corresponds with the report which has been 
made of it by your most worthy and respectable predecessor, and the 
plan of measures you propose to pursue is so exactly conformable to 
the ideas and wishes which His Majesty's confidential servants had 
formed for your conduct, that I have it only in command from His 
Majesty to express to you his entire approbation of the temper, 
moderation, and firmness with which you have conducted yourself, 
and of those lenient and conciliatory means you propose to employ 
for bringing back his deluded people of Ireland to a proper sense of 
their duty, and of the blessings to which they are entitled under 
their present form of Government, 

I have, &c, 


Marquis Cornwallis to the Right Hon. W. Pitt, 

DEAR SlR, Dublin Castle, July 20, 1798. 

I return you many thanks for your letter, and shall take it 
as a favour if you will have the goodness to suggest anything that 
may occur to you. In the direction of parliamentary and legal 
proceedings, I cannot feel very confident in my own judgment** and 
although I have the advantage of hearing the opinion of men of 


ability in this country, it will always give mo the greatest satis- 
faction to know your sentiments. 

The evidence tliat has been given on the trials here, and 
especially on that of Maccan, 1 proves in the clearest manner the 
existence of tho conspiracy, and the guilt of Lord Edward ; but if 
no h»gal obstacles occur, we shall pass a Bill of Attainder before the 
prorogation of Parliament The leaders of the Rebels, who still 
continue in amis in the counties of Kildare and Wicklow, have for 
Home time been making proposals for surrendering, but from the 
ill-management of General Wilfoid,* that business is at this mo- 
ment niidered more difficult ; as he chose to receive and transmit 
to Government some rather insolent propositions from them, after 
they bail offered, and I liud consented to accept, their submission, 
without any other terms than that their lives should be spared, and 
that they should be allowed to choose America or any other coun- 
try in amity with Great Britain, for the place of their perpetual 
Uininhmcnt If the rebellion should now be completely subdued 
there remain* much to l>e done to put this country into a tolerable 
state of security, and how or when to bring forward, or even to 
brooch, the great {K>iut of ultimate settlement is a matter in which 
1 cannot nee the most distant encouragement The two or three 
|m<o|>1c whom I have ventured, in the most cautious manner, to 
sound, say that it must not be mentioned now — that this is a time 
of too much danger to agitate such a question; but if a period o 
nafety should come, when boroughs will be considered as a sure 
|»ro|>erty. and all good jobs again appear within our grasp, that 
moment will not, I am afraid, lie found propitious for expecting 
tin mi* sacrifices which must be required. Convinced as I am thai 
it i* the only measure which can long preserve this country, I will 
never lose night of it ; and happy shall I be if that fortunate oppoiv 
tunity xhotild ever arrive when we may neither think ourselves in 
too much danger nor in too much security to suffer Ha production. 

I am, Ac., 


Iinnl < omwallw in this letter mentions the mismanagement of 
General Wilford with regard to the rebel leaders. There are two 

1 J«hn M-io-an, a lcwling K*t*l, drltpto known Dublin brown*, and aJtenranb U 

from KiliUre, uwl SvirUnr of the Lrinrtrr Joduon, no iroofouni'tr, • bfotlwr-hvlnw of 

Provincial Commit!**. IWnTin* tttynold* Olivtr Bond, and dotptj fa np lka t o d te tb» 

t.. l« a frirnil ( b* furnuh*! him with tbo oooopincj. 

information ami j*M-wcirda. whirli tfublod ' Major O o —ra l, aftorwardt GMoral, WftV 

tU |* v> rnVt tho arrcot at Hood's, ford, Colonol Tth Dragoon G turds, d. Hoe. 

wfM-re M^ciio hinwelf wm Ukm. Convicted ISM. Ho vm A.D.C. to OomtoI B«l* 

i-ilT IT, *n.l ««nt«d on the 19th. He hod coy** of Snralojn, ood wn OBployod Is 

I— n . Irrk t» Mmn. (iumnoM. tho wofl- Tlilhsnl nnd 8c 


despatches from that officer, dated July 17 and 18, stating that lie 
had endeavoured to open a communication with the llebels, ixi 
order to give greater publicity to the late proclamations ; and I hat 
accordingly at Sallius, a small town two miles from Naas, he had 
been met by Mr. Aylmer ' on the part of the Kildare Rebels, and 
by Mr. Edward Fitzgerald ' of Newpark. a gentleman of conside- 
rable property in Wexford, on the part of the Rebels of that county 
and of Wiekluw, « ho were desirous of proposing terms of surrender. 
General Wilford added, " Mr. Fitzgerald appears earnestly incline.! 
to promote to the utmost of Ids power the faithful i>erformance 
of the conditions stimulated, and an unreserved surrender of all 
the anna in their possession, asserting that he was authorised by 
Perry, 1 Garrett Byrne,* and the other leaders - in Wicklow and 
Wexford, to act and engage for them." He also mentioned a 
letter written by Lord Buckingham to Mr. Aylmer's father, with 
whom he had been acquainted during his Lord- Lieutenancy, " con- 
taining many expressions of encouragement to submission, on which 
they hare formed sanguine hopes of mercy and forgiveness," and 
announced that "hostilities ore by mutual agreement suspend id 
tn the county of Kildare," until an answer could be received to 
the terms which were enclosed for the Lord-Lieutenant's conside- 
ration ; and that information of this armistice bad been " forwarded 
to General Myers,* or the officer commanding at Trim or KUnock." 

1 William ,'jlmtr, of rundown. eldest 
am of ■ gentleman of tome piop«tj, b. 
ITTT. d. June 31, 18*0. He nmndtnd 
i..iv U r,, Qenan] Diiada*.on the aole con- 
dition (hit his life ihoutd he spared. Mr. 
Width*™, Fob. S», 1796, wrote from the 
Home Orhw W LaH Cutlerengh— " Mr. 
Wogan Dn»M bo brought here today 
jnnng Aylmor, whu act»d »u fatal 

Cm the rcbtllton. M»i ke 
JandP" Heentervd the Austrian .crnee 
in 1801, will »iiiman.i«d thr ™curt irbh-b 
■rcompanied Muic l.uuiw from I-*j*rla to 
Vienna in 18H, toon »ft.r 1 1 
hu camuiHioB. and went I i 
where he was foluorl ni 
Linnti under General DtnVMx, Seierely 
wmiided *t the l«ttl.- of Ki» da 1* H*Ae, 
be mi tunvi-ynl to -lutniim, but died on 

' Mr. t'ittgenld at>T|>tfd Uu- tune tana* 
u Mt. Aylnw. Both wrr. banithed. 

* John Harry, * Profcatant gi-ntlmum of 
mntidrnihlf pnir-rlv in WIoUbw, II" *»* a 
man of weak rltam-ler, nnd easily indaiid 
to join in the cnutanry. Early u> May be 
wat arretted m> I MnU ii 
lu*ed no the 'iSth, u he lw.1 pH ranch 
u^fill lufomi»Iiuu. lleing, however, coolly 

received by the gentlemen of hi* county, k 

■ :■! lotned !'!■ ffiliiln iiit As fa ■ '■:■'■ .■ 

of Weiford (led lo ihe Wkklow mountains. 
Ihiririj; his manJi thither, nn Fridty, Jw 
22, the party under bit command committed 
such ■iii^iiir. al Gem that for tnawr rear* 
the .lav wru ajaken of as " Bloody Friday." 

> lotntf, and li'i 1 .'^ 

He and hit brother Will bin. joined tne 
Rabahy The latter, who h.J been a yeoman, 
nimntandrd the IWljTiaojm rebel corps at 
Arcknv, lie was taken, tried tn a oaflrt- 

owina; in nejaafc 

I life wu tpand on loodlt™ 
of prnietiia] -iil». 

* Mnjor-'inwial, afterward* (etratral, Sir 
William Myen. Dart., to n naiad July 9, 
ISO., b. Mac l> i ' 

m. Aug. 177a. Elisabeth, dan. of Jama 


In-Chief In the Loewud laUad* from t*M 

i. n in. fata. 




Lord Castlereagh answered the same day: — "I am desired to 
express his Excellency's surprise that you should have entered into 
an armistice with the Rebels, not only extending to your own post, 
but to those commanded by other officers, without having com- 
municated with, or received the Lord-Lieutenant's authority for 
that purpose. Lord Cornwallis has always declined entering into 
any formal treaty with rebels in arms ; and he cannot but express 
his great disapprobation of your having accredited by your sig- 
nature a proposal, highly exceptional and assuming in its terms, 
coming from leaders to whom the proclamation sent to you for 
publication did not apply. Aylmer, Luby, 1 Ware,* and M'Connick,' 
rebel leaders in Kildare, had reason to know some days since, that 
upon surrendering within a certain time their Uvea would be 
spared. Although they professed at first to look for no further 
indulgence, they have since continually trifled with Government, 
and have failed to surrender within the time prescribed. It is his 
Excellency's command that you do return to them forthwith the 
proposal in question, and put an end to the armistice immediately ; 
but as there may have arisen some delay in the merciful intentions 
of his Excellency being made known, he is willing to extend the 
time for receiving their submission for 24 hours from the com- 
munication of your reply ; at the expiration of which time it is his 
Excellency's pleasure that you do publish a reward of 10002. for 
the apprehension of Aylmer, and 3002. for each of the other per- 
sons above named." 

This determined conduct of Lord Cornwallis produced the 
desired effect, and the disturbed counties were relieved from most 
of the desperadoes who had infested those districts. Two bands of 
mere robbers, alone remained in arms in the neighbourhood of 
Enniscorthy, and in the woods eight miles in circumference about 
Kilaughan, whence they acquired the name of "the Babes in the 
Wood." Their leaders were Hackett* 4 a thorough ruffian, and Holt,* 

1 George Luby, a grazier of Cockeranstown, 
was one of the Belfast United Irishmen. 

2 Hugh Ware, a surveyor, b. 1772, d. 
Mar. 5, 1846 ; confined in Kilmainham till 
the peace of Amiens, when he went abroad, 
entered the French service, and rote to the 
rank of colonel. 

3 Richard MKJormick, a stuff-manufacturer 
in Dublin, formerly secretary to the Catholk) 
Committee. A warrant was issued against 
him in 1797, bat he made his escape Feb. 
20, 1798. Later in life he was allowed to 
return to Ireland. 

4 Hackett set up as an independent bandit 
in Sept. 1798, and was killed No?. 20 fol- 

lowing, in an attack on Emma Vale, near 
Arklow, the house of Captain Atkins, who 
was agent to Lord Caryafort, and commanded 
the Arklow yeomanry. 

* Joseph Holt, son of a respectable former, 
and one of Sir J. Blaqniere's Deputy Alna- 

Cb. 1756, d. May 16, 1826; m. 1782, 
er Long, dan. of a Protestant former. 
In May, 1798, ha cmrnnenced his career with 
about 500 men ; hit followers at one time 
amounted to 1000, bat dwindled down at 
last, when Hackett and Doyle left him, to 
about 50. A reward of 3001. was offered 
for him, and he at last jorrendered, Nor. 10, 
1796, and gave much tafrrmation. Trans- 


Chap. : 

whose conduct had been less atrocious, and who at last surren- 
dered to Lord Powerscourt,' on the sole condition that his life 
should be spared. The actual or anticipated surrender of Aylmer 
and his associates, was not without its due effect upon the prisoners 
then confined in Dublin, who were closely connected with many of 
them ; and the proposal mentioned in the despatch of July 26 was 
probably accelerated by the events above stated. 

Maequis Corswallis i 


Deab James, Dublin c*»ti*, July 22. me. 

I have every reason to be satisfied with Horace's' conduct; 
he is good-tempered and well-bred, and seems to be universally 
liked. The life of an aide-de-eamp at Dublin is certainly more 
idle than I could wish for his sake, and I do not see any mode of 
employing him ; but he lives in as good comimny as this country 
affords, and is constantly invited to dinners and parties in the [>rin- 
cipal towns. 

Our warfare, for the present at least, is nearly at an end : t ii ■ 
most active leaders of the Rebels in Wexford and Kildare h*TO 
PUTBOdoved on condition of their lives being spared, and, except 
some parties in the mountains of Wicklow, I know of no hostile 
force in arms against us. This triiinjiiilHly is, however, I am f$w 
suaded, to bo attributed more to their fear than to their affection. 
All that you see in the papers of my having had any difference 
here with the principal personages in public stations is entirely 
groundless. Your truly affectionate brother, 

Miityois Corswalus to Majgr-Gexebal Rosa. 

Dear Robs, Dublin c*ati«. July w, 

The overt rebellion is certainly declining, and tfafl \>< 
leaders in Kildare have surrendered with a ■ffpihtftffi fat llteD 
lives only, but the whole country is in such a state that I htl 
frightened and ashamed whenever I consider that I am looked 


portal to New South W«Ua J«i. 1, ITfift, 
and roturnnl lo OuUm April, 1814, having 
UltfTCi) MM wall during 111* nilc. 

> likhar.1, 411. Vlawunl PowtnoMtrt, b. 
Oct. 29, 1762, J. July «, 1809; m. lit. 
Jinn ;io, wwy. i.thciin*, dan. of John la 
k.t-1 «l i-l.ji.LlLiija, nod 2nd, r.b. 6, 1766, 
Ub.ll., dau. -f lot Hgh 
lliwulw. During the rebtllion ha nanr 

abandoned Imj raaidtnot, na Ihv larga majutltr 
of th* gentry did, but annod bia baunhv and 
effect will j prolaclod hi. and thair pmpntr. 

' Ilorac* Comnallla, Knaign in la- 'lot 
E*gt. of tiuardi, 2nd too of th* Batata H* 
Lichfield ami I'uran-y, b. March 2S, I7SO, 
d. uura. at llunburufi, FA ft, IT99. Hi. 

■■'■I.-, kniba jg i,,.,,,,, m „,,! i„ t |aa| 



upon as being at the head of it Except in the instances "of the 
six ' state trials that are going on here, there is no law either iu 
town or country but martial law, and you know enough of that to 
see all the horrors of it, even in the best administration of it, judge 
then how it must be conducted by Irishmen heated with passion 
and revenge. But all this is trifling compared to the numberless 
murders that are hourly committed by our people without any pro- 
cess or examination whatever. The yeomanry are in the style of 
the Loyalists in America, only much more numerous and powerful, 
and a thousand times more ferocious. These men have saved the 
country, bat they now take the lead in rapine and murder. The 
Irish militia, with few officers, and those chiefly of the worst kind, 
follow closely on the heels of the yeomanry in murder and every kind 
of atrocity, and the Fencibles take a share, although much behind- 
hand with the others. The feeble outrages, burnings, and murders 
which are still committed by the Rebels, serve to keep up the sangui- 
nary disposition on our side ; and as long as they furnish a pretext for 
our parties going in quest of them, I see no prospect of amendment 
The conversation of the principal persona of the country all 
tend to encourage this system of blood, and the conversation even 
at my table, where you will suppose I do all I can to prevent it, 
always turns on hanging, shooting, burning, &c, &c, and if a 
priest has been put to death the greatest joy is expressed by the 
whole company. So much for Ireland and my wretched situation. 
Believe me, &c, 


Edward Cooke, 1 Esq., to Wujjaii Wicuah,* Esq, 

DEAR SlR, Dublin Cade, July 24, 1798. 

The accepting the submission of the Eildare leaders has not 
given much satisfaction, but I believe it has shortened the rebellion, 

1 Of Henry and John Shorn*, Byrne, Q* Foreign Office from 1913 to 1817. M.P. 

Maccan, Bond, and XetLon.— Sea Howell'* for Lifford from Jan. to Jul., 1790, and 

State Trial*, vol. 27. then for Old Leighlin till the Union. 

> Edward Cooke, bob of the Rot. W. ■ Mr, afterward* the Right Hon. William 

Cooke, Provcat of King 1 , College, Cambridge, Wickham. b. 1761, d. Oct. 98, IBM; m. 

b. 1755, d. Mar. 19, 1820; m. Isabella, EUonora Magdalene, dan. of H. LouU Ber- 

dau. of Hamilton Gorge*, Eaq., M.P. for trend of Genera. Under-Secretary In the 

Heath County, whose other dau. m. Major Home Department from 1798 to 1800. 

Sandy*. Mr. Cooke went to Ireland In 1778 Afterward* employed a* a diplomatfat, eape- 

with Mr Richard Heron, Chief Secretary to dally in Switzerland. Chief Secretary in 

Lord Iliiriingham-hire. After filling several Ireland tram Fob. 13, 1802, to Feb. 6, 1 80* ; 

inferior office* be waa Appointed, in 1789, and a Lord of the Treatnry from -Feb. 13, 

Under-Secretary. Removed by Lord Fill- lBOfl, lo April, 1807. HJ>. for Hayteaburr 

William, rertored by Lord Camden, and re- Feb. 1802, for Caabal to 1808, and tor CaU 

aigned 1801. Under-Secretary of W*r and ling-ton to 1B07, 
Coloniei 1804 to 1807. Under-Secretary fn 

VOL. If. 2' 8 




which is of more consequence. Some small parties are plundering 
iu the Wieldow mountains still, but we trust they will be rooted 
out in a day or two. The people are endeavouring to obtain pro- 
tection, and I beh'eve are in general heartily tired. I conversed a 
good deal with Fitzgerald, one of the Wexford leaders; he said 
that iit first his ben fought well, but latterly would not stand at 
all; that he and the other leaders had but little command; that 
the mob were furious, and wanting to massacre every ProfeMtuI J 
and that the only means they had of dissuading them from burning 
houses was, that they wen.- destroying their own property. 

Mr. Ogle ' was this day elected member for the city of Dublin. 
He formerly represented Wexford. He is a very honourable rlm- 
racter, but uniformly resisted the concessions to the ' 
What is singular, Lord Mountjoy was one of the foremost in 
moving those concessions, and Ogle warned him at the 1 1 1 
care that he did not fall the first sacrifice to them. 

Believe me, &c, 

E. Cooke. 

Marquis Corswallis to the Dure op Portlasp. 


My dear Lord, Dublin (vu*. joi* au. itw. 

A proposition of an extraordinary nature was brought to me 
on the night of the 24th, from a number of the state prisoners, and 
the greater part of the men of consequence amongst them (a li« * of 
their names is enclosed') oH'cring to make iu'kiiowli'd^ciiu'iit of iln-ir 
offences, and to ubmit to banishment for life to any country in 
amity with His Majesty, provided that Byrne* and Oliver Bond 
who were then under sentence of death, and N'eilson ' who is not yrt 

1 Right Hpn. George Ogle, b. 1742, d. 
ISM, M.H. fur County WeifWJ 177H In 
1707, anil for the City of Dublin 1798 to 
l*ii2. In I7M h* obtained the nliublx 

it place of Kt-giatrer of Dwde, for which 

»1 a cwnparaatiau of l.llXif. ■ jw. He 
faaght * duel with ■ Mr. Coylo, a Roman 
Catholic diMiller. n-markable fa the 1*1 that 
right ahoU wen eichangrd. Mr. Ogle had 
M amoupt the moat I 
the Voluniwn, a»l of 


i. ITT3, OQBtkW July 21, ■»!*»- 

" fu riategau fn» 

iupportm m 
nghla ..I III. 

tm nrattaa i !>■ 1 1 i ■ 

I W,:|,„„ M.,1,, ! 
ttUfclfc "f J,-"" I l"nr.i 

Wicklow, ilul had been 
Mount Kennrdji t'orpa. 

1 Mimuel NhK.ii, ton 
milliliter in ITllfaQ Btal tML 
idea. Originally a 
draper in hia native town ; ho a 
hia buaiueaa early in 1791, when it* >i»lnc> 
of hii polltiraJ opinion, toon lr.1 u.. hi. ia>. 
priaonment In Dublin. In the beginning of 
1798 he waa rtleaaed on ball, pladging Un- 
arlf ntm again to Join In anj Lmunabla 
plot/: id direct violation of bd pruniw h- 
ennnocted hlnwlf wilh Lord Edward t'ita- 
gerald, and beonna an hiIk member of 
the I'l.lir < oninutier. In i iilaan|llim b* 
hi anaigwd.Kt 
l™, atgeeajkaj ,.. 

ie-.i aaatl 

- r...i,l,l In, 



tried, but wlio is likely to be condemned, might be included in the 
offer and be allowed to share the same fate with them. Your Grace 
will observe that it is in general supposed, that there is scarcely 
any one of the prisoners, except Neilson, against whom there is any 
evidence tliat is likely to convict him. 

I confess that I thought this a question of the greatest impor- 
tance, and one that deserved the most mature consideration, and 
Lord Castlereagh was of the same opinion, but we doubted whether 
it would be possible to find a third man in this place that would 
agree with us, and I was sensible of the danger of taking a step 
without some legal or political support, that would irritate almost 
to madness the well-affected part of this kingdom. There was but 
little time for deliberation, as Byrne was to be hanged on the 25th, 
and Oliver Bond this day. The Chancellor, who, notwithstanding 
all that is said of him, is by far the most moderate and right-headed 
man amongst us, was gone for a week to his country house ' in the 
county of Limerick for the recovery of his health, which has of late 
been much impaired, and I knew of no other of our political friends 
who was likely to have temper to bear even the statement of the 
question. T sent therefore yesterday morning, as professional men, 
for Lords Carleton * and Kilwardeu, 3 the Attorney * and Solicitor- 
General, 1 and the Prime Serjeant,' when Lord Castlereagh sub- 
mitted to them the paper with the signatures above mentioned. 

including him in such an arrangement, as 

f.ll'l.'ll II. I 1 


teaped from the custody 
of the messenpvr about July 21. And in s 
letter to Mr. Wickham, dated July 16, Lord 
Castlereagh says that the principal witness 
who could then have been brought forward 
" betrayed symptom* of unwillingness." 

1 M.,u[ii -liiiiiiuii neur Limerick. 

' Hugh Carleton, created Lord Carleton 
Sept. 9, ] 789, and made Viscount Carleton 
Nov. 7, 1797; b. Sept- 11, 1739, d. Keb. 
2.% I82'i, s. p.; in. 1st., Aug. 2, 17tiS, 
Elizabeth, only dau. of Richard Mercer, Esq., 
and 2nd, July lo, 1795, Mary, dau. of A. 
Matthew, fcs.)., of L'ibridge. M.I*, for 
Tuam, 1'hillipstown, and Naas, from 1771 lo 
1797. Solicitor-General, May 4, 1779, and 
Chief- Justice of the Common Pleas, May 9, 
17S7. One of the 28 representative peers 
cli-cted at the L'ninn, after which he resided 
almost entirely in England. 

r Wolfe, created Lord Kilwardeu 

Jul, :l 

1738, and m 

. 1739, 

t Kil warden 
Z, Jul, 

created Baroness Kilwarden Sept. 30, 1795) 
Succeeded Lord Carleton as Solicitor-General 
in 17*7, and Lord Clara as Attorney-General 
in 1789. He was many years in Parliament— 
laterly for the city of Dublin— but vacated 
his seat when he was made Chief-Justice of 
the King's Bench, June 13, 1798. 

' Right Hon. John Toler, b. Dec. 3, 1745, 
d. July 27, 1831 ; m. June 2, 1779, Grace. 
dau. of Hector Graham, Esq. (she was 
created Baroness Norwood Not. 7, 1797). 
Solicitor-General 1789 ; Attorney-General 
July 16, 1798; Chief-Justice of the Common 
Pleas Dec. 1800. H.P. successively for 
Tralee, Phillips-town, and Gorey, from 1776 
to the Union. Created Baron Norbury Dec. 
29, 1800, and made an Earl June 25, 1627. 

' John Stewart, afterwards Right Hon. 
Sir John Stewart, Bart., so (rented Jan. 14, 
1803, b. 1757, d. Oct. 1, 1825; m. 1790, 
Mary, dau. of Merwn Archdall, Esq., of 
Casile Archdall. Solicitor-General July 6, 
1793; Attorney-General Dec. S, 1800. Ml'. 
for Bangor. Sat in the Imperial Parliament 
for the county of Tyrone from Nor, 1802 lo 
July 1806, aud from 1812 until his death, 

• Right Hon. James Fitzgerald, b. 1742, 
d. Jan. 20, 1835; m. 1782, Catherine, dau. 
of the Rev. Henry Vesey, and ultimately co- 


Lord C'arleton, who might in any country be considered iw ■ 
cool and temperate man, gave his opinion in the BUM 
manner against listening to the proposal, and declared the 
have such an effect on the public mind, that he did not believe, if 
Byrne and Oliver Bond were not executed, that it would be possible 
to get a jury to condemn another man for high treason. Ha Hid 
that several of those who signed the papers, and particularly I>r. 
M'Xevin, might possibly be convicted, and that others might ha 
liable to pains and penalties by proceedings ■gainst them in 1'nrlia- 
meiit, and in short he gave Ids opinion against the measure ill the 
strongest and most decided terms, and Lord Kilwarden and the 
Attorney-General spoke to the same effect. 

Although I was not convinced by their arguments, I wis 
perfectly sensible that I could not act in opposition to them, and 
the transaction, to my concern, is now at an end, I did and still ck> 
consider the establishment of the traitorous conspirn 
strong testimony of all the principal actors in it, to be a matter of 
much more consequence than the lives of twenty n 
Oliver Bond ; but the minds of people are now in such a state, 
that nothing hut blood will satisfy them, and although they will not 
admit the term, their conversation and conduct point to no other 
mode of concluding this unhappy business tliau Uiat of extirpation. 
Aylmer and the principal leaders of the rebellion in Kildare are 
now in confinement here previous to their banishment, by which 
peace seems to be in a great degree restored to that part of the 
country, and although the acceptance of the submission of these 
people has been a most unpopular measure, I have consented to 
grant the same terms to a man of the name of Byrne, 1 win i- baf 
most powerful and active leader of the ltcbels in YYieklow. Tlnn- 
have been for some days apprehensions of a rising in the DOQSl* •>!" 
Tipperary, and some bodies of iusurgents have interrupted the 

miiiiiui-iitiMii between Kilkenny and Olonmelt, bn! they MM 

dispersed by a very small force that was sent against is 

a considerable number of troops are assembling in that quarter, I 

trust that no serious insurrection will t«ke phice. 

I have the honour to be, .\<., 


W to her trrothtr ami uncln (tlis w*> 181'J. IT- wu made Prime- S>rj«ttt Jbm 

cre*tot HarniMH Fltxgenlil and V«ci Im 11, ITBT. bol >» removed frem that vAc* 

•27, lS'Jrt). M.I'. fiir Tuhk fiom t!83 l« Jan. 28, ITS!), en amount of hi* refual to 

l"Wl for KiMwe BonxiEh from !7!»7 1.11 aaopurt t>i<' I 

tl» Union, 4r»l for Ennii from 180* to IVr- ' G»r 

Curtrtl Hi-rut of Itallnutnui. 




The Special Commission for the trials of the state prisoners 
was opened in Dublin June 11, but owing partly to the state of the 
country (the rebellion was still raging), and partly to the efforts 
made by the counsel for the prisoners to delay the proceedings, 
various adjournments took place, and the business did not actually 
commence till July 12, when Henry and John Sheares were placed 
at the bar. Their trial continued without interruption till eight the 
following morning, when, after very short consideration, a verdict 
of guilty was delivered. The Court adjourned for a few hours, and 
it became the painful duty of Lord Carleton, the senior Judge in 
the Commission, an old and intimate friend of their father, to pro- 
nounce sentence of death. They were executed on the 14th. The 
principal witness on this trial was Captain Armstrong ! of the King's 
County militia. Whether he had joined the Sheares with the 
intention of betraying them, or whether he was actuated by a sub- 
sequent conviction of the dangerous tenor of their conduct, it is 
impossible to say ; certain it is that he wormed himself into their 
confidence, and was deep in all their secrets. 

The trial of John M'Cann occupied the 16th and 17th. 
Mr. Reynolds * and Mr. Cope 3 were the important witnesses, and, 
notwithstanding the aspersions cast on the character of the former, 
a verdict of guilty was returned, and M'Cann suffered accordingly 
on the 19th. 

1 Captain John Warneford Armstrong, b. 
1769, had been in the Somerset and South 
Middlesex Supplementary Militia. An un- 
successful attempt was made to prove that 
he had been compelled to leave those regi- 
ments for misconduct. It was an easier task 
to show that he had at times held language 
inconsistent with a belief in revealed religion, 
but the jury, mainly on his evidence, con- 
victed the prisoners. He received a pension 
of 50<V. a-year. 

* Thomas Reynolds, a silk, manufacturer 
in Dublin, in extensive business, b. March 12, 
1771, d. in Paris Aug. 18, 1830; m. March 
25, 1794, Harriet, dan. of William Wither- 
ington, Esq., of Dublin, another of whose 
daughters married Wolfe Tone. Reynolds 
was early enrolled as a United Irishman, and 
was delegate for Kildarc, in which county 
he had a residence, Kilkca Castle. By the 
advice of Mr. Cope, to whom he had given 
pome hints of the plans contemplated, he 
communicated with Government, and, con- 
tinuing his intimacy with the conspirators, 
became thoroughly .acquainted with their 
schemes. He was taxed by the prisoner's 
counsel with having been accused of poison- 
ing his mother-in-law, as well as of having 
committed several minor offences. Some of 
the latter charges he admitted, pleading his 

youth in extenuation. Notwithstanding all 
such allegations, the juries, in this and sub- 
sequent trials, accepted his evidence, without 
which the cases for the prosecution must 
have broken down. For his services he 
received a pension of 1000/. per annum,, for 
the lives of himself, his wife, and two sons, 
besides a sum of 5000/. paid in the course of 
1798 and 1799. Owing to the feeling 
against informers, his life was not safe in 
Ireland, and he came to England. Mr. Cooke 
strongly recommended him to Government, 
as a man whose character was really un- 
tainted, and who had rendered most essential 
services. He was in consequence, after a 
considerable interval, employed as Postmaster 
at Lisbon in 1810, as Consul in Iceland in 
• 1817, and as Consul at Copenhagen in 1819. 
3 William Cope, an eminent merchant in 
Dublin, residing in Merrion Square. He 
was brought forward to testify to the general 
credibility of Reynolds, and to prove that he 
had previously heard from him the facts 
which he stated on the trials. Such testi- 
mony, and the influence he originally exer- 
cised over Reynolds, were considered so 
valuable, that a pension of 1000/. a-year 
was conferred upon his wife and his three 



Chap. XIX. 

William Michael Byrne, convicted on the 21st, was, after one 
respite, executed on the 28th ; and Oliver Bond was convicted on 
the 23rd, and sentenced to death. 

Of those arraigned at the opening of the Special Commission, 
only one more, Neilson, remained for triaL 

Upwards of seventy rebels however were still in confinement, 
and they, seeing that a stem, though necessary, severity had already 
sent four of their leaders to the scaffold, conscious of their own 
criminality, and ignorant how far the revelations of those whom 
they had considered faithful associates, might have placed them at 
the mercy of Government, determined to save their lives by an 
admission of their own guilt, and a disclosure of the plans formed 
by themselves and their companions in crime. 

Many erroneous statements have been made in reference to this 
subject, but a correct history of the transaction is given in the two 
despatches of July 20th. 1 Mr. Dobbs, 8 a well-intentioned but very 
eccentric individual, took an active part in the arrangement, which 
was first mentioned by him to Lord Castlereagh, in an interview on 
July 24. Mr. Dobbs was accompanied by Mr. Archer 3 the Sheriff 
of Dublin, and they then in the name of the prisoners, made the 
propositions referred to ; but whether those for whom they acted, 
originally intended honestly to carry out their part of the engage- 
ment, is more than doubtful. They attempted at first to suppress 
many facts, and it was only when they became aware how extensive 
was the information possessed by Government, that they made any 
very important disclosures. Even after the reports of the Com- 
mittees of the Lords and Commons, before whom they were 
examined, had been made public, they asserted in a public adver- 
tisement that their statements had been totally misrepresented. 
But upon an intimation that this proceeding might be held to 
release Government from their part of the engagement, the pri- 
soners, on a re-examination before the same Committees, retracted 
their assertions, and admitted that their evidence had been correctly 

The original intention was to send all these prisoners to the 
United States, but the refusal of the American Government to 

1 Sec Castlereagh Correspondence, vol. i. 
p. 347. 

2 Francis Dobbs, b. April 27, 1750, d. 
April 11, 1811; m. 1st, July 17, 1773, 
June, dau. of Alexander Stuart, Esq., of 
Ballintry ; 2ud, Charity, dau. of Robert 
Burrowes, Esq., of Kildaie ; M.P. for Charle- 
mont from Jan. 1798 to the Union. He 
entertained the strange idea that the union 
with England was forbidden loth in the 

Book of Daniel and in that of Revelation*, 
and wrote a book to prove it. He alto pub- 
lished nine volumes on history, but mixed up 
with his peculiar prophetical views. On 
June 7, 1800, he spoke at great length on 
the last stage of the Union Bill in the same 

3 William Henry Archer, afterward* Lord 
Mayor of Dublin, 1811-12. 


admit so many traitors into their country rendered such a step 
impossible ; they were therefore confined in Fort George, where 
there was a considerable garrison. The local position of this 
fortress, situated in the county of Nairn at the extremity of a tongue 
of land running out into the Moray Firth, and equally destitute of 
houses and of trees, made it easy to keep the prisoners in safe 
custody, without imposing on them restrictions prejudicial to health ; 
and here most of them remained until the Peace of AwiiAna, after 
which they were released. 

Marquis Cornwallis to the Duke of Portland, 

Mr DEAR LORD, Dublin Castle, July 26, 1798. 

Since I wrote to you this morning a proposition of a much 
more extensive nature as to confession and information has been 
made by the prisoners, which has induced me, with the full consent 
of the five Lords and Gentlemen of the Law whom I consulted yester- 
day, to postpone the execution of Oliver Bond until Monday next 

I believe that the rejection of their proposal yesterday, and the 
execution of Byrne, has operated very forcibly on the minds of the 
prisoners. 1 

Sampson, 8 Hamden Evans, 8 and the O'Connors have joined in 
the second application, i foye the honour to be, &c, 


Edward Cooke, Esq., to William Wigkham, Esq. 

[Secret and Confidential.] 

Dear Sir, 

Dublin Castle, July 28, 1798. 

. . . The universality of the conspiracy, the frequent 
detections, and the consequent trials, keep up irritation. Our 
militia is also disorderly, and our yeomen resentful. These cir- 

1 Seventy-eight signed the second applica- 
tion, among them was Arthur, bat not Koger 

1 William Sampson, a barrister, of an 
Episcopalian family in Londonderry, b. Jan. 
17, 1764, d. in New York Dec. 28, 1836; 
m. 1790, Miss Clarke. Among the first of 
the United Irishmen, he became a principal 
contributor to the ' Press.' To avoid arrest, 
he fled to England early in 1798, but was 
taken at Whitehaven, and sent back to Ire- 

land. On account of hk health he was 
allowed to go to Portugal, from whence ho 
wont to Franco. After a short visit to 
England in 1806, ho settled in America. 

» Hamden Evans, of Portrane, b. 1740, 
d. April 28, 1820 ; m. July, 1769, Margaret, 
dan. of Joshua Davis, Esq., a barrister. Ho 
had leave to return to Ireland in 1806, hot 
did not come back till 1811. His son, Right 
Hon. George Evans, represented the County 
Dublin from 1832 to 1841. 



Chap. XIX. 

cumstance8 are impediments to tranquillity, but indeed the 
order is deep. 

The Chancellor came to town on Saturday, and highly ap- 
proved of entertaining the measure, in consequence of which 
Mr. Arthur O'Connor, Dr. M'Nevin, and Mr. Emmett l met the 
Chancellor and Lord Castlereagh yesterday at my rooms, and in 
consequence of their engaging to give the fullest information to 
Government without implicating persons, and to be perpetually 
banished, Government consented to respite Mr. Bond. These gen- 
tlemen are now preparing their Memoir. I believe they mean 
fairly, for on talking with them to-day I asked a few questions, 
especially as to M'Nevin's Memoir.* He said that he found Go- 
vernment were in possession of it, and he should beg leave to refer 
to it, as he had no copy. Whether information of real value, 
beyond what wo know, will be obtained, I know not, but what we 
have will be ascertained. We get rid of seventy prisoners, many 
of the most important of whom we could not try, and who could 
not be disposed of without doing such a violence to the principles 
of law and evidence as could not be well justified. Qur zealots 
and yeomen do not relish this compromise, and there has been a 
fine buzz on the subject, but it being known the Chancellor most 
highly approves of it, the tone softens. . . . 

I am, &c, 

E. Cooke. 

1 Thomas Addis Emmett, b. April 24, 
1764, d. Nov. 14, 1827; m. Jan. 1791, 
Jane, dan. of the Rev. J. Pdtten, a Presby- 
terian minister. His father, Dr. Emmett, 
State Physician to the Lord-Lieutenant, and 
in considerable practice, was a man of strong 
democratic opinions, with which he had 
deeply imbued his sons, one of whom, 
Robert, who had been expelled from Trinity 
College in 1798, was the leader of the insur- 
rection of 1803. Thomas, originally intended 
for the medical profession, renounced it for 
law on the death of his eldest brother, 
Temple. In 1797 he became one of the 
Directory, but. his proceedings had long been 
watched, mid he was arrested in 1798. He 
was sent to Fort George in 1799, and released 
June, 1802. Two years after he went to 
New York, where he practised with some 
success as a barrister, distinguishing himself, 
like most of the pardoned rebels, by his 
extreme violence against England, remem- 
bering only his banishment, and forgetting 
tho lenity which had spared his lite. 

3 Dr. M'Nerin had prepared an elaborate 
report on the state of Ireland, which he was 
desirous of personally placing in the hands 
of the French Government, but, not being 
allowed to enter France, he gave it to M. 
Reinhard, French Minister at Hamburgh, by 
whom it was translated and sent to Paris. 
It was soon communicated to the English 
Cabinet, through what channel has never 
been made public, but money then, as in 
later times, overcame all obligations to 
secresy, nor could Buonaparte himself check 
the evil. As an instance, — previous to the 
Russian campaign of 1812, Michel, a clerk 
in the War Department, sold to Comte 
Chernicheff (then residing, apparently for his 
pleasure, at Paris) all the details relating to 
the organization of the army. This treacheiy 
being discovered, he was seized, tried, and 
shot, March, 1812, on the Plaine deGrenclle, 
whilst the Comte by rapid flight barely escaped 
the vengeance which threatened him. — See 
'Recueil de Causes Celebres/ par Mejan, 
vol. 14. 




Marquis Cornwall to Majob-Osveral Ross. 

Dear Boss, Dublin Castfe, July as, ms. 

I yesterday received your letter dated the 23rd, and from 
your statement of Serjeant Adair's 1 office I conclude that it must 
be held by a counsel, and have written to Vernon 9 to explain the 
matter to him. If it could with propriety be held by an attorney, 
although I made no promise, I gave Vernon encouragement to 
hope for it, but I had great doubts of its being proper to give it to 
an attorney. In the other event of its being held by a counsel, I ' 
will certainly give it to Mr. Perceval, 8 whose character and great 
abilities are well known to me, although I have not the pleasure 
of his personal acquaintance. The rebellion in Eildare is now, I 
think, perfectly at an end, and the appearance of insurrection 
which showed itself in Tipperary has subsided, and there are 
scarcely any Rebels left in arms, except some parties of plunderers 
in the Wicklow mountains, where it is very difficult to get at 
them. I shall send Moore and Lord Huntley with the 100th 
regiment, and some troops that can be depended upon, to try 
either to subdue them or invite them to surrender, for the shocking 
barbarity of our national troops would be more likely to provoke 
rebellion than to suppress it 

There are some hopes that all the state prisoners here will 
come forward with a full confession of their sins, every information 
respecting the conspiracy and treason both at home and abroad, 
with a consent to be banished for life to countries at amity with 
Great Britain, in order to save the life of Oliver Bond, who will 
otherwise be hanged on Monday next 

Believe me, &c, 


1 The office of Solicitor to the Ordnance 
has been held both by barristers and solici- 
tors. One of the latter class now fills it, 
and his immediate predecessor, Mr. James 
Smith, one of the authors of the ' Rejected 
Addresses,' was also a solicitor. Serjeant 
Adair d. July, 1798. His strenuous sup- 
port of Wilkes obtained for him in 1779 
the office of Recorder of London; and in 
1782 Mr. Fox made him Solicitor to the 
Ordnance^ the whole duties of which office 
he allowed to devolve on the Assistant-Soli- 
citor. In 1 789 his political views were so 
much moderated that he found it advisable 
to resign the Reordership. Next year he was 
made Chief Justice of Cheater, and was one 
of the Crown counsel in the State Trials of 
1794-5. M.P. for Cocke rmouth from Nov. 

1774 to July, 1780, and for Higham Ferrers 
from Sept. 1793 to his death. 

3 Mr. Vernon was private solicitor to Lord 
Cornwall*. He was also solicitor to the 

* Hon. Spencer Perceval, youngest ton of 
John, 2nd Earl of Egmont, by his second 
wife, Catherine, dau. of the Hen. Charles 
Comptou (father of the 7th and 8th Earls of 
Northampton), b. Not. 1, 1762; m. Aug. 
10, 1790, Jane, dan. of Sir Thomas Wilson, 
Bart. After filling various offices, he wan, 
on the resignation of the Duke of Portland, 
in 1809, made Prime Minister, and, whilst 
holding this office, was murdered by Belling* 
ham in the lobby of the House of Commons 
on the Uth of Mar, 1812. M.P. for North- 
ampton from April, 1796, till his dentil. 



MY LORD, Dublin Cutle, Jiiij 29, I 

. . . I yesterday received your Grace's secret letter d 
the 25th of July. From tlie tenor of your answer I wish that my 
ceqseel had been confined to the permission of laying the 
documents relating to the conspiracy in Ireland before i 
Committee; but on recurring to my letter dated the lii 
you will find that I made no doubt of the propriety of that measure, 
and 1 1 nit I only asked leave to have them mentioned in the Report. 
The papers in question have unfortunately been read to the 
Secret Committees of both Houses, but they were not suffered to 
go out of the hands of Lord Kilwarden in the Committee of the 
Peers, or of Lord Oaatiereagb in that of the Commons; nor was 
any person allowed to take notes or make inquiries how they were 
Obtained; but on the contrary the members were informed that 
they could have no other assurance of their authenticity than tho 
word of honour of the Secretary of Government. Under those cir- 
cumstances it does not appear to me that much more danger is to 
lie iippivhrnded from the whole of the papers having been read to 
tbo Committees, than if the selections only, which your Grace ha.* 
transmitted to me, had been laid before them. It was with n hut- 
anee that I consented to the measure of coinmutiientinp the 00H- 
tents of those papers to the Secret Committees, without obtaining 
the previous sanetimi of His Majesty's confidential scrvanta. and I 
should not have ventured to have done it, if I had not been assured 
that tin OOotenta of them had necessarily been made known to 
several of the members of both Committees in the former e 
tion of the state of the conspiracy. . . . 

I am. i\..\. 


Al 1 I-. 

Dub Boob, DaUfa c«*i», Juij m, i 

1 iiirlosr i letta which l ben received boat Vernon 
■object of the wliflitwrirfy ^ tfat ftnhrowtt. ... uf] 

find out bow, and on what grounds the offlce a-aj Batsbl 

whether any ptrtiffiler dnthtt vere erei aaigiied la it, you will 

iibliL''' in'-, :i- it wi'iii,] [ttitTim M .I- \.i\ :im i la gire Veraon elf 
just bum t<i ooaajihhi of ne, after the long eonmxwa whii 


father and himself have had with our family, I believe 

Adair died just now on purpose to add to my plagues, which, God 

knows, need not be multiplied. 

My conduct hitherto has got me abused by both sides, as might 
naturally be expected, being too coercive for the one, and too 
lenient for the other; I trust, however, it will terminate advan- 
tageously for the country, and consequently with satisfaction to 
myself. # ' • 

r » July 30. Our state trials have succeeded so well that above 
forty of the principal criminals, amongst these O'Connor, Samp- 
son, &c, &c, have been obliged to come forward in order to save 
Oliver Bond, who probably had it in his power to hang them, and 
have signed a paper promising to make full confession of their 
guilt, and particularly of their correspondence with France, and to 
submit to perpetual banishment, at such time as it may be con- 
venient to us to banish them, to any country in fcmity with Britain. 
What will the gentlemen ' who appeared at Maidstone say to this ? 
In short I think it the most complete triumph both in "England 
and Ireland. Believe me, Ac., 


Viscount Castlebeaoh to William Wickham, Esq. 

SlR, Dublin, July 31, 179S. 

. . . The respite of Mr. Bond did not fail to produce con- 
siderable warmth in this town, to which the conversation of some of 
the friends of Government materially contributed. Every sort of 
misrepresentation prevailed, and there were many well-disposed 
men indiscreet enough to expect in Parliament an explanation of 
the grounds upon which Government had acted. In moving an 
adjournment till the 9th I had an opportunity of repressing the dis- 
position to clamour too prevalent amongst our friends, and one of 
them observed with .very great spirit upon the pains that had been 
taken out of doors to mislead the public mind on this subject . • . 

I am, Ac, 


P.S. It has been thought expedient to include Mr. Bagenall 
Harvey and Mr. Cornelius Grogan in the Bill of Attainder, 8 that 

1 Messrs. Fox, Grattan, Erskine, Whit- declaring that their political sentiments were 

bread, and Sheridan, Lords Thanet and John identical with his. 

Russell (afterwards Duke of Bedford), who * This Bill was introduced by the Attorney, 
came forward at the trial of the prisoners in General July 31, patted the House of Corn- 
May to testify to the loyalty of O'Connor, none Aug. 27th, and reoehred the Boyd 


the measure may not appear altogether personal to the fitrfnafsr 

Marquis Cornwallis to the Dvkx of Foutlaxo. 

My LORD, Dublin Cartlc, August 2, 1 

A Memorial from Sarah Anne Hamilton Rowan ' 
believe, forwarded to your Grace by Lord Camden. 

Lest, however, from the multiplicity of business which baa ben 
occasioned by the late distracted state of this country, it should 
have escaped your notice, I have been requested by The Chancellor, 
and other persons of the greatest respectability in this const 
transmit a copy of it, and to request that your Grace would rwom- 
mend to His Majesty so far to consider the case of this very 
deserving and unfortunate woman, that she may be permitted to 
receive the rents of her husband's estate, being about six hundred 
pounds a-year, for her own support and the education and maiu- 
teminee of her numerous family. 

Many strong symptoms of contrition for his past conduct having 
been manifested on the part of Mr. Hamilton Rowan, he may 
[lerhaps, after the termination of the war, appear to be a pVOpa 
object for His Majesty 1 * clemency and pardon. 

I have the honour, &c, 

COBKWAl i .is. 

Makijitis Coiucwamjs to tiik Don ok PoaxLAjm. 

My I.DKH, i ti.. At. c . t. i 

. . . On the 5th Lord Castlereagn brought me a papoi. 
which I mil been transmitted tohini fiimi the state prisoners, which was 
long and ably written ; but although ft admitted fairly BMogb the 
most material purl- of their gnOt, WB8 mitten i "ii the pretence of 
its being an apology for their (Minimi | in the at] le of ■ doqI ■ 
sial pamphlet, and was in aome pans rutin r Inflammatory, 

It appeared to dm that tins would be ■ very racoon 
for us tu receive, and I therefore yesterday directed Hr. Cooke to 
return it to them, and t<> expreaa my ror oriae , that, instead of on 

■ ■ 

(d.-M hiti Mflltr a. NgajtM ibr i-tim nr,«. 
' Dwuthlv or W.IUf I*™*, K*|.. of 

■att, b. IW, .1. M. as, |»M( m. 


admission of the material articles of their delinquency, they should 
have sent a narrative containing many gross misstatements of facts, 
and much unwarrantable invective against the Government of this 

On receiving my message, they assured Mr. Cooke that they 
had not the slightest idea of offending, that they wrote what they 
did, from desiring to give full information and the state of their 
own feelings, that they had not shown what they wrote to any but 
the prisoners, and they submitted, if Government objected to what 
they had written, that the best mode would be to draw from them 
the information by examination before the Secret Committee. 

This was exactly the point to which I wished to bring them, as 
it will prevent the necessity of our taking any notice of the secret 
information in the report, and I have determined that they should 
be examined before the Committee of the Lords, as their being 
upon oath will give more solemnity to their declarations, and as 
they will be much better examined by the Chancellor, than by any 
other person. I fo^ ^ 


Marquis Cornwallis to Major-General Ross. 

DEAR BOSS, Dublin Cattle, Aug. 10, 179S. 

. . . Dr. M'Nevin was the first of the state prisoners 
who was examined by the Secret Committee of the House of Lords. 
The Chancellor was in possession of a memoir which the Dr. had 
sent to the French Directory, soliciting and suggesting the plan of 
an invasion. He admitted his guilt in the fullest degree. Arthur 
O'Connor was yesterday before the same Committee, and the 
Chancellor says that his examination has not been less satisfactory 
than that of Dr. M'Nevin, he having admitted himself to be of the 
Directory of the Union, and privy to all their treasons for the last 
two years. 

People's minds are getting cooler, and I have no doubt of their 
being sufficiently manageable for- all ordinary purposes, but I do 
not know how they will be brought to act on the great measure 
of all, on the event of which the safety of Great Britain and 
Ireland so much depends. • • • 

Believe me, &c, 



The Duke of Leinster to Marquis Cornwallis. 

[Received August 10.] 
My LORD, Brampton, Aug. 6, 1798. 

I take the earliest opportunity of returning your Excellency 
my most sincere tlianks for your attention in directing Lord Castle- 
reagh to communicate to me, that a Bill of Attainder is brought 
into Parliament against my unfortunate brother's property, which 
goes to affect his innocent wife l and still more innocent children, 
the eldest of which is not yet four years old. I shall not animad- 
vert upon the conduct of my unfortunate brother, or the villany of 
Mr. Reynolds, who, not content to injure the character of my 
deceased brother, has gone so far as to calumniate Lady Edward, 
by swearing the most downright falsehood as to the haying handed 
money over to Mr. Reynolds from Lord Edward, as Treasurer of 
the county of Kildare. The fact is, Mr. Reynolds did call upon her 
at the time Lord Edward had disappeared. She asked him 
whether Lord Edward was safe — Reynolds answered Yes. She 
then gave him twenty or twenty-five guineas to carry to Lord 
Edward. Reynolds said there was no occasion, that he would give 
him any money he wanted. However she desired him to take it — 
he did — whether he gave it to Lord Edward she does not know, but 
a little boy brought it back to her in the evening. I should not 
mention tliis subject to your Excellency, but, from what I can learn, 
your Excellency is ready and willing to do justice to all parties. I 
trust your Excellency will never pass a law that goes to affect the 
innocent wife and children of a person who never was tried by 
either the military or civil law of his country. I cannot take upon 
me to say what would be the event of his trial ; he certainly was no 
fugitive, as he died in the common gaol, and had the permission of 
Government to make a will. The property is very small, and when 
the legal debts that affect it are paid, there will be but little to 
revert to the Crown. My private concerns prevent my returning 
to Ireland, but as your Excellency has taken upon you the humane 
part of restoring peace to that unhappy country, and as your 
measures seem to be of so conciliatory a nature, I feel particularly 
sorry in not being present to give them my feeble assistance : should 
your Excellency pursue that system, I do not doubt that you will 
receive the grateful thanks of the majority of the nation. I fear it 
will take much time to restore perfect tranquillity. I trust your 

1 Lady Edward Fitzgerald, b. 1777, d. Pitwurn, American Consul at Hamburgh, 
Nov. 1831, at Paris, in very indigent cir- from whom she was afterwards divorced, 
cumstances. She m. 2nd, Nov. 1800, Mr. 


firmness and resolution will have the desired effect, that by your 
example and moderation others will see the good effects, and that 
the army will be restored also to discipline. Various reports are 
industriously propagated to injure me ; I trust from our early ac- 
quaintance you will not harbour any of those calumnies, as I shall 
be ready to clear myself to your Excellency. 

I remain, &c, 


Marquis Cornwallis to the Duke of Leinster. 

My LORD, Dublin Castle, Aug. 11, 1798. 

I yesterday received the honour of your Grace's letter dated 
the 6th, and am much distressed at being obliged to return an 
answer on points of so delicate a nature, and on which your feelings 
are so deeply interested. Your Grace says that you trust I will 
never pass a law, &c, but you must recollect that in a case of this 
nature, I am not to act according to my private inclination, but 
that I am bound to perform my duty to the public in the character 
which I hold in the state. 

Knowing as I do with the utmost certainty, that Lord Edward 
was the great author and contriver of all the mischief and treason 
wluch has already cost so many lives, and which has nearly reduced 
to ruin and beggary the wives and families of every man of pro- 
perty, and deluged the whole island with blood, can I say to the 
most injured people of this country, You must not mark the man 
w r ho has been the cause of all your sufferings, but tamely allow 
him to be recorded as the innocent martyr of your violence and 
persecution ? 

Your Grace says that Lord Edward was not tried by either the 
civil or military law of his country, and that he certainly was no 
fugitive ; I must however observe that it was not the fault of the 
Government of this country that he was not brought to trial, and 
that he was not only a fugitive, but the most criminal of fugitives ; 
for although he to all intents and purposes fled from the justice of 
his country, he would not remove himself to such a distance as to 
relinquish all hopes of effecting its destruction. 

I hope and trust, my Lord, that to every candid mind the 
system of my Government will appear conciliatory and moderate, 
but if I were to insult the feelings of the loyal, and to protect the 
characters and properties of those who attempted to destroy them, 
such conduct woidd not be called moderation but criminal weakness. 

I have the honour, &c, 




Chap. XIX. 

Marquis Corxwalus to Major-General Ross. 

DEAR BOSS, DuMin Castle, Aug. 12, 1798. 

. . . It gives me I assure you great pleasure to be able 
to make Perceval Solicitor, as I know that it will be very gratifying 
to you. 1 

The examination of the traitors before the Committee of the 
House of Lords is as satisfactory as can be desired,